Rumburg Castle

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Rumburg Castle
Rumburg Castle - general view over the neck ditch

Rumburg Castle - general view over the neck ditch

Castle type : Höhenburg, spur location
Conservation status: ruin
Standing position : Noble Free
Place: Kinding -nkering
Geographical location 48 ° 59 '41.5 "  N , 11 ° 21' 26.3"  E Coordinates: 48 ° 59 '41.5 "  N , 11 ° 21' 26.3"  E
Height: 455  m above sea level NHN
Rumburg Castle (Bavaria)
Rumburg Castle

The castle Rumburk in Enkering , a district of Kinding in the district of Eichstatt in Upper Bavaria , is a high- to late medieval fortification from which even more remains of the perimeter walls have been preserved. The ruins of the Spornburg were partially renovated after 2000 and cleared on the valley side.

Geographical location

The castle is located on the Castle Hill, one from the western edge of the valley of the Anlauter tals spur salient on sink ring to approximately bis 450 460  m above sea level. NHN . The Anlauter flows northeast of the mountain into the Altmühl tributary Schwarzach . The federal motorway 9 ( Nuremberg - Munich ) runs in the valley (junction Altmühltal). The Schellenberg rising to the east or beyond the Anlautertal has extensive prehistoric and early historical ring walls.

The Rumburg is the northeasternmost of the three medieval castle ruins in the Anlautertal. A few kilometers to the west near Erlingshofen and Altdorf are the remains of the Rundeck and Brunneck castles . On the edge of the valley above the Anlauter, a few more castle stables and section fortifications of different times in the terrain can be seen.


In the 12th and 13th centuries several representatives of a noble family “von Enkering” are mentioned in documents: 1119 and 1162 Gozwin, 1253 Heinrich and Arnold. It is unknown where they sat, at least not on the Rumburg.

Towards the end of the 13th century, the lords of Absberg came into possession of the rulership after the Emmendorfern ; Around 1243 and again around 1294 a knight Heinrich von Absberg is mentioned, who, feudal man of the last Hirschberg Count Gebhard VII., was already in relation to Enkering. Most of the castle ruins that have been preserved go back to the construction of the castle between 1350 and 1360 under the Absbergers, who presumably came into the possession of the Enkering rule as part of an inheritance. The first written mention of this castle comes from the year 1361, when a Bavarian aristocratic tournament society was founded; her belonged Goswin the Elder of Absberg, his son Goswin and the knight Heinrich von Absberg "von Rannburch" (called 1361-1400). The latter received in 1371 from the Bavarian dukes as a pledge the right to grant protection to travelers "to Nurmberg" ( Nuremberg ) through the Hirschberg county, and on October 13, 1374 from Emperor Karl IV. The privilege of making the "village of Rumburg" a town to make, that is to say to fasten, to hold a weekly market and to set up a gallows. However, the Absbergers never fortified their place, and town status was lost; the gallows was removed shortly before 1800.

From 1386 Bavaria had the right to open the Rumburg, that is, the right of use in the event of war. Heinrich (zu Rumburg), born in 1409, was Heinrich IV. 1465–1492 Bishop of Regensburg . In 1414 the Absberger zu Rumburg received the neck court of the area around Beilngries as an imperial fiefdom; In 1496 Heinrich (Heinz) von Absberg zu Rumburg sold it to the Bishop of Eichstätt. Under Lienhard / Leonhard Absberger zu Rumburg (called 1419–1448), the estate was expanded considerably in the course of taking over the bishopric fief of the Emmendorfer . Under him, the Rumburg line received in 1431 the freedom (right to asylum) and the high and small wild bans as a royal fiefdom. The aforementioned Heinrich (Heinz), named 1487–1514, served as a nurse at Dietfurt an der Altmühl in 1500/01 and as a nurse at Mörnsheim Castle from 1506–1513 . The Rumburg line also produced the knight Jörg (Georg), who became canon of Regensburg in 1455 and was Chancellor of Margrave Albrecht Achilles of Brandenburg around 1460 , as well as Hadmar, who is named provost of Berching in 1489 , then Karl, born in 1451 , who followed his brother Jörf / Georg in the Regensburg canonical and from 1510 was Chancellor of the Eichstätter Bishop Gabriel von Eyb .

In the 16th century the Absbergers of Rumburg became impoverished and operated as robber barons . In 1520 Erasmus von Absberg participated in an attack on Count Joachim von Oettingen, in which the Oettinger lost his life. The sons of the murdered man approached the Swabian Federation for help, whose troops under Jörg Truchseß von Waldburg occupied the Rumburg in 1521. From 1523 the government was put under compulsory administration by an "ambtmann". In 1528 the outlawed Erasmus was able to obtain his rehabilitation at the Bundestag in Augsburg . The acts at that time were said to have taken place “outside of his youthful vnuerstandt”, and he was also seduced by his relative Hans Thomas von Absberg (of the Absberg line). In 1537 the impoverished brothers Erasmus and Heinrich could no longer maintain the right of escort to Nuremberg, so Bavaria redeemed the pledge. Around 1540, a hunter caused a devastating fire in the castle; only the outer bailey was spared. In 1540 the lord of the castle Erasmus died without a male successor. The heavily indebted heirs sold the Rumburg rulership to the Eichstätt monastery in 1546 after a comparison with the Absberg line , but still held the Emmendorfer fiefs in 1555, which only then reverted to the monastery. The Rumburg was not rebuilt and the complex began to deteriorate. From 1552 to 1562 Absberger, namely Hans Wolf and Hans Christoph the Younger von Absberg, had Enkering illegally in their power.

In 1937/39 and again in 1964 the masonry of the Rumburg ruins was secured. After the collapse of smaller parts in 2003, the facility had to be temporarily closed and renovated. The scaffolding has disappeared again, but some parts are still in danger of collapsing.

In 2014 the facility was temporarily closed for further renovation work. The necessary scaffolding was dismantled again.

Rumburg Castle interior view, panoramic view, March 2018


The ruin in winter
The main gate from the courtyard
The northern front wall (inside)

The core castle uses the natural protrusion of a mountain tongue in the northwest of the village. On the mountain side, an unusually wide and deep neck ditch protects the castle. In addition, there was a spacious outer bailey, whose moat has been preserved.

The layout of the main castle is almost trapezoidal (approx. 23 × 45 m). Behind the neck ditch the curtain wall rises up about 17 m like a shield wall . The attack side is not reinforced, however, small round arches on the inner sections indicate tower-like fixtures. The residential building lay in the north over the valley. In the west wall, some associated window openings have been preserved, in the north and east larger wall sections are missing, as is the wall to the castle courtyard. The unusually high circular walls were also the outer walls of the main building. The Rumburg is typologically classified as a mantle wall castle. The representative and defense functions of a keep were taken over here by the "Hohen Mantel".

The castle gate was on the south-east corner, with the terrace of a Vorwerk in front of it. In its current form, however, the gate has been heavily restored. The window opening to the north collapsed in 2003. A second entrance is diagonally opposite on the west side. The remains of an Absberg- Guttenberg marriage coat of arms can still be seen on the outside .


According to a legend, the Absbergers zu Rumburg successfully fought the lords of Kipfenberg around 1301 in association with the Eichstätter bishop . Another legend knows about a black poodle who guards a chest with gold and precious stones on the Rumburg; who in the Walpurgisnacht silently goes to the castle, can chase away the dog and the treasure acquire.


  • Felix Mader (editor): The art monuments of Middle Franconia. II Eichstätt District Office . Munich: Oldenburg 1928 (reprint 1982), pp. 98-101.
  • Helmut Rischert: The castles in the Anlautertal (2). II. Rumburg castle ruins . In: Collective sheet of the historical association Eichstätt 76 (1983). Eichstaett 1984, pp. 6-34.
  • Karl Zecherle (Red.): Castles and palaces . Eichstätt district in the Altmühltal nature park. Ed .: District of Eichstätt. 2nd unchanged edition. Hercynia-Verlag, Kipfenberg 1987, DNB  944206697 , p. 64-65 . ;

Web links

Commons : Rumburg Castle  - Collection of images

Individual evidence

  1. Map services of the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation ( information )