from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Niemcza coat of arms
Niemcza (Poland)
Basic data
State : Poland
Voivodeship : Lower Silesia
Powiat : Dzierżoniów
Area : 19.80  km²
Geographic location : 50 ° 43 '  N , 16 ° 50'  E Coordinates: 50 ° 43 '0 "  N , 16 ° 50' 0"  E
Residents : 2965
(June 30, 2019)
Postal code : 58-230
Telephone code : (+48) 74
License plate : DDZ
Economy and Transport
Street : E 67 Kłodzko - Wroclaw
Next international airport : Wroclaw
Gminatype: Urban and rural municipality
Surface: 72.07 km²
Residents: 5473
(Jun. 30, 2019)
Population density : 76 inhabitants / km²
Community number  ( GUS ): 0202073
Administration (as of 2007)
Mayor : Grzegorz Kosowski
Address: Rynek 10
58-230 Niemcza
Website :

Niemcza [ ˈɲɛmʧa ] (German: Nimptsch ; Czech Němčí ) is a town in the powiat Dzierżoniowski ( Powiat Reichenbach in the Owl Mountains ) in the Polish Voivodeship of Lower Silesia . The city was the capital of Silesia before Wroclaw became one.

Geographical location

City and countryside

The city is located in the southwestern part of Lower Silesia on the Lohe ( Ślęza ), a left tributary of the Oder , about 14 kilometers east of Dzierżoniów ( Reichenbach in the Owl Mountains ) and 50 kilometers south of Wroclaw .


Prehistory and first mention

In the early days the city was one of the most important settlements in Silesia . It was originally located on the “Böhmersteig”, an ancient connecting route that led from Prague via Königgrätz , Glatz and Breslau to the Baltic Sea .

The first settlement finds of the Lausitz culture come from the Bronze Age . Around 1000 BC A first castle complex was built on the Stadtberg above the Lohe. Was destroyed. In the 4th century, a fortified settlement emerged on the mountain as a district of the Silingians , which is the only known settlement in Eastern Germany. Excavations from 1935 to 1936 and 1960 to 1965 confirmed that the Silingian clans had not joined the migration , but remained in a settlement area between the Zobtenberg ( mons Silencii ) and the Lohe ( Selenza ). At the time of the Slavic settlement in the 6th century, the name of the settlement was derived from the word Nemzi ("mute", "foreigner") for the Germanic people living here . Around 700 this culture was mixed with the Slavic, as is confirmed by finds from a Slavic castle complex. Nemzi became the chief town of the nome of Slensanen .

990 which previously was Bohemia belonging Castle Nimptsch from Poland conquered. The place name Nemzi , documented in writing by Monachus Sazavensis from the Sázava monastery , represents the oldest traditional place name in Silesia. The strategically important structure on the main road to Bohemia played an important role in the claims of Bohemia and Poland on Silesia. In 1017 Thietmar von Merseburg reported of a failed siege by Emperor Heinrich the Holy . Likewise, Duke Břetislav II of Bohemia failed in 1093 in his intended occupation of Silesia. The castle remained in Polish ownership. The 1137 in Glatz between the Polish Duke Bolesław III. "Wry-mouthed" and the Czech Duke Soběslav I completed Pentecostal peace of Glatz was ceremoniously sealed in Nimptsch.

Among the Silesian Piasts

Tower of the Upper Gate, remains of the medieval city fortifications
St. George's Church

When after the death of Duke Bolesław III. “Wrymouth” Poland had broken up into individual areas, Silesia came to Duke Władysław II in 1138 , who founded the line of the Silesian Piasts and was the first Duke of the Duchy of Silesia . During his expulsion, Nimptsch received a castellany in 1155 , the district of which included the boundaries of the later districts of Strehlen , Frankenstein and Reichenbach . In addition to the wooden castellans castle with the St. Peter's Chapel, there was also a town settlement in the stone construction usual in Greater Moravia within the ramparts and a market town in front of the Adalbert Church, founded after 1039. The castellans owned the Vogelgesang moated castle and the Woislowitz and Pangel estates.

Since after the death of the senior duke Mieszko III. the seniority principle, which had been in force for the whole of Poland since 1138, was abandoned, and in 1202 the constitutional connection between the Silesian regions and Poland was extinguished. When the Duchy of Silesia was divided, Nimptsch came to the Duchy of Breslau in 1249 , which was transferred to Duke Heinrich III. had fallen. During the German settlement in the 13th century, a narrow town arose on the old Polish site, which received town charter in 1282 and next to which the old town , a Polish Waldhufen and town village, developed around the Adalbert Church. The Marienkirche founded in 1295 ( after the Reformation Peter and Paul Church ) was subordinate to the Adalbertkirche and was used jointly but separately by the Polish and German population. The city wall with two city gates, which is still partially preserved today, was built at the same time, and the stone city palace was built in place of the castle.

After the division of the Duchy of Breslau in 1311 Nimptsch belonged to the Duchy of Brieg , which was passed to Duke Boleslaw III. was allocated. On May 22, 1322, he pledged the town and Weichbild Nimptsch to Bernhard II. Von Schweidnitz , from whom the lien passed in 1326 to his brother Bolko II . During his feuds with the Bohemian King Johann von Luxemburg, he used the favorable location of Nimptsch to block a section of the road from Glatz to Breslau .

Together with the Duchy of Brieg, Duke Boleslaw placed Nimptsch under the feudal sovereignty of the Crown of Bohemia on May 9, 1329 , which was confirmed in the 1335 Treaty of Trenčín . With the decline of the Duchy of Brieg, which began in the 15th century, due to its splitting into several partial duchies and lordships, Duke Ludwig III escaped . only because the duchy of Nimptsch , which was built for him, did not materialize because the Hussites had occupied the city in 1430 . It was not until 1434 that he succeeded in taking Nimptsch in the seventh siege, which was then razed . In 1455 the city received the mile rights , but in 1481 it lost the seat of the administrative office of the Teich Office, later Rothschloss, to the centrally located village of Schlottnitz ( Białobrzezie ).

The decline of Nimptsch was accelerated by the growth of the neighboring towns of Frankenstein and Reichenbach , which offered better conditions for development than the narrow town on the mountain above the Lohe, which was surrounded by aristocratic estates. Added to this was the city's location in the extreme west of the Duchy of Brieg and on the edge of its own soft landscape; also the old Böhmersteig was no longer the only main connection between Bohemia and Breslau.

After the destruction caused by the Hussite Wars , the reconstruction of the city could only be completed in the 16th century. The city fortifications were rebuilt and the castle was rebuilt as the so-called Hedwigsburg in 1585 to the residence of the Dukes of Nimptsch, which, however, was never used by the Dukes of Brieg, who held this title. From 1513 Nimptsch had market rights and in 1579 it obtained brewing rights . In 1534 the Reformation found its way into Nimptsch. The Protestant St. George's Church was built on the site of the Adalbert Church in 1612.

The city's recovery phase ended with the Thirty Years War . In 1633 Nimptsch was burned down by the troops of Wallenstein , only the castle remained. A plague epidemic followed , after which 91 of the 103 plots no longer had an owner. In 1642 there was an incursion by the Swedish army under Field Marshal Torstensson .

Under the crown of Bohemia

Kittelau Castle around 1860,
Alexander Duncker collection
View of Nimptsch 1752
Nimptsch east of Reichenbach ( Reichenbch. ) On a map from 1905

With the death of the last Silesian Piast , Duke Georg Wilhelm in 1675 the duchies fell Legnica , Wohlau and Brieg by reversion to the crown of Bohemia , which since 1526 Habsburg held. The Counter Reformation was then carried out in the area that had been evangelical since the Reformation . The establishment of the Catholic parish, to which the city church of St. Peter and Paul was assigned from 1701 to 1707, led to a dispute between the two denominations in the city. In 1712 the Hedwig Church was built for the Catholics at the castle.

A city fire destroyed parts of the castle and the Catholic church in 1735. While the Hedwig Church was rebuilt as early as 1736, the castle was not rebuilt until 1830 as an unadorned building, in which only the octagon from the Renaissance period with valuable sgraffito design remained from the old castle .

Prussian rule

After the First Silesian War in 1742, Nimptsch, like most of Silesia, fell to Prussia . During the Napoleonic Wars between 1805 and 1807 Nimptsch was plundered several times by troops of the Rhine Confederation . In 1853 the town hall burned down and in 1859 parts of the city were again destroyed by a damaging fire. The town church of St. Peter and Paul, which was closed in 1852 due to dilapidation, was rebuilt in 1864 in neo-Romanesque style.

In 1884 Nimptsch got a connection to the railway network with the line to Heidersdorf , which at the same time represented a continuation of the Strehlen – Heidersdorf railway line. In 1894 the line was extended to Gnadenfrei and formed a connection to the connection between Reichenbach and Frankenstein .

Since the reorganization of Prussia in 1816, Nimptsch has been the seat of the district of the same name from 1818, which was merged with the Reichenbach district in 1932 , with which Nimptsch remained connected until 1945. During the Second World War , a satellite camp of the Groß-Rosen concentration camp was set up in Nimptsch .

1945 to the present

Towards the end of the war, on May 6, 1945, the last German troops left the city that had survived the war unscathed. Then Nimptsch was occupied by the Red Army . In the summer of 1945 Nimptsch and almost all of Silesia were placed under Polish administration by the Soviet occupying power and given the Polish place name Niemcza . The German residents were expelled from Nimptsch in 1945/1946 by the local Polish administrative authority . Most of the Polish new settlers came from the areas east of the Curzon Line that had fallen to the Soviet Union as part of the “ West displacement of Poland ” .

During the communist rule, numerous buildings in the city fell into disrepair. In 1964 the Hedwig Church and the octagon of the castle were demolished. The interior furnishings of the church from the Baroque period ended up in the Wroclaw National Museum . The remaining parts of the castle were converted into a factory. Only the town church of St. Peter and Paul, the baroque town houses on the Ring and the town fortifications, which were restored in 1966, have been preserved without major damage.

Population development

year Residents Remarks
1740 1,150
1787 1,256
1825 2,182
1875 2,069
1880 2.215
1890 2.172 1,645 Protestants, 716 Catholics and six Jews
1905 2,216
1933 3.214
1939 3,526
1961 2,557
1970 3,772
2011 3,144

City arms

The city ​​coat of arms of Nimptsch shows a tower in a shield, above which the Silesian eagle with the silver moon can be seen. The tower is surrounded on both sides by oak leaves.



The state road Droga krajowa 8 runs through the village in a north-south direction .


town hall
Ring with baroque houses and St. George's Church
  • Renaissance Guhlau Castle , with facades decorated with sgraffito decoration
  • Castle (rebuilt after a fire in 1830), with a Renaissance octagon with sgraffito decoration.
  • St. George's Church
  • Baroque houses on the ring
  • 1853-1862 after a design by - neo-Gothic City Hall Friedrich August Stüler built
  • The grave site for Friedrich Bernhard von Prittwitz (1720–1793), built in 1784, is located in the Niemcza cemetery . The ruins of this mausoleum were restored in 2001.
  • The Rhododendron Park Wojsławice ( Woislowitz ) goes back to the Woislowitz Manor Park , which was created under Rudolph von Canitz and Dallwitz in 1825. The 150 hectare park was transformed into a well-known rhododendron park by the dendrologist Fritz von Oheimb, which is now used as the arboretum of the Botanical Garden of the University of Wroclaw.


Town twinning


The urban and rural community ( gmina miejsko-wiejska ) Niemcza covers an area of ​​72 km² with 5,999 inhabitants (2007). These include the following locations:

  • Gilów ( Girlachsdorf )
  • Gola Dzierżoniowska ( Guhlau )
  • Kietlin ( Kittelau )
  • Niemcza ( Nimptsch ) - city, with
    • Gumin ( Gaumitz ), a village 2 km southwest of the city
    • Jasin ( Johannisthal ), a village 2 km northwest of the city
    • Mieczniki ( birdsong ), 1.5 km north of the city and first mentioned in 1262 as Meznikovo
    • Piotrkówek ( Petrikau , 1937–1945: Petersrode (Silesia) ), a village 2.5 km east of the city
    • Stare Miasto ( old town ), in the north-west of the city on the castle pond adjacent former village
    • Stasin ( Pangel ), 0.75 km east of the city, which had its own patrimonial jurisdiction
    • Wojsławice ( Woislowitz , 1936–1945: Eibenhof ), 1.5 km south-east of the city and first named as Wyselicz in 1366, with a rhododendron park
  • Przerzeczyn-Zdrój ( Bad Dirsdorf ) with
    • Ligota Mała ( Klein Ellguth )
    • Nowa Wieś Niemczańska ( Neudorf near Bad Dirsdorf )
    • Podlesie ( Kunsdorf )
    • Ruszkowice ( Ruschkowitz , 1936–1945: Lohenstein )
  • Wilków Wielkie ( Groß Wilkau ) with


Web links

Commons : Niemcza  - album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of June 30, 2019. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) (PDF files; 0.99 MiB), accessed December 24, 2019 .
  2. On this occasion, Bolesławs III took over. Son and successor Władysław II. Sponsorship of the Duke's youngest son Soběslav I, Wenzel II. S. on this Rudolf Žáček: Dějiny Slezska v datech . Praha 2004, ISBN 80-7277-172-8 , p. 26.
  3. ^ Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. Nimptsch district. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
  4. Wolfgang Benz , Barbara Distel (ed.): The place of terror . History of the National Socialist Concentration Camps. Verlag CH Beck, Munich (9 volumes; 2005–2009).
  5. Erwin Stieglitz: The end of the German city of Nimptsch - The Red Army occupies the city
  6. a b c d e Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990.reichenbach.html # ew39rchbnimptsc. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).