|Voivodeship :||Lower Silesia|
|Area :||20.07 km²|
|Geographic location :|
|Height :||107 m npm|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Postal code :||58-200 to 58-205|
|Telephone code :||(+48) 74|
|License plate :||DDZ|
|Economy and Transport|
|Street :||Ząbkowice Śląskie - Świdnica|
|Rail route :||Kamieniec Ząbkowicki – Jaworzyna Śląska|
|Next international airport :||Wroclaw|
|Gmina structure:||24 towns|
|15 school offices|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Community number ( GUS ):||0202021|
|Administration (as of 2015)|
|Mayor :||Dariusz Kucharski|
Dzierżoniów [ ʥɛrˈʒɔɲuf ] ( German : Reichenbach in the Owl Mountains ) is a city in the Polish Voivodeship of Lower Silesia . It is the county seat of the Powiat Dzierżoniowski ( Reichenbacher District ), forms its own municipality and is also the seat of the Gmina Dzierżoniów , a rural municipality that includes the villages north and east of the city.
The city is located in Lower Silesia in the northeastern foothills of the Owl Mountains . The Peilau flows through it. Neighboring towns are Włóki ( Dreißighuben ) and Borowice ( Harthau ) in the north, Uciechów ( Bertholdsdorf ) and Stoszów ( Stoschendorf ) in the north-west, Dobrocin ( Güttmansdorf ) and Niemcza ( Nimptsch ) in the east, Piława Górna ( no mercy ) and Piława Dolna ( Nieder Peilau ) in the south-east, Bielawa ( Langenbielau ) in the south, Pieszyce ( Peterswaldau ) and Rościszów ( Steinseifersdorf ) in the south-west, Bratoszów ( Stolbergsdorf ) and Piskorzów ( Peiskersdorf ) in the west and Mościsko ( Faulbrück ) in the north-west.
Dzierżoniów is located approximately in the middle of a settlement strip running on the eastern edge of the Owl Mountains, which was within the Preseka and was settled in the first half of the 13th century. Since the settlement band has a uniform division of the hooves , the places exposed there probably arose at the same time. After Peilau, located to the south-east, was named as a model for other foundations under German law as early as 1230, Reichenbach must also have been founded before 1230. It is first mentioned in 1250 with a Heinrich von Reichenbach ("de Richenbach"), who is documented as a locator in Brieg and came from the Reichenbach hereditary bailiffs, the later Counts Reichenbach . For the year 1258 the church of St. Georg and the mayor Wilhelm von Reichenbach are documented, who held the office of Reichenbacher Vogt in 1266 . It probably had its seat in the fortress on the city wall, which was called "Hummelschloss" or "Homole". As in the surrounding weaver villages, cloth- making also played an important economic role in Reichenbach from the start. Dressmakers who formed a guild in 1369 are mentioned as early as 1268 .
With the division of the Duchy of Breslau , the area along the edge of the area came to the newly formed Duchy of Schweidnitz . In 1296 a hospital with the church of St. Barbara was built in the suburb of Frankenstein, which was probably built by the Order of the Holy Grave . Around this time a cemetery was laid out in front of the Schweidnitzer Tor and the burial church of St. Maria was built. The town hall is occupied in 1337 and a year later the Johanniter , who had been given the church patronage over St. George, set up a commander . A monastery of the Augustinian hermits had existed since 1349 at the latest . After the city acquired the bailiwick in 1350, it also exercised jurisdiction in its Weichbild , which consisted of about 30 villages. In addition, she obtained the rights of the hereditary bailiwick. Thanks to its economic position, it was able to acquire the miles , brewing and salt rights as early as the 14th century . In addition, she had the right to levy customs, fish in the Peile and hunt in Ernsdorf.
After the death of Duke Bolko II. In 1368, Reichenbach fell together with the Duchy of Schweidnitz-Jauer in 1368 to the Bohemian King Wenceslaus , who was a son of Queen Anna of Schweidnitz . However, Bolkos II's widow, the Duchess Agnes von Habsburg , was entitled to a lifelong usufruct . This is probably the reason why a burgrave is first attested to the ducal castle in 1369. It was the knight Wasserrabe von Zirlau , who was probably used by the Dowager Duchess. Other verifiable burgraves were Franz von Peterswaldau in 1422 , Dietrich von Peterswaldau in 1469 and Moritz von Peiskersdorf in 1532. In 1428 Reichenbach was hit by the Hussites . After their departure, the fortifications were reinforced by a second city wall. From about 1525 the Reformation spread in Reichenbach . The Augustinian monastery was abandoned in 1525.
Economic rise and the Thirty Years War
In the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century Reichenbach experienced an economic boom. In 1582 the Reichenbacher Züchnerzunft got the permission to produce Barchent . This increased the number of their masters from 178 in 1606 to 316 in 1626. At the same time, however, the number of cloth makers decreased. In 1549 Reichenbach obtained two more fairs and in 1632 a miles privilege for the linen trade. Beer production also played an economic role. For the year 1564 144 beer yards are occupied.
Reichenbach's economic position was weakened by the Thirty Years' War , which was accompanied by contributions, billeting and destruction, but also disease and religious persecution. The Counter Reformation was carried out during the war . Nevertheless, around three quarters of the population were still Protestant around 1666/67. There was a renewed economic boom in the textile industry in the 18th century, when the production of barchents and canvas could be increased. Friedrich Sadebeck , who imported Macedonian cotton and had it spun in Reichenbach and the surrounding weaving villages and woven on around 850 looms, played an important role as a textile merchant .
After the First Silesian War , Reichenbach fell to Prussia in 1742, together with the hereditary principality of Schweidnitz, which had been in Bohemia since 1368 . Subsequently, a Protestant congregation was founded, which initially had a residential building on the Ring converted into a prayer room. During the Seven Years' War , the Battle of Burkersdorf took place on July 21, 1762 between Reichenbach and Schweidnitz , in which the Austrians were forced to give up the siege of Schweidnitz. On August 16, 1762, the battle of Reichenbach took place.
In 1790 negotiations between Prussia and Austria took place in Reichenbach, which led to the Reichenbach Convention , with which an impending war between Prussia and Austria could be averted. On June 27, 1813, after preliminary negotiations at the Opočno Castle in East Bohemia, the Reichenbach Convention was signed, with which an anti-Napoleonic alliance between Russia, Prussia and Austria was agreed.
After the reorganization of Prussia, Reichenbach was the seat of the Reichenbach administrative district from 1816 to 1820 . Also since 1816 it was the seat of the Reichenbach district , with which it remained connected until 1945. In 1855 Reichenbach received a railway connection to Schweidnitz , which was extended to Frankenstein three years later . In 1891 the railway connection to Langenbielau followed and in 1900/03 it was connected to the Eulengebirgsbahn , which led to Wünschelburg below the Heuscheuergebirge . Ernsdorf had already been incorporated into the municipality in 1890.
During the Second World War , there was a satellite camp of the Groß-Rosen concentration camp in Reichenbach from June 1944 to January 1945 . After the end of the war, Reichenbach was placed under Polish administration by the Soviet occupying power, along with almost all of Silesia . The place name was initially Polonized as Rychbach ; In 1946 the city after the bee researcher was Johann Dzierzon in Dzierżoniów renamed. Unless they had fled before, the German population was expelled by the local Polish administrative authority . Some of the newly settled residents came from the areas east of the Curzon Line that had fallen to the Soviet Union as part of the “ West displacement of Poland ” .
Legend of the origin of the city of Reichenbach - between the Owl Mountains and the Zobten Mountains
According to the legend about the origins of the city of Reichenbach, the first settlement was built in 300 by a Roman general named Lucca together with Franconia and Wenden . He also had a temple built near the monument to the ancient Slav god Swantevit , which is standing in the forest . After the broken-in Hungarians were defeated and persecuted by Duno von Askanien and Siegfried von Ringelheim at the Battle of Merseburg in 925 , they sank their treasures in a stream near what would later become Reichenbach. An army leader of Emperor Heinrich I found out about this and fished the brook for his master. With the treasure found, Heinrich I had the settlement converted into a town that was named Reichenbach by the rich find.
- The parish church of St. Georg was first mentioned in 1258 and was rebuilt and expanded by the Johanniter from 1338 to 1389. From 1555 to 1629 it served as a Protestant church. It is a four-nave brick basilica that was rebuilt in the late Gothic and Renaissance styles in 1555 and 1612. The main altar was donated by citizens in 1615 and extended in the late Baroque style from 1719 to 1750. The pulpit was created in 1609 by the "Master of the Reichenbach pulpit". In 1810 Carl Ferdinand Langhans built a chapel for the family of the merchant Melchior Kellner in the north choir . The figures of the church patron St. George and the Bohemian national saint Johann von Nepomuk on the portal were created in the third decade of the 18th century in the circle of the Schweidnitz sculptor Georg Leonhard Weber .
- The Augustinian monastery church, mentioned in 1349, has been rebuilt several times and at times used for purposes other than intended. In 1713 it was restored with the Immaculate Conception patronage . The wooden ceiling is decorated with acanthus paintings. On the canopy of the pulpit is the figure "Christ as the Good Shepherd".
- The church Maria Mutter der Kirche was built between 1795 and 1798 as a Protestant church on the site of the ruined ducal castle known as the “Klinkenhaus”, based on a design by Carl Gotthard Langhans . After 1945 it was rededicated to the Catholic parish church.
- The cemetery church of St. Maria was probably made in the second quarter of the 14th century. During the Reformation it was redesigned from 1598 to 1606 and St. Dedicated to the Trinity. After a fire in 1832, it was rebuilt in the neo-Gothic style in 1851/52.
- Town houses on the Ring from the 19th century, with historicizing facade decorations. The house of the textile merchant Melchior Kellner on Ring No. 39 is of artistic importance. It was built from 1801 to 1803 by the Waldenburg master builder Leopold Niederäcker.
- Jewish cemetery and synagogue
- Historic city wall
|1890||13,040||of which 8,478 Protestants, 4,291 Catholics and 154 Jews|
|1925||16,075||thereof 10,166 Evangelicals, 4,959 Catholics, 29 other Christians, 61 Jews|
|1933||17,521||thereof 11,266 Evangelicals, 5,286 Catholics, 18 other Christians, 67 Jews|
|1939||17,253||thereof 11,174 Evangelicals, 5,253 Catholics, 66 other Christians, 19 Jews|
The city is crossed by the provincial roads 382 and 384. The Dzierżoniów Śląski station is located at the junction of the Dzierżoniów Śląski – Bielawa line, which has been in operation again since 2019, from the Katowice – Legnica line . The Owl Mountain Railway once started at the Kleinbahnhof .
- Bischofsheim , Groß-Gerau district , Germany
- Warendorf , Germany
- Landskron , Czech Republic
- Crewe , UK
sons and daughters of the town
- Gottfried Heinrich Burghart (1705–1771), physician and mathematician
- Friedrich Sadebeck (1741–1819), white tanner, textile merchant and manufacturer
- Paul von Haugwitz (1791–1856), soldier, district administrator, landowner and writer
- Moritz Hill (1805–1874), teacher of the deaf and dumb
- Ferdinand Bithorn (1815–1865), history painter
- Karl Weinhold (1823–1901), Germanist and folklorist
- Moritz Friebe (1846–1937), philologist, high school teacher in Silesia and Posen
- Stefan Engel (1878–1968), medical doctor, the Stefan Engel Prize is named after him
- Herbert Koch (1880–1962), classical archaeologist
- Friedrich-Karl Surén (1888–1969), German ministerial official in taxation
- Hans-Jürgen von Arnim (1889–1962), army officer in World War II
- Horst Weber (1911–1989), soil scientist
- Helmut Grundmann (1920–2009), Baptist pastor and from 1967 to 1984 Secretary General of the European Baptist Mission Society
- Herbert Giersch (1921-2010), economist
- Hartmut Dieterich (1931–2020), lawyer and university lecturer
- Peter Frisch (1935–2018), lawyer, President of the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution
- Christofer Frey (* 1938), Protestant theologian
- Lala Süsskind (* 1946), sociologist and publicist, former chairwoman of the Jewish community in Berlin
- Yehuda Grünfeld (* 1956), Israeli chess player
- Jakob Izbicki (* 1956), surgeon and university professor in Hamburg
- Piotr Wilczewski (* 1978), professional boxer
- Krzysztof Piątek (born 1995), football player
- Hugo Weczerka (Hrsg.): Handbook of the historical places . Volume: Silesia (= Kröner's pocket edition . Volume 316). Kröner, Stuttgart 1977, ISBN 3-520-31601-3 , pp. 433-438.
- Dehio Handbook of Art Monuments in Poland. Silesia. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich et al. 2005, ISBN 3-422-03109-X , pp. 274-278.
- Jürgen W. Schmidt: The dispute over the city expansion of Reichenbach in Silesia . In: Yearbook of the Schlesische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Breslau, Vol. 45/46 (2004/2005), pp. 325–344.
- Norbert Wójtowicz: Masońskie śpiewy w Jutrzence pod Spiżowym Łańcuchem (przyczynek do działalności dzierżoniowskiej loży w 1. połowie XIX wieku), “Musica Sacra Nova” 2009/2010, t. 3/4, pp. 307-317.
- Timetable (PDF; 640 kB)
- Historical and current recordings and geographic location
- Reichenbach . In: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . 4th edition. Volume 13, Verlag des Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1885–1892, p. 675.
- population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of June 30, 2019. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) (PDF files; 0.99 MiB), accessed December 24, 2019 .
- City website, Władze miasta , accessed on January 23, 2015
- Incorporation of Ernsdorf
- Gabriel Berger: Surrounded by hatred and compassion. Jewish autonomy in Poland after the Shoah 1945-1949 and the background to its failure. Lichtig-Verlag, Berlin 2016, ISBN 978-3-929905-36-6 .
- Bożena Szaynok, "Żydowscy żołnierze z Bolkowa" , Odra, 1999, 9, pp. 22-26
- Ludwig Bechstein: German book of legends. Meersburg and Leipzig 1930, p. 436.
- Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. Reichbach.html. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
- Meyers Konversationslexikon, Volume 13, 675 ( Memento from September 8, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- Heinz Rudolf Fritsche: Schlesien Wegweiser , Bechtermünz Verlag, Augsburg 1996
- Encyclopedia Powszechna PWN
- Bank Danych Lokalnych ( Memento from December 21, 2012 in the web archive archive.today )
- Poland: First test drive to Bielawa. In: lok-report.de. October 25, 2019, accessed May 8, 2020 .