|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Management Community :||Field stone|
|Height :||330 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||20.18 km 2|
|Residents:||2807 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||139 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||98660|
|Area code :||036873|
|License plate :||HBN|
|Community key :||16 0 69 051|
|LOCODE :||DE TMA|
|City structure:||3 districts|
City administration address :
|Mayor :||Peter Harenberg (independent)|
|Location of the city of Themar in the district of Hildburghausen|
Themar is located in southern Thuringia on the upper reaches of the Werra and in the foreland of the Thuringian Forest . In terms of traffic, Themar is located on federal road 89 and state roads 2628 and 2636. A railway line also runs through the country town.
Neighboring communities are (clockwise) Henfstädt , Oberstadt , Grub , Lengfeld , Veßra Monastery , Grimmelshausen and Beinerstadt in the Hildburghausen district and Grabfeld and Leutersdorf in the Schmalkalden-Meiningen district .
To the south of the town of Tachbach there was a castle on the castle hill as a mansion. The strategically favorable dome was surrounded by a ring of wall and moat. Seven pits on the plateau suggest that buildings have been demolished. There are no structural remains, but the ring wall.
Themar was first mentioned in 796 as Tagamari . During the time of the tribal duchies, the place belonged to the Duchy of Franconia . Since the 11th century it belonged to the county of Henneberg , since 1200 it was the seat of a central court . The division of the county of Henneberg in 1274 affected Themar insofar as one half came to Henneberg-Schleusingen and the other half to Henneberg-Hartenberg. Division and later unification brought about the change of the bailiff's seat in the Themar office between Osterburg and Themar.
In the north of the old town, in the area of the “Bräu-Wiesen” around today's Anne Frank School, a high medieval castle of the Henneberger is located, which is calculated as the starting point for the first city fortifications. Initially, the settlement was fortified by walls and moats in combination with palisades. There were three city gates and a gate at the witch's tower. In 1317 Themar was given city rights. The erection of a fortified city wall with seven round towers was only approved by the Counts of Henneberg in 1457 and was erected from the 15th century. The defense towers are u. a. According to a more recent name, the bridge gate, the half tower, the witch tower, the upper tower, the castle tower, the western corner tower and the meadow tower. The urban area, which was developed according to plan, was divided into four quarters: the Oberstädter Viertel, the Brückenviertel, the Grabenviertel and the Marktviertel. Beyond the Werra was a suburban settlement with the mills and rock cellars. About one kilometer north of the city, the Weißbach desert was a further settlement complex, while the nearby Veßra monastery had a close economic and cultural relationship with Themar.
A Bartholomäus chapel has been occupied in the city complex since 1416; it is considered to be the predecessor of the city church begun in 1488. The upper church can be traced back to 1418. The city's economic heyday was from 1585 to 1620 and was brought about by the cloth making and timber trade (Werra rafting).
From the historic market square with the listed town hall, built between 1706 and 1711, and the market fountain (1894), you get to the shoe market with the administrative building, which was built in the style of the Henneberg-Franconian half-timbered building from 1665 with the Forntveste and ancillary buildings and renovated in 1995. In connection with the entire historical city ensemble, the office building is a listed building. To the south follows the bridge gate with the (wooden) Werra bridge. The town church was surrounded by a cemetery in the Middle Ages. The town's meat banks were on the east side, and the brewery was on the southern town wall, presumably with a gate to the banks of the Werra.
Themar participated in the witch hunt 1602–1697 . 19 women and five men got into witch trials . One man and eight women were executed, one died from torture. The Witches Tower on the west side of the city wall still reminds of this era.
In the Thirty Years War (1634) Themar was captured and sacked by the Croats , the town was set on fire by the retreating horsemen and most of the half-timbered houses and farms were destroyed. After the Counts of Henneberg died out , the city came together with the Themar office in 1660 to Saxe-Altenburg , which passed into Saxon-Gotha ownership in 1672 . After the division of 1680 it came to Sachsen-Römhild . After this line died out in 1710, the city was divided between Saxe-Gotha and Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld . In 1826 it fell to Sachsen-Meiningen , which in 1920 became part of the state of Thuringia.
Until the mid-1930s, the city had a lively Jewish community with ties to its homeland; some were able to emigrate in time, the remaining Jews were deported from 1942/1943 and the Jewish community in Themar was completely wiped out. The dead of the community were buried in the Jewish cemetery in Marisfeld .
From 1940, 800 prisoners of war from the countries occupied by Germany as well as forced laborers, mainly from the Soviet Union and Poland, were employed in the lime works , in the August Möller , Wilhelm Stockmar , Julius Wilhelm , Alexander Schwarz , Greifzu & Co. wood factories and in the Julius Härter brickworks .
On April 6 and 7, 1945, the city was occupied by US troops . This was preceded by attacks by fighter bombers on the train station and the Obere Mühle, as well as artillery fire. The "Iron Bridge" over the Werra was blown up. The "New Citizens School" built in 1900 with an external library were destroyed (by phosphor shells from two US tanks), as well as some residential and factory buildings. Seven residents and seven Wehrmacht members lost their lives in the fighting.
|Data source from 1994: Thuringian State Office for Statistics|
The city has the status of a district municipality .
|Party / list||Seats||+/-|
|Per Themar||8th||± 0|
|The left||3||- 2nd|
For the 2019 local elections, the far-right Bündnis-Zukunft-Hildburghausen (BZH) entered the city council for the first time .
Peter Harenberg has been the city's mayor since June 2020.
His predecessor in office is Hubert Böse, who has been mayor since 2000 and was last re-elected in 2018.
coat of arms
Blazon : “In silver, a red high battlements wall with seven towers of different shapes behind it, at the gate there is a quartered golden shield, in the 1st and 4th field on a green three-hill a black hen; the 2nd and 3rd field divided: above a growing black double-headed eagle, below, a layer of silver and red. "
The oldest seal from the 15th century already contains a seven-tower wall, the gate point of which is occupied by the four-sided Henneberg coat of arms. The hen on the Dreiberg is the family coat of arms of the Hennebergers, the double-headed eagle above the slaughtered field characterizes them as imperial bailiffs and burgraves of Würzburg.
Themar maintains a partnership with Gerbrunn in the Würzburg district.
- St. Bartholomew Church : The late Gothic church was built in the 15th and 16th centuries and has been a Protestant church since the Reformation. Its interior is richly decorated with Gothic carvings: the Marian altar, the apostle altar, the pilgrimage altar, the Pièta altar (Vesper picture) and a crescent moon Madonna from the 15th century.
- Synagogue of the Jewish community in Themar, inaugurated in 1877 and not destroyed in the pogrom night of 1938 .
- In the local cemetery, a grave with a memorial stone commemorates a named Yugoslav woman who was abducted to Germany in the Second World War and a victim of forced labor .
- In front of the cemetery entrance, based on a citizens' initiative, there is a memorial stone for the "Jewish families of Themar" and in honor of all victims of the dictatorships.
- On November 9, 2015, Themar commemorated his murdered Jewish fellow citizens (laying further stumbling blocks ).
- City wall with well-preserved fortified towers from the 15th century
- Official house from 1665 as a half-timbered house from the Henneberg-Franconian
- Town hall, built 1706 to 1711, listed as a historical monument
- Small memorial atonement cross, approx. 500 years old, at the upper gate
Economy and Infrastructure
Themar is classified as a sub-center .
A sizable wood processing industry was already located in the city before the First World War, which was merged in 1965 to form VEB Südthüringer Möbelwerke in Themar, which was well-known beyond the district boundaries and was privatized again after 1990. Brickworks, a brewery, a paper mill and several quarries owned by local construction companies added to the town's economic base. During the GDR era, a large grain silo was built on the western edge of the city.
The city has a train station on the Werra Railway and is the destination of the Plaue – Themar railway line . The station is integrated into the route network of the Süd-Thüringen-Bahn , during the day Grimmenthal , Meiningen , Eisenach , Hildburghausen and Eisfeld can be reached every hour, and Sonneberg and Neuhaus am Rennweg every two hours . On the Plaue – Themar railway line, there are only special trips on public holidays between Themar and Rennsteig train station . The federal highway 89 runs through the city . A bypass road with a Werra bridge was created south of the old town to relieve traffic in the city center.
- In 2001 the film Venus and Mars was shot in Themar , with Lynn Redgrave , Michael Weatherly and Hella von Sinnen among others .
- In 1966 the timber freighter Themar was launched in the VEB shipyard Neptun in Rostock . The ship of the GDR merchant fleet went primarily to the ports of the White Sea . After the end of the GDR, the ship was sold abroad and scrapped in 2009.
- On July 15, 2017, the concert Rock gegen Überfremdung II , which was attended by around 6000 neo-Nazis and registered as a political event, took place in Themar .
sons and daughters of the town
- Adam Werner (1462–1537), humanist, pedagogue, poet, lawyer and professor of theology at Heidelberg University
- Johannes Haym (16th century), cathedral vicar in Augsburg, author and editor of hymns
- Joachim Zehner ("Decimator") (1566–1612), theologian, educator, founder of the "Zehner Library" in Schleusingen
- Johannes Hornschuch (1599–1663), philologist and educator
- Johann Michael Dilherr (1604–1669), Protestant theologian and philologist
- Johann Trier (1716–1790), organist and composer
- Johann Friedrich Fuchs (1774–1828), physician and university professor, a. a. for anatomy and veterinary medicine
- Eduard Gottlieb Amthor (1820–1884), school director, publisher, bookseller and writer
- Emil Heusinger von Waldegg (1880–1966), Admiral in the Navy
- Karl Pfauter (1905–1993), diplomat
- Karl-Heinz Löffler (1927–2016), football player
- Karl Blau (1930–1994), politician and functionary of the NDPD
- Claus Oefner (1938–2017), musicologist
- Gernot Güntherodt (* 1943), Professor of Experimental Physics
People related to Themar
- Georg Christoph Bach , Johann Sebastian Bach's eldest uncle , cantor at the town church from 1668 to 1684 and teacher at the Themar Latin School, memorial plaque on the house at Kirchplatz 3
- Johann Adolf von Schultes (1744–1821), Henneberg historian, bailiff in Themar 1770 to 1803, memorial plaque on the 10th shoe market house
Literature and film
- Jürgen Mäder et al: 1200 years of Themar. Festschrift for the 1200th anniversary of the city of Themar . Börner PR, 1996, ISBN 978-3-930675-08-1 , pp. 176 .
- Themar - City of 7 Towers , documentary (2010), director: Robert Sauerbrey
- Population of the municipalities from the Thuringian State Office for Statistics ( help on this ).
- Wolfgang Kahl : First mention of Thuringian towns and villages. Rockstuhl Verlag, Bad Langensalza, 2010, ISBN 978-3-86777-202-0 , p. 242.
- Michael Köhler: Thuringian castles and fortified prehistoric and early historical living spaces. Jenzig-Verlag, 2001, ISBN 3-910141-43-9 , p. 242.
- History of Themar on the town's homepage
- Kai Lehmann : Exhibition "Luther and the Witches", Themar area, Library Museum Schloss Wilhelmsburg Schmalkalden, 2012; Ronald Füssel: The persecution of witches in the Thuringian region , publications by the working group for historical research on witches and crime in Northern Germany, Volume 2, Hamburg 2003, p. 247.
- Sharon Meen: Their Voices Are Still Alive - Jewish Life in Themar. Website, accessed on April 18, 2011 ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as broken. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Thuringian Association of the Persecuted of the Nazi Regime - Association of Antifascists and Study Group of German Resistance 1933–1945 (ed.): Local history guide to sites of resistance and persecution 1933–1945. Series: Heimatgeschichtliche Wegweiser, Volume 8 Thuringia. Erfurt 2003, ISBN 3-88864-343-0 , p. 133.
- Results of the 2019 city council elections in Themar. Retrieved July 15, 2019 .
- Results of the city council election 2014 in Themar. Retrieved July 15, 2019 .
- Result of the 2018 mayoral election in Themar. Retrieved July 15, 2019 .
- Achim Heß, "Local Studies - Jewish Life in Themar"
- memorial atonement cross , accessed on January 14, 2020
- Möbelwerke Themar , accessed on August 4, 2016
- Matthias Meisner: Police investigate because of Hitler salute from concert-goers. The daily mirror of July 17, 2017
- Contemporary witnesses on the city of Themar's website, accessed on October 10, 2015