research center Julich

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Research Center Jülich GmbH
Research Center Jülich GmbH
Logo since 2018
Exist: Date of establishment: 1956
Facility location: Jülich , Düren district
Management: Wolfgang Marquardt
Employees: 6,800 (as of 2021)
Annotation: Legal form: GmbH (until 1967: eV )
Main entrance to Forschungszentrum Jülich
Aerial view of the research center

The Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (FZJ) is a national research institution in the Helmholtz Association and operates, based on the key skills physics and supercomputing , interdisciplinary research in the areas of energy, information and bio-economy. With around 6,800 employees (2021) it is one of the largest research institutions in Europe.

The headquarters of the research center is located in the triangle between Aachen - Cologne - Düsseldorf on the outskirts of the North Rhine-Westphalian city of Jülich . The FZJ operates 15 branch offices in Germany and abroad, including eight locations at European and international neutron and synchrotron radiation sources, two joint institutes with the University of Münster and the Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU) and the Helmholtz Center Berlin ( HZB) and three branch offices of the project executing agency in Bonn , Rostock and Berlin . There is close cooperation with RWTH Aachen University in the form of the Jülich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA).

The facility was founded on December 11, 1956 by the state of North Rhine-Westphalia as a registered association before it was renamed "Kernforschungsanlage Jülich GmbH" in 1967. In 1990 the name was changed to "Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH".

Organization form and history

Decommissioned AVR high temperature reactor

On December 11, 1956, the state parliament of North Rhine-Westphalia decided to build a "nuclear research facility", the founder of which is the State Secretary in the Ministry of Economics and Transport in North Rhine-Westphalia, Leo Brandt . The state forest of Stebenich in what was then the Jülich district was then selected from several possible locations . In 1958 the foundation stone was laid for the MERLIN (FRJ-1) and DIDO (FRJ-2) research reactors , which were commissioned in 1962. In 1960 the “Society for the Promotion of Nuclear Physics Research (GFKF)” was renamed “Kernforschungsanlage Jülich des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen e. V. "(KFA). In 1967 the company was converted into a GmbH , the shareholders of which are the Federal Republic of Germany (90% today) and the State of North Rhine-Westphalia (10%). In the same year, the AVR high-temperature reactor went into operation, which also supplied electricity to the public grid. The AVR was scientifically supervised by the KFA Jülich and supported with operating grants, but was formally independent. Karl Heinz Beckurts had been scientific and technical director since 1970, from 1975 to 1980 he was chairman of the board of the nuclear research facility.

From the mid-1980s, the then nuclear research facility reduced its work on the further development of the gas-cooled high-temperature reactor. For a few years, development work on the planned but not approved spallation neutron source SNQ became the lead project. At the same time, new topics were taken up and other important topics expanded. Therefore in 1990 the name was changed to “Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH” (FZJ).

In 1985 and 2006 the MERLIN and DIDO research reactors were shut down. MERLIN was completely dismantled between 2000 and 2008. A second attempt to locate a large European Spallation Source ESS ended in 2003 without success.

The dismantling of the AVR pebble bed reactor, which was shut down in 1988, is causing considerable problems due to the “extremely heavy contamination of the reactor core”. A corresponding expert study in 2008 came to the conclusion that the operators had only just "slipped past" a catastrophe. The FZJ security researcher Rainer Moormann received the 2011 Whistleblower Prize for publishing these problems while accepting the associated professional disadvantages . The Darmstadt Öko-Institut even described the AVR reactor as one of the “most problematic reactors in the world”. Only immediately after the Fukushima nuclear disaster did the FZJ and AVR GmbH set up an independent group of experts to review the history of the AVR and, in particular, to comment on the revelations by Moormann. A report was drawn up in April 2014 that confirmed the main points of criticism (see here ). The report was publicly discussed with the authors in June 2014.

In January 2010, the FZJ had to make late reports on the nuclear waste brought into the Asse from the AVR ( see also AVR nuclear waste in the damaged Asse-II test repository ). At the beginning of April 2011, the research center hit the headlines nationwide because of the alleged disappearance of 2285 spherical fuel elements from the AVR reactor. The committee of inquiry into the so-called atomic ball affair ended without a final report because of the early NRW state elections in 2012 . Since the essential aspects, above all a nonchalant bullet bookkeeping by the FZJ, could be cleared up, the committee of inquiry was not reinstated after the election.

In November 2012, after considerable protests, the research center initially abandoned its intention to relocate 152 castors with spent AVR fuel elements to Ahaus . The permit for the current Jülich Castor interim storage facility expired in mid-2013 because the required safety evidence could not be provided. Further storage was tolerated for a year by an order from the Düsseldorf supervisory authority under nuclear law, but an evacuation order was issued on July 2, 2014. Since this no longer complies with the law, the public prosecutor's office started investigations against FZJ for culpably causing nuclear fuels to become unlicensed. The federal government, as the main shareholder of the FZJ, also considered the transport necessary because the residual nuclear waste in Jülich could damage the reputation of the FZJ. The FZJ currently favors the export of this nuclear waste to the USA, which, according to press reports, would cost € 450 million. Work to improve the security of the Castoren camp against terrorist attacks, namely the construction of a concrete wall around the camp, began at the beginning of 2014 on the instructions of the authorities.

In 2004 the Ernst Ruska Center for Electron Microscopy was founded, which is equipped with the most modern transmission electron microscopes and is also available to external scientists.

The collaboration with RWTH Aachen University was strengthened in 2007 with the establishment of the JARA ( Jülich Aachen Research Alliance ).

The FZJ is merged with the Universities of Cologne, Bonn and RWTH Aachen in the GeoVerbund ABC / J.

The research center is a founding member of what was then the Working Group of Large Research Institutions (AGF, 1970), which was transformed into the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers in 1995 .

Coordinates: 50 ° 54 ′ 18 "  N , 6 ° 24 ′ 43"  E

Map: Germany
Forschungszentrum Jülich

Location and transport links

The research center is located on a campus with restricted access in the middle of the Stetternich Forest in Jülich ( Düren district , North Rhine-Westphalia ) and covers an area of ​​approx. 2.2 square kilometers. It is located approx. 4 km southeast of Jülich, approx. 30 km northeast of Aachen and 45 km west of Cologne .

The next motorway junctions are Jülich-West on the A 44 (8 km) and Düren on the A 4 (10 km). The closest train station is the Rurtalbahn stopping point at the research center on the Düren – Jülich line , from there to the main entrance of the research center it is around 1,300 m.

line course Tact
RB 21 Rurtalbahn :
Linnich SIG Combibloc  - Tetz  - Broich  - Jülich An den Aspen  - Jülich North  - Jülich  - Research Center  - Selgersdorf  - Krauthausen  - Selhausen  - Huchem-Stammeln  - Im Großer Tal  - Düren
Status: timetable change December 2020
30 min ( HVZ ) / 60 min (Linnich - Jülich North)
30 min / 60 min ( SVZ ) (Jülich North - Düren)

From the train stop as well as from Aachen, Jülich and since 2020 also Merzenich ( S-Bahn Cologne ) buses of AVV lines 219, 220, SB20 and SB35 of the Rurtalbus run directly into the premises of the research center. They serve the fire brigade , heating plant , plasma physics , guard 1 , radiation protection and Seecasino stops there . Line 220 also serves the Kleine Füchse stop on two trips .

line course
219 Research center stop  ( Rurtalbahn ) - Forschungszentrum Jülich
220 Aachen Bushof  - Ludwig Forum  - Talbot  - Mariadorf  - Hoengen  - ( Bettendorf  - Siersdorf  -) Schleiden  - Aldenhoven  - Neubourheim  - Jülich  Walramplatz  - New Town Hall - Railway Station / ZOB  - ( Hospital  - Solar Campus -) ( Research Center Bf  RTB  ←) Research Center Jülich
SB20 Express bus:
Aachen Bus Station  - Ludwig Forum  - Neubourheim  - Jülich  Walramplatz  - New Town Hall - ( Jülich Bf / ZOB  -) Hospital  - Solar Campus - ( Research Center  RTB  ←) Research Center Jülich
SB35 Express bus:
Merzenich Bf  - Ellen  - Oberzier  - Niederzier  - Forschungszentrum Jülich

A few facilities of the research center are not located on the actual campus, but about 1 km west of it on the site of the former Federal Railway Repair Shop Jülich (BAW), which the Federal Railway gave up in 1964 and whose premises have been shared by the KFA and the Federal Armed Forces since then.


The annual budget of the research center is around 700 million euros, of which almost 60% is institutional funding from the federal government and the state of North Rhine-Westphalia and a good 40% third-party funding, the latter in turn from the acquisition of international (EU funding) and national project funding (Federal, State, DFG and others), R&D and infrastructure services (contracts) as well as from project sponsorships on behalf of the Federal Republic of Germany and the State of North Rhine-Westphalia.


The research center employed a total of 6,115 people at the end of 2018 [obsolete] and works within the disciplines of physics , chemistry , biology , medicine and engineering on fundamentals and applications in the areas of health , information , the environment and energy . Almost 2,300 employees were scientists, including 563 doctoral students. 771 people worked in administration and service, 1,242 people for project management agencies and almost 1,500 as technical staff. There were over 300 apprentices and interns in 26 professions.

As of July 2019, 521 guest scientists from 62 countries were doing research at Forschungszentrum Jülich.

Excellent employees

On October 9, 2007, the Nobel Foundation announced that Peter Grünberg from Forschungszentrum Jülich and the French Albert Fert from Université Paris-Sud for the - independent - discovery of the GMR effect with the Nobel Prize in Physics on December 10th 2007 in Stockholm. This is the first Nobel Prize for an employee of Forschungszentrum Jülich and the Helmholtz Association .

Training and teaching at Forschungszentrum Jülich

In 2018 [obsolete] around 330 people were trained in 26 professions at the research center. There are also combined training and study courses in cooperation with RWTH Aachen University and the Aachen University of Applied Sciences . After passing the exam, the graduates are offered employment for up to six months in the profession they have learned. More than 4,500 trainees have successfully completed their training at the research center in more than 25 professions since it was founded.

As a rule, no lectures are held at the research center itself, but according to the so-called "Jülich model", the institute directors are appointed to a professorship at one of the neighboring universities (usually Aachen, Bonn, Cologne, Düsseldorf, but also more distant such as Bochum, Duisburg-Essen or Münster). There they do their teaching assignment. Many other habilitated scientists at the research center also take on teaching positions at the neighboring universities. In cooperation with the universities, so-called “Research schools” (e.g. “German Research School for Simulation Sciences” with RWTH Aachen or “International Helmholtz Research School of Biophysics and Soft Matter” with the Universities of Cologne and Düsseldorf ) were founded, to promote the scientific education of students.

An exception is the training to become a mathematical-technical software developer . In cooperation with the Aachen University of Applied Sciences (Jülich site), the lectures required for the bachelor's degree in "Applied Mathematics and Computer Science" are largely held in the "Jülich Supercomputing Center" ( JSC) - formerly "Central Institute for Applied Mathematics" (ZAM) - held by the professors of the FH and trainers of the Supercomputing Center. Some of the lectures for the consecutive Master’s course in “Technomathematics” are also held by employees of the Supercomputing Center.

The two-week “IFF Summer School” takes place at Forschungszentrum Jülich every year and deals with current issues in solid-state physics. It is named after the former Institute for Solid State Research (IFF).



The research center is divided into


Organs of the research center are


The committees of the research center are among others

  • the Scientific Advisory Board (WB)
  • the Scientific and Technical Council (WTR)

Research at Forschungszentrum Jülich

Research in Jülich is divided into the research areas of health, energy and the environment as well as information. Physics and scientific computing are named as key competencies.

  • Institutes:
    • Institute for Advanced Simulation (IAS)
    • Institute for Bio- and Geosciences (IBG)
    • Institute for Biological Information Processes (IBI)
    • Institute for Energy and Climate Research (IEK)
    • Institute for Nuclear Physics (IKP)
    • Institute for Neuroscience and Medicine (INM)
    • Jülich Center for Neutron Science (JCNS)
    • Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI)
    • Central Institute for Engineering, Electronics and Analytics (ZEA)

Research with large devices

Research with neutrons

The research reactor Jülich 2

The research reactor Jülich 2 was a DIDO class reactor and was used for neutron scattering experiments. It was operated by the Central Department for Research Reactors (ZFR). The FRJ-2 was the strongest German neutron source until the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz research neutron source in Garching was commissioned and was mainly used to carry out scattering and spectroscopy experiments on condensed matter . It was in operation from November 14, 1962 to May 2, 2006.

With the establishment of the Jülich Center for Neutron Science (JCNS) in 2006, which has had the status of an institute since 2011, Forschungszentrum Jülich remains a national competence center for neutron scattering . Six of the main instruments were moved from the FRJ-2 to the FRM II; further instruments rebuilt there. In addition, the JCNS operates branch offices at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) in Grenoble and at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in Oak Ridge .

Cooler synchrotron COZY

COZY (Cooler Synchrotron) is a particle accelerator ( synchrotron ) and storage ring (circumference: 184 m) for accelerating protons and deuterons , which is operated by the Institute for Nuclear Physics (IKP) in the research center.

COZY is characterized above all by the so-called jet cooling, in which the deviation of the particles from their specified path (can also be understood as thermal movement of the particles) is reduced by electron or stochastic cooling. At COZY there are several experimental facilities for investigations in the field of hadron physics . The current research focus is on the investigation of the electrical dipole moment of protons, the testing of components and methods for the planned Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research as well as preparatory experiments for the construction of an accelerator-based neutron source. Previous focus experiments such as the magnetic spectrometer ANKE, the time-of-flight mass spectrometer TOF and the universal detector WASA, the move of which was carried out from the storage ring CELSIUS of The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala to COZY in 2005, were shut down and most of them have been dismantled.

COZY is one of the few accelerators in the medium energy range that has both electron cooling and stochastic cooling .

The synchrotron is used by scientists from German and foreign research institutions at internal and external experimentation stations and is part of the research equipment of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research .

Tokamak TEXTOR

TEXTOR was a tokamak experiment for technology-oriented research (Tokamak EXperiment for Technology Oriented Research) in the field of plasma- wall interactions, which was carried out by the Institute for Energy and Climate Research, Division of Plasma Physics (IEK-4) in the research center. The plant was shut down at the end of 2013. It was constructed from 1976 onwards and was inaugurated in 1983.

TEXTOR was used to research nuclear fusion reactor technology. For this purpose, hydrogen and deuterium are heated up to 50 million degrees in experiments so that they are present in fully ionized form ( protons , electrons ), as plasma. One of the tasks of this experiment was to study the interaction of this plasma with the surrounding walls. The findings served to prepare for the next big step, the ITER test reactor , which Forschungszentrum Jülich is working on to build in Cadarache in the south of France .

NACOK development and safety research for pebble bed high temperature reactors

The effects of an assumed leak in the pressure vessel of a future pebble-bed high-temperature reactor , as it was developed in Jülich under Rudolf Schulten , are investigated with the large-scale test stand NACOK (natural draft in the core with corrosion) in IEF-6 in cooperation with RWTH Aachen University. This test system has a test channel over 7 meters high, which can be heated up to 1200 ° C, and a return pipe that can also be heated. The results are used to confirm thermohydraulic calculation programs. Experiments were carried out for the South African reactor construction company PBMR, for the EU as part of the RAPHAEL project, and in 2010–11 funded by the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. The Federal Ministry of Economics has been funding NACOK investigations into dust formation in pebble bed reactors during normal operation since 2012. After a lengthy public discussion about the meaning of HTR research in the FZJ, the Supervisory Board decided in May 2014 to end HTR research at the end of 2014 and to shut down NACOK.

4 Tesla magnetic resonance tomograph

The Institute for Neuroscience and Medicine has also been operating a magnetic resonance tomograph (MRT) since 2004 , which delivers a magnetic flux density of 4 Tesla . This makes it one of the most powerful devices in Germany and Europe. There are also 1.5 Tesla and 3 Tesla tomographs, which are used in particular for functional imaging (fMRI) with neurological, neuropsychological and psychological issues. Another 3.0 Tesla tomograph with a PET insert has been under construction since 2007 . Once the funds have been approved, a 9.4 Tesla scanner with combined PET will be under construction. This will be one of the most powerful MR tomographs in Europe, in addition to the 9.4 Tesla scanner already used for research purposes at the University of Maastricht in the Netherlands (two other tomographs with this magnetic flux density already exist in the USA).

Atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR

Simulation of atmospheric photochemistry in a large reaction chamber

In the 20 meter long SAPHIR chamber (Simulation of Atmospheric Photo Chemistry In a Large Reaction Chamber), the Troposphere Department (IEK-8) of the Institute for Energy and Climate Research (IEK) examines photochemical reactions in the earth's atmosphere .

Jülich Plant Phenotyping Center

The Jülich Plant Phenotyping Center (JPPC) is a leading international facility for the development and application of non-invasive techniques for quantifying the structure and function of plants. At JPPC, technology development is carried out as well as phenotypic investigations on a mechanistic level, in high throughput and in the field.

Plant experimentation system PhyTec

A greenhouse with the latest technology has been available since 2003. Maximum transparency of the panes of over 95% in the plant-relevant light spectrum is achieved through a special type of glass and anti-reflective coating. In addition, UV-B penetrates the panes. The CO 2 concentration in two compartments can be increased and decreased, the humidity can be varied, and the temperature can be kept at 25 ° C even in summer with full irradiation. The Phytosphere (ICG-III) department of the Institute for Chemistry and Geosphere Dynamics (ICG) simulates various climate scenarios and examines their influence on key plant processes such as growth, transport, exchange processes with the atmosphere and soil, and on biotic interactions.

MRI-PET center for plants

At the ICG-3: Phytosphere, the establishment of an MRI-PET center for plants began in 2006. In the meantime, MRI and PET systems set up specifically for plant research and, since December 2009, a cyclotron for the production of short-lived isotopes are available.

Beampipes on synchrotrons

The Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI) maintains or has maintained several beamlines for research with synchrotron radiation at various synchrotrons:

  • BL5 U-250-PGM at DELTA (Dortmund)
  • UE56 / 1-SGM at BESSY (Berlin)
  • MuCAT at APS (Argonne, USA)
  • JUSIFA at HASYLAB (Hamburg).


Forschungszentrum Jülich also has a 124-meter-high steel lattice mast for meteorological measurements. At heights of 10, 20, 30, 50, 80, 100 and 120 meters, it is equipped with platforms that carry measuring devices. The measuring mast, erected in 1963/64, is a triangular steel framework construction.


Conversation between Holger Klein and Bernd Mohr about the supercomputers at JSC.

The Jülich Supercomputing Center (JSC) operated various supercomputers as part of the John von Neumann Institute for Computing (NIC). In 2003, a new 1,000 m² machine hall was built next to the Jülich Supercomputer Center for the supercomputers.

IBM p690 cluster "Jump" (2004)

The massively parallel supercomputer IBM p690-Cluster Jump went into operation at the beginning of 2004. With 1312 Power4 + 2C 1.7 GHz processors (41 nodes with 32 processors each) and a main memory of 5 terabytes (128 gigabytes per node), the computer achieved a maximum performance of 5.6 TFLOPS and was 30th at the time it was set up most powerful computer in the world. The nodes were connected to one another by a high-performance switch (HPS). Applications had access to over 60 terabytes of storage space and integrated tape storage with a capacity of one petabyte via a global parallel file system . The IBM p690 Cluster Jump was operated under the AIX  5.1 operating system . In 2008 the system was temporarily replaced by IBM Power6 p6 575 until JuRoPA went into operation.

Jülich BlueGene / L supercomputer (JUBL, 2006)

The JUBL , which was inaugurated in 2006, is considered to be the predecessor of the JUGENE and was decommissioned in mid-2008 after its successful installation.

Jülich BlueGene / P supercomputer (JUGENE, 2008)

On February 22nd, 2008, the massively parallel supercomputer JUGENE, based on IBM's BlueGene / P architecture, was put into operation. For a time it was the fastest computer in Europe and the fastest civil computer in the world. The research center parked JUGENE in 2012 and approved it for scrapping.

HPC-FF and JuRoPA (2009)

On May 26th, 2009 the two computers HPC-FF and JuRoPA were put into operation. Both computers could be interconnected for special tasks and together performed 274.8 TFLOPS with Linpack, which was 10th place worldwide at the time. SUSE Linux Enterprise Server was used as the operating system . In 2009, three supercomputers were in use. In June 2015, both computers were switched off.

  • HPC-FF - A computer built by Bull for fusion research with 1080 cluster nodes, each with two Xeon quad-core processors (Xeon X5570, 2.93 GHz)
  • JuRoPA built by Sun, with 4416 Xeon X5570 processors (2208 processor nodes).

JUQUEEN (2012)

The supercomputer called JUQUEEN was put into operation in 2012.

JEWELS (2018)

In June 2018, the research center received the successor to JUQUEEN with the name Jülich Wizard for European Leadership Science, JUWELS .

Further research projects at Forschungszentrum Jülich

CLaMS: Atmospheric models for climate research

Understanding the chemical processes in the atmosphere forms the basis for numerous climate models. Environmental researchers at Forschungszentrum Jülich use airplanes, balloons and satellites to study the chemistry of the atmosphere. As the CLaMS ( C hemical La grangian M odel of the S Tratosphere) that come in simulations on supercomputers used. This atmosphere simulation is written in Fortran 90 and models the ozone depletion in the northern stratosphere. The control takes place with shell programs and the visualization with IDL .

MEM-BRAIN: carbon dioxide capture

Forschungszentrum Jülich develops ceramic membranes with its research partners. They could be used as filters in power plants to separate process gases and also effectively retain carbon dioxide.

UNICORE: easy access to computer power

Computing and storage resources are often distributed across multiple computer systems, data centers, or even countries. Industry and science therefore need tools for easy and secure access to these resources. UNICORE from Jülich is a grid- based tool package . The current version UNICORE 6 is web services based (WS-RF) and implements grid standards of the OGF .

AGATE: nuclear transmutation

In cooperation with RWTH Aachen University and the Siemens company, work is being carried out on the development of a gas-cooled subcritical nuclear transmutation reactor AGATE, which will help to shorten the life of radioactive waste. The existing expertise for gas-cooled nuclear pebble bed reactors is used.


In addition to the research institutes and large facilities, there are numerous infrastructure units and central institutes, for example a full-time plant fire brigade is available around the clock to protect people, property, animals and nature in and around the research center.

The State Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (LAfA) of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia operates a state collection point for radioactive waste for the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony. In addition to radioactive waste from the research center, this collection point also accepts other (low-level) radioactive waste from the countries mentioned.

Since 1979 the research center for freight traffic has had its own siding, which ends as a butt siding within the campus .

See also


  • Bernd-A. Rusinek : The research center: a history of the KFA Jülich from its foundation to 1980 . Campus-Verlag, Frankfurt (Main), New York 1996, ISBN 978-3-593-35636-5 (841 pages).
  • Nuclear Research Facility Jülich of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia eV in cooperation with the State Press and Information Office of the State Government of North Rhine-Westphalia (Ed.): Ten Years of Nuclear Research Facility Jülich of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia eV Jülich 1966, DNB  457185635 (124 pages).
  • Ortwin Renn : Perception and acceptance of technical risks , 6 volumes, KFA, nuclear research facility Jülich, program group nuclear energy and the environment, central library of the nuclear research facility Jülich 1980 DNB 550943757 (dissertation University of Cologne 1980, 852 pages in 6 volumes)
    • Volume 1: On the theory of risk acceptance - research approaches and models 1981, 155 pages.
    • Volume 2: The empirical analysis of risk perception and acceptance , 1981, 130 pages.
    • Volume 3: The symbol nuclear energy - attitudes and their determinants , 1981, 162 pages.
    • Band 4: material band 1; statistical data , 1981, 227 pages.
    • Band 5: material band 2; Questionnaires and instructions , 1981, 135 pages.
    • Volume 6: Central Bibliography , 1981, 43 pages.

Web links

Commons : Forschungszentrum Jülich  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Helmholtz Centers. Retrieved September 27, 2021 (German).
  2. ^ Research Center Jülich - Research. Retrieved September 27, 2021 .
  3. a b Research Center Jülich: Facts and Figures 2020 . Ed .: Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH. PDF download from the FZJ website
  4. JARA - Jülich Aachen Research Alliance. Retrieved September 27, 2021 .
  5. Bernhard Mittermaier, Bernd-A. Rusinek : Leo Brandt (1908–1971) engineer - science promoter - visionary. On the 100th birthday of the North Rhine-Westphalian research politician and founder of Forschungszentrum Jülich , Jülich 2008 ( PDF ( Memento from February 2, 2014 in the Internet Archive ))
  6. Heinsberger Zeitung, July 20, 2009
  7. Dismantling of the Jülich reactor: Hot Meiler (article on Spiegel Online)
  8. cited by the Ministry of the Environment intervenes: Serious errors in the Jülich reactor (article on
  9. AVR expert group ( Memento from September 24, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
  10. Castor containers remain in Jülich (article in the Aachener Zeitung from November 15, 2012)
  12. Jülicher Castoren: Nuclear waste without a permit (article in the Aachener Zeitung from November 16, 2011)
  14. The Geoverbund ABC / J. Retrieved August 30, 2016 .
  15. Forschungszentrum Jülich - Facts and Figures 2018. (PDF) Retrieved on November 20, 2019 .
  16. a b c d Facts and Figures 2019. FZ Jülich, 2019, accessed on July 31, 2021 (as of December 31, 2019).
  17. a b Forschungszentrum Jülich: Schoolchildren and trainees , accessed on December 11, 2015
  18. Self-portrait of FZ Jülich
  19. JEDI collaboration
  20. What is the HBS Jülich
  21. Physik Journal 13 (2014) No. 1, page 10
  22. Presentation on TEXTOR (PDF, 14MB)
  23. Rene Benden: Research on HT reactors before the end . In: Aachener Nachrichten. May 14, 2014
  25. Resonator podcast of the Helmholtz Association : Supercomputer at FZ Jülich (episode 60, May 29, 2015)
  26. Newsletter No. 166, July 2008
  27. JUGENE - Jülich Blue Gene / P "JUGENE will go out of production and be demolished". Retrieved February 23, 2013 .
  28. From 100 teraflops to 1 petaflops: Three new supercomputers in Jülich , press release on heise-online from May 26, 2009
  29. Forschungszentrum Jülich - JSC - Supercomputers - de-installed systems - JUROPA / HPC-FF (2009-2015). Retrieved February 19, 2021 .
  30. Forschungszentrum Jülich - JSC - Announcements 2015 - Farewell, JUROPA. Retrieved February 19, 2021 .
  31. JUQUEEN - Jülich Blue Gene / Q. Retrieved February 23, 2013 .
  32. Fast and innovative: Jülich supercomputer is a new development from Europe. Retrieved June 26, 2018 .
  33. Progress and prospects of research on the management of high-level radioactive waste: the example of the `transmutation` option Presentation on this by Bruno Thomauske (PDF)
  34. Jülich Research Center Fire Brigade ( memento from October 18, 2012 in the Internet Archive ), information page at Research Center Jülich
  35. "KFA am Europa-Schienennetz", article in the Jülicher Nachrichten of July 12, 1979, page E