Valdepeñas (Ciudad Real)
Plaza de España
|coat of arms||Map of Spain|
|Autonomous Community :||Castile-La Mancha|
|Province :||Ciudad Real|
|Coordinates||38 ° 46 ′ N , 3 ° 24 ′ W|
|Height :||705 msnm|
|Area :||487.65 km²|
|Residents :||30,077 (Jan. 1, 2019)|
|Population density :||61.68 inhabitants / km²|
|Postal code :||13300|
|Municipality number ( INE ):||13087|
|Official language :||Castilian|
|Mayor :||Jesús Martín Rodríguez ( PSOE )|
|Address of the municipal administration:||Plaza de España s / n.
13300 Valdepeñas (Ciudad Real)
Valdepeñas is a Spanish city in the province of Ciudad Real , which belongs to the autonomous community of Castile-La Mancha . The inhabitants call themselves Valdepeñeros or Valdepeñeras .
The name means valley of rocks . It indicates the location of the place at a bend in the Río Jabalón , in a valley with many limestone rocks underground.
The city is nicknamed Muy Leal e Invicta (very loyal and undefeated) and Muy Heroica (very heroic). According to tradition, the title Muy Leal e Invicta was given by Queen Isabella of the Catholics while she was in the city in preparation for the conquest of Granada . A corresponding document has not been received; possibly it was lost in the Spanish War of Independence . The motto can be seen in the coat of arms of a stained glass window in the church of Nuestra Señora de la Asunción . The title Muy Heroica was bestowed by King Ferdinand VII in 1823 in honor of the Battle of Valdepeñas in 1808.
It also bears the popular nickname Ciudad del Vino , City of Wine.
Valdepeñas is located in the southern center of Spain, in the southeast of the province of Ciudad Real. It is surrounded by the areas of Montiel , Campo de Calatrava and the Sierra Morena .
Most of the city is built on hills a few meters high. It reaches its maximum height in the Sierra del Peral with 963 meters above sea level . (963 m). Some other mountains reach a height of 900 m, especially in the mountains near Baños del Peral in the northeast and in the Sierra de Síles in the northwest. This area in the northwest is covered by natural forests, including oaks , stone oaks and rock roses .
The northern part of the city is crossed by the large aqueduct Aquifer 23 . In the south the Río Jabalón flows through the municipality. The Embalse de Mari Sánchez reservoir , also known as Embalse de la Cabezuela , supplies the city with water from the southeast. The Los Cerillos area surrounding it is under nature protection.
The two outlying settlements El Peral and Consolación belong to the urban area. Consolación is 16 km north of Valdepeñas on the A-4. El Peral is in the northeast of the city, 6 km away, on the road to La Solana . El Peral is originally an agricultural settlement that developed around a well with ferrous water. A spa was established there in the nineteenth century.
The local climate is Mediterranean-continental, with hot summers and cold winters.
In winter the minimum temperatures are 0 ° to 2 °, sometimes there is also frost down to -5 °. On average, the monthly rainfall in winter does not amount to more than 20 l / m² to 30 l / m², mostly in the form of rain. Snow occurs occasionally; it typically only falls around 3 days a year. In the rare cases in which it gets stuck, it is usually no more than 5 cm - 7 cm.
In summer, the maximum daily temperatures exceed 30 ° - 35 °, not infrequently 40 °. Precipitation is very sporadic or completely absent. Occasionally, however, there are storms that suddenly bring down a downpour of around 30 l / m².
In spring and autumn there are milder temperatures of 15 ° to 20 °, with the fluctuation range from frost to temperatures above 30 °. The monthly rainfall of around 45 l / m² is more abundant than in the other months. In very rainy months such as April 2013, 100 l / m² can also be achieved.
Valdepeñas is the capital of the regional jurisdiction. It includes the places Moral de Calatrava , Santa Cruz de Mudela , Viso del Marqués , Torrenueva , Castellar de Santiago and Almuradiel .
coat of arms
The coat of arms was officially approved on March 7, 1995. It replaced the earlier coat of arms designed by the historian Eusebio Vasco in 1910 or earlier. The description reads:
- on the left the cross of Calatrava in silver
- on the right a craquelure made of silver and black, surrounded by a red border with gold St. Andrew's crosses
- below in red a golden barrel
- as a crown the Spanish royal crown
Mayor since 1979
- 1979 - 1983: Esteban López Vega, UCD
- 1983 - 1987: Esteban López Vega, AP
- 1987 - 1991: Esteban López Vega, PP
- 1991-1995: Salvador Galán Ruiz-Poveda, PSOE
- 1995 - 1999: Victoriano González de la Aleja y Saludador, PSOE
- 1999 - 2003: Rafael Martínez del Carnero Calzada, PP
- since 2003: Jesús Martín Rodriguez Caro, PSOE (end of 2018)
Cognac , France
The population consists of around 4,000 immigrants and 28,000 Spaniards. In the years 1930-1940 Valdepeñas experienced a birth boom. At that time the population was almost as high as it is today. After that, the population decreased. It stagnated from the 1950s to the late 1990s. This decline and the subsequent stagnation is attributed to the fact that the Spanish civil war damaged the wine industry. So many residents moved to other cities. However, since 2000 the population is growing again; the city has since recorded one of the highest growth rates in Castile-La Mancha .
In and around Valdepeñas, mainly wine and olives are grown. The local wine has its own Valdepeñas controlled designation of origin . It is guarded by the Asociación Interprofesional de la DO Valdepeñas . The wines are exported all over the world.
Sheep farming in the region and the production of Manchego cheese are also of economic importance. A body in the city, the Consejo Regulador del Queso Manchego , regulates this business.
Industry and commerce
In Valdepeñas there is a factory for the production and manufacture of high-tech electronics, the Planta de Producción e Investigación de Sistemas de Alta Tecnología Electrónica . Several business parks accommodate companies from various industries:
- Polígono del Vino
- Polígono Empresarial Entrecaminos
- Polígono de Cachiporro
- Polígono Nª Sra. de la Paz
The Centro Logístico de Transporte Pesado offers parking and resting facilities for heavy trucks.
The station is on the Madrid - Cádiz line. The A-4 Autovía del Sur motorway runs through the urban area. The CM-45 Autovía del IV Centenario motorway is under construction.
Valdepeñas is located on the Ruta del Quijote . The Tren del Vino ( Wine Train ) offers accommodation and gastronomy.
There are a number of prehistoric sites in the municipality, for example Bronze Age remains of observation towers and platforms on the surrounding hills. They are assigned to the so-called Motilla culture , a Bronze Age culture on the Iberian Peninsula between the 20th and 13th centuries BC. Fernando Vasco Merlo erroneously assigned it to the Castro culture in his monograph Historia de Valdepeñas . However, they are much older and originated around the same time as the El Argar culture.
A remarkable relic from that era are the ruins of the Iberian oppidum Cerro de las Cabezas . It belongs to the Iberian Oretania culture, whose settlement area included southern Mancha and northern Andalusia .
Roman and Visigoth times
In the 16th century , Roman coins, tombstones and the foundations of a Roman villa were found where the Trinitarian monastery was built . This was still preserved in the Visigothic period .
During the Islamic period, the region was part of the Toledo Taifa . Remnants of a fortification from that time have been preserved, which were incorporated into the walls of the Church of Nuestra Señora de la Asunción . On the south side, the markings of a sundial and various inscriptions in Arabic have been preserved. According to Fernando Vasco Merlo, there were two tombstones with an Arabic inscription on the north facade at Puerta Umbría . The beginning of the longer inscription on the first read: “In the name of God, the merciful God. Great god. Glorious God who can show wealth but also poverty. Great, perfect, one and only God. ... "On the second only three words were legible:" United, together, we will die. "
According to oral tradition allowed a bull of the Caliphate residents to grow wine, which Muslims are not allowed in general .
Reconquista and the Order of Calatrava
In the area that is now behind the old fortification and the church of Nuestra Señora de la Asunción , the place Valdepeñas was created. It was founded by a decree of Queen Berenguela of Castile after the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212. The first written source that mentions this new settlement dates from 1243. It is in the archives of the Order of Calatrava . From that time Valdepeñas was owned by the order. The new location grouped the population from scattered surrounding settlements in one place. Their names, Aberturas , Corral Rubio de Jabalón , Santa María de las Flores and Castilnuevo , are preserved in old local names . The settlers came from the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon as well as from León , mostly from its Galician part. They cultivated the viticulture that had survived the Muslim era and expanded it. The place was on the border of two great military orders, the Order of Calatrava and the Order of Santiago . Even today, the boundaries of the comarcas Campo de Calatrava and Campo de Montiel follow the old territorial boundaries.
The Church of Nuestra Señora de la Asunción dates from this period and the following centuries . It was probably built as a fortified church of the Order of Calatrava in the 12th - 13th centuries.
A Jewish community existed during this medieval period . There were two synagogues. Both were later rededicated to Christian churches. One of them now houses the Francisco Nieva Municipal Auditorium . The other became the Parroquia del Cristo . The current location of this parish church is further ahead.
As it grew, the streets of Valdepeñas have been realigned. Today they converge around the old fortress in the center of the city. Therefore it no longer corresponds to the medieval cityscape with narrow, undirected streets.
The last Moors left Valdepeñas in the 16th century due to an expulsion decree.
Early modern age
The Catholic Kings
According to Fernando Vasco Merlo, the Catholic Monarchs took quarters in the city in February 1488 in preparation for the conquest of Granada . During the campaign, they left their children in the care of the homeowner. Their son, Alfonso de Merlo, led a troop of 200 men into battle, for which the royal couple knighted him . Some of his descendants emigrated to America and gained important positions in Chile and Peru. According to tradition, on one of her trips to southern Spain, Queen Isabella gave birth to a child who did not survive and was buried in the Church of Nuestra Señora de la Asunción . The coat of arms of the Catholic Kings can be seen above the main portal of the church, but it is in a poor state of preservation.
16th and 17th centuries
In the 16th century, a number of sacred buildings, including the Convento de los Trinitarios , and a number of mansions were built.
From the reign of Ferdinand the Catholic , the Spanish royal family vigorously promoted the military orders. By means of a bull dated May 1523, Pope Hadrian VI. the orders under the sovereignty of the King of Castile and León . Associated with this was jurisdiction over two cities, one of which was Valdepeñas, as well as two hundred villages and several hundred small villages and hamlets that were scattered over a large area.
The Marqueses of Santa Cruz
To alleviate the financial shortage of the state treasury, King Philip II sold the city of Valdepeñas to Álvaro de Bazán , the first Marquis of Santa Cruz de Mudela , for 240,000 ducats in April 1575 . Thus Valdepeñas was no longer under the sovereignty of the Order of Calatrava.
Thanks to the cultivation of viticulture by the Marqueses, the wine of Valdepeñas achieved a high reputation at the Habsburg- Spanish royal court. A rosé wine called Aloque was particularly popular . According to Antonio Brotons, Charles III. that the craftsmen who built the Puerta de Alcalá and Puerta de Toledo in Madrid should have their quota of Valdepeñas wine increased.
At the beginning of the 18th century, with the seventh Marquis of Santa Cruz, the noble family of the Bazán united with the Silva family to form the Silva-Bazán line. Instead of the former commandant's house at the confluence of Calle de la Virgen with Plaza des España , an elegant baroque palace was built. Nothing remained of the latter, as it was completely destroyed by the Lisbon earthquake in 1755 . In the French-style halls, parties and banquets were held, as well as theater performances and meetings of intellectuals and writers. So instead of Santa Cruz, Valdepeñas became the actual seat of the Marqueses, and a center of attraction for the Spanish royal family and the high nobility.
During the Napoleonic Wars , on June 6, 1808, the battle of Valdepeñas ( Contienda de Valdepeñas ) took place: A French force of 500 men demanded a rapid passage through the town. Instead, citizens of Valdepeñas erected barricades and fired grenades at the French troops. These suffered high losses and in turn set the surrounding houses on fire. In view of the risk that the entire place would be destroyed, the local authorities gave the French the way on the condition that they camped only on the outskirts and not in the interior. The French leader, General Louis Liger-Belair , refrained from marching on the next day because his troops lacked ammunition. The French withdrew to Manzaneres . On the Spanish side, Francisco Abad Moreno , called Chaleco , and Juana Galán , called La Galana, are considered heroes in this fight .
Later in the 19th century, Valdepeñas, like the rest of Spain, was hit by civil wars. During the Carlist Wars , the place found itself embroiled in skirmishes between the parties and in guerrilla actions. As a result of the new territorial division of Spain in 1833, the province of La Mancha disappeared and Valdepeñas was incorporated into the new province of Ciudad Real . Numerous mansions as well as possessions belonging to religious orders and the military passed into other hands and lost their value.
At the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries, Valdepeñas was connected to the railroad, the electricity network and the water supply. The place experienced strong growth and became one of the largest in the province. The number of inhabitants doubled. Magnificent town houses and villas were built. Some houses near the train station got their own siding so that the railway could load and unload wine there. In 1895, Queen Cristina appointed Valdepeñas a city.
In 1897, Valdepeñas suffered a flood near the La Veguilla stream , which crosses the city from east to west. Several vaulted cellars fell victim to it.
The Spanish civil war put an end to the boom. After that, the city did not keep up with the general industrial development, depending on agriculture and traditional family viticulture. It suffered a decline in population until the 1970s as residents sought work in the industrial centers.
In 1964 the monument Ángel de la Paz ( Angel of Peace) was erected in honor of Ejército de Tierra . It was largely destroyed by an attack by the Marxist-Leninist FRAP in 1976.
In 1979 Valdepeñas suffered another major flood from flooding from the La Veguilla stream . Two districts were destroyed and more than 20 people were killed.
In the 1980s, Valdepeñas experienced a fundamental change in viticulture. Many of the more than 600 traditional wineries have been closed. Large wineries emerged that used the most modern technology in winemaking and other marketing methods. The wine that traditionally supplied the taverns of Madrid has since been exported internationally. Various new grape varieties have been grown in the region since then.
Since the beginning of the 21st century, the population has grown faster than yes. Large new residential areas spread out in the surrounding area. A number of construction measures served to modernize the city:
- The so-called Canal , the Avenida 1.º de Julio , has been renewed with a walkway in the middle of the avenue, asphalting, new roundabouts and new parking spaces.
- The children's parks Parque Amapola and Parque del Sur and the forest park Cerro de San Cristóbal were established.
- The Valdepeñas Business Park was built from 2009 with the aim of creating jobs for the population.
- In 2010, the new sewage treatment plant near the Embalse de la Cabezuela reservoir was inaugurated with an improved wastewater treatment system with a capacity of 120 million liters of water.
- In the same year, the new national police station was inaugurated in the presence of the then Interior Minister Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba .
Cerro de las Cabezas
The Iberian city of Cerro de las Cabezas extends its walls from the top of the hill down to the valley of the Río Jabalón. Three wall rings subdivide the settlement into the acropolis above, the inner settlement and the outer settlement. The total area is 14 hA .
It is located in the municipal area and can be reached via exit 208 of the Madrid - Cádiz motorway.
The excavations have so far only brought a small part of the Iberian city to light. Parts uncovered so far show the urbanity of the settlement. Remains of warehouses, residential and sacred buildings, towers and walls were brought to the surface. A visitor center offers audiovisual demonstrations, models, architectural reconstructions and information on Iberian culture.
19th century architecture
With the boom at the end of the 19th century, a number of buildings of Spanish modernism emerged , resulting from the need of the upper middle class for palazzo-like private houses and public buildings:
- The station reflects the economic boom in the wine industry at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century. Its central building is two stories high. On the platforms there are iron verandas supported by iron supports. There are laminated iron brackets on the facade.
- After the construction of the station, the Paseo de la Estación became a central city street. In 1912 the pavilion was built there, in which the town band played music every Sunday: the Templete de la Música . It consists of 4 cast iron pillars connected by metal arches. The roof is trapezoidal and clad with wood on the inside.
- The Casino La Confianza opened 1913th The decoration is mainly based on natural forms: floral ornaments, curves, asymmetrical lines are used not only in architecture, but also in other elements such as windows and wrought iron. The facade, the courtyard with columns and the access staircase with its wrought iron balustrade with flower motifs and its stained glass window have been restored from the original building . The gallery of the first part of the building and the skylight in the entrance and the main hall were also preserved. Today the casino serves as a cultural center.
- The Casa de los Izarra on Calle Seis de Junio is a double building, one part made of stone and the other part made of brick. The brick construction is reminiscent of the Mudejar tradition. It has two oriels made of iron and glass, which are decorated with iron plant motifs. A glass roof covers the inner courtyard. On top of it stands a turret with decorations similar to those on the bay windows.
- The Casa de los Castellanos was built in 1893-1894 and originally served as the home of the Castellanos family. Nowadays it houses a training center. From the 1950s onwards, it went through a series of changes of ownership and use. In 1987 it was used as the headquarters of the national police force until it was given its current purpose in 2010. Extensive renovation work brought to light the old stucco work of the inner courtyard and the access stairs. The location of the old chapel of Christ of Burgos, which played a central role in domestic life, could also be determined.
- At Casa Ruiz-Poveda on the corner of Calle Real-Pintor and Calle Mendoza , the closed balcony on the first floor and the open balcony on the second floor are remarkable. The ground floor with its arcades is intended for shops.
- The Casa de los Cruz on Calle Seis de Junio 75 is exemplary of the architecture at the turn of the 20th century, during the boom in viticulture. The house consists of two parts with a stone base in the first part. In the upper part there is a balcony supported by ornate supports decorated with roller blinds. The curved gables are particularly noteworthy.
- Nuestra Señora de la Asunción . Located on Plaza de España , it forms the center from which the city developed. Its origin is believed to be at the end of the 12th and beginning of the 13th century. It was originally built as a fortified church as part of the castle of the Order of Calatrava. The building consists of two naves , the main aisle and the aisle named after San Lorenzo , as well as a Mannerist- style chapel on the side. The portal facade with the Puerta del Sol in Elizabethan style is dedicated to the church patroness. It was built in the second half of the fifteenth century. To the side of the main gate is the Puerta de Catecúmenos . The tower dates from the 16th century. It consists of five segments and has a total height of 36.6 m. The altarpiece is a copy of the original from 1553. It contains six panels that some sources ascribe to the school of the painter Hernando Yánez , a pupil of Raphael. Its Italian appearance, its classicism and the use of chiaroscuro are typical of the second half of the 16th century. The original was lost during the civil war.
- The Ermita de San José is an 18th century chapel at 30 Calle Seis de Junio .
- The Trinitarian Church ( Iglesia de los padres Trinitarios ) in the Paseo Luis Palacios in the baroque classicist style is strongly influenced by the Madrid Baroque and has similarities with the Iglesia de la Encarnación in Madrid.
- The origins of the Iglesia del Santo Cristo in Calle Cristo 82 are dated to 1611.
- The chapel Ermita de San Marcos in the Calle Seis de Junio 1 was built in the last third of the 18th century.
- The Ermita Virgen de la Cabeza chapel at Calle 156 was built in 1698.
- Mill Museum . The painter Gregorio Prieto preserved in his pictures the memory of the typical buildings of the Mancha, which slowly disappeared, especially the windmills. They have been a main theme in all exhibitions around the world, for example in London, Copenhagen and New York. In the 1950s he had a large windmill built in Valdepeñas as a museum for his windmill pictures.
- The Fundación Gregorio Prieto museum at Calle Pintor Mendoza 57 is located in a 17th century house in the typical Mancha style. The collection includes more than 3,000 works, most of them by Gregorio Prieto. The museum also shows works by other 20th century painters such as Pablo Picasso , Giorgio de Chirico , José Vázquez Díaz , and Francis Bacon . It also has collections of original drawings by Federico García Lorca and Rafael Alberti as well as colored religious wood carvings from several centuries.
- The Centro de Interpración del Agua is located in Baños del Peral, 7 km from the city center. It is an information center on the biological cycle of water, its mineral and medicinal properties. One room is dedicated to the history of the Peral Spa.
- The municipal museum ( Museo municipal ) is located in the center of the city on Calle Real 42 in a house from the 16th century. On the ground floor, it shows pictures by local painters such as Óscar García Benedí, Ignacio Crespo Foix and Francisco Nieva, as well as archaeological finds, primarily from the excavations at Cerro de las Cabezas . On the first floor there is a contemporary art collection which, according to the city, is one of the most important in Castile-La Mancha. Works by Antonio López García , Pancho Cossio , Agustín Úbeda , Antonio Guijarro , Juan Barjola , Martínez Novillo , Alfredo Alcaín , Julio Vaquero , Alejandro Quincoces , Óscar Benedí , Pedro Castrortega , José Manuel Ciria , Antón Patiño and Javier Garcerá as well as sculptures will be shown Venancio Blanco , García Donaire , Xuxo Vázquez , Santiago de Santiago , David Lechuga , Fernando Kiriko , Oscar Alvariño Belinchón and Belén González .
- The Auditorio Inés Ibañéz Braña is located in the former Ermita de la Veracruz , a 16th-century building in Plaza de la Veracruz . It is used for cultural activities such as exhibitions and lectures and can only be visited during such events.
- The Museo del Vino on Calle Princesa 39 shows the history and culture of viticulture in a modern building using interactive media.
Every year at the beginning of September the city celebrates the Fiestas de la vendimia , the wine festival. At the same time, the Exposición Nacional de Artes Plásticas has been taking place since 1940 . For this exhibition, the city received the 2001 Medalla de Oro a las Artes (gold medal for the fine arts ).
From July 30th, the Feria de Agosto festival with rides and booths will take place for three to four days . A medieval market closes the festival on the last day.
The most important sports club is the Valdepeñas fútbol sala football club, which was promoted to the Primera División in 2018 .
The following specialties are part of the local cuisine:
- Arrope , a grape syrup that has been greatly thickened by boiling down
- Caldereta manchega, braised leg or shoulder of lamb with onion, tomato, paprika, garlic, white wine and olive oil from the region
- Duelos y quebrantos made from scrambled eggs, chorizo and pork bacon
- Gachas manchegas made from paprika and pea flour, with pork belly, garlic, pepperoni, oil and salt
- Migas manchegas made from crumbled rye or wheat bread, chorizo, bacon, ham, garlic and olive oil
- Pipirrana , a salad made from the basic ingredients onion, tomato, green pepper and cucumber
- Pisto manchego
- Manchego cheese
- Tiznao , a winter dish made from stockfish with various vegetables: potatoes, dried peppers, garlic, sweet peppers and onions
- Sweets, including biscuits, flores manchegas (a flower- shaped egg biscuit ), torrijas , mantecados , cortadillos (a biscuit with aniseed liqueur and almonds), nochebuenos (an olive biscuit that is served at Christmas)
Television and radio
Valdepeñas has several radio stations in the city that broadcast to the region, including Cadena Dial Valdepeñas , Radio Surco , ONDACERO Valdepeñas and SER Valdepeñas , as well as the television station TeleValdepeñas . The television channel Canal Sur could be received through a transmitter on the Cerro de las Aguzaderas until 2009 . From 2008 Canal Sur switched to DVB-T .
Valdepeñas has a municipal wireless network called Valdefibra . This network offers the Valdepeñeros inexpensive wireless Internet access in their homes. The company Iberfone is the operator of this network. It is planned to offer free WiFi to all households in the future .
- Alonso de Córdoba (1505–1589), Mayor of Santiago de Chile
- Pedro de Morales (1538–1614), writer, lawyer and Jesuit , died in Mexico
- Rodrigo de Valdepeñas (16th century), poet and Carthusian monk
- Bernardo de Balbuena (1568–1627), Bishop of Puerto Rico and Jamaica, poet and writer
- Miguel Cejudo (1578–1652), monk, poet and humanist, friend of Lope de Vega
- Luis Merlo de la Fuente , Governor of Chile 1610-1611
- Ana de Castro Egas , poet at the court of Philip III.
- Jerónimo Martín Caro y Cejudo (1630–1712), humanist, linguist and paremiographer
- Francisco Javier Lozano (1721–1801), poet and Jesuit
- Francisco Abad Chaleco , fighter in the Contienda de Valdepeñas 1808
- Juana Galán La Galana , fighter in the Contienda de Valdepeñas
- La Fraila , fighter in the Contienda de Valdepeñas
- Cándida de San Agustín (1804–1861), religious, Augustinian , founder of the Convento de Agustinas Magdalenas in San Diego de Valdepeñas
- Ciriaco Cruz (1812–1877), Graecist and linguist
- Eduardo Núñez Peñasco (1872–1934), painter and sculptor
- Antonio Arellano y Villanueva (1873–1932), painter
- Gregorio Prieto (1897–1992), painter
- Cecilio Muñoz Fillol (1909–1979), veterinarian , professor of philosophy and English , city chronicler
- Tomás de Antequera (1920–1993), singer and songwriter
- Sagrario Torres (1922-2006), poet
- Francisco Nieva (1924–2016), dramaturge, poet, essayist, member of the Real Academia Española
- Alonso Cordel (* 1942), writer
- Enrique Pedrero Muñoz (* 1947), painter, sculptor, writer
- José Lillo Galiani (* 1948), sculptor
- Joaquín Brotons Peñasco (* 1952), poet, storyteller, art and literary critic
- Carmen Mejía Ruiz (* 1956), philologist, specialist in Galician language and literature
References and comments
- ↑ Cifras oficiales de población resultantes de la revisión del Padrón municipal a 1 de enero . Population statistics from the Instituto Nacional de Estadística (population update).
- ↑ Javier: Contienda de Valdepeñas. In: La Factoria Historica. February 4, 2013, accessed December 31, 2018 (Spanish).
- ↑ ORDER de 7 de March 1995, por la que se aprueba el escudo de armas del municipio de Valdepeñas de la provincia de Ciudad Real . In: Junta de Comunidades de Castilla-La Mancha (ed.): Diario Oficial de Castilla-La Mancha . March 7, 1995 (Spanish).
- ↑ Source: INE
- ↑ a b c Fernando Vasco Merlo: Historia de Valdepeñas . 1959.
- ↑ According to the Spanish text, not translated directly from the Arabic. Not further quoted here due to inconsistencies in the Spanish text.
- ↑ a b Iglesia parroquial Ntra. Sra. de la Asunción. In: Website of the City of Valdepeñas. Ayuntamiento de Valdepeñas, accessed January 2, 2019 (Spanish).
- ^ Arturo Giráldez: La primera globalización y un inquisidor en el Potosí de 1650: El Memorial de Don Alonso Merlo de la Fuente . In: Humanista . tape 7 , 2006, p. 205 .
- ↑ Joaquin Brotons Peñasco: Antonio Brotons: un valdepeñero ejemplar. In: Actualidad Valdepeñas. May 29, 2017, Retrieved January 2, 2019 (Spanish).
- ^ Nathan D. Jensen: General Louis Liger-Belair. General who served in Austria, Prussia, and Spain. In: www.frenchempire.net. February 2015, accessed January 3, 2019 .
- ↑ Guerra de la independencia (1808-1814). Cierre del paso de Despeñaperros (5 and 6 de junio de 1808). In: Historia militar de España. Archived from the original on March 13, 2016 ; Retrieved January 3, 2019 (Spanish).
- ^ Francisco Asensio Rubio: España entre el absolutismo y el liberalismo: Francisco Abad-Moreno Calvo. Un heroe por la libertad . In: Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (ed.): Espacio, tiempo, y forma . tape 8 , 1995, p. 65–83 (Spanish, uned.es [PDF; accessed January 3, 2019]).
- ↑ Heroes del Seis de Junio. In: Website of the City of Valdepeñas. Ayuntamiento de Valdepeñas, accessed January 3, 2019 (Spanish).
- ↑ Angel de la Paz. In: haciendomemoria.org. Retrieved January 4, 2019 (Spanish).
- ↑ Jesús de las Heras: Veintiuna, personas muertas y dos mil millones de pérdidas, balance de la inundación de Valdepeñas . In: El País . July 3, 1979, ISSN 1134-6582 (Spanish, elpais.com [accessed January 4, 2019]).
- ↑ a b Ciudad ibérica del Cerro de las Cabezas. In: Website of the City of Valdepeñas. Retrieved January 4, 2019 (Spanish).
- ↑ Cerro de las Cabezas. In: City website. Retrieved January 4, 2019 (Spanish).
- ^ Cultura / Patrimonio. In: Website of the City of Valdepeñas. Retrieved April 1, 2019 (Spanish).
- ^ Estación del ferrocarril. In: Website of the City of Valdepeñas. Retrieved January 4, 2019 (Spanish).
- ↑ Templete de la Música. In: Website of the City of Valdepeñas. Retrieved January 4, 2019 (Spanish).
- ↑ Cento Cultural "La Confianza" antiguo casino "La Confianza". In: Website of the City of Valdepeñas. Retrieved January 4, 2019 (Spanish).
- ↑ Casa de los Izarra. In: Website of the City of Valdepeñas. Retrieved January 4, 2019 (Spanish).
- ↑ Casa de los Castellanos. In: Website of the City of Valdepeñas. Retrieved January 4, 2019 (Spanish).
- ↑ Casa Ruiz-Poveda. In: Website of the City of Valdepeñas. Retrieved January 4, 2019 (Spanish).
- ↑ Casa de los Cruz. In: Website of the City of Valdepeñas. Retrieved January 4, 2019 (Spanish).
- ↑ a b c d e Cultura / Patrimonio. In: Website of the City of Valdepeñas. Retrieved January 5, 2019 (Spanish).
- ↑ according to the representation of the city, the largest in the world
- ^ Molino Gregorio Prieto. In: Website of the City of Valdepeñas. Retrieved January 5, 2019 (Spanish).
- ^ Fundación Gregorio Prieto. In: Website of the City of Valdepeñas. Retrieved January 5, 2019 (Spanish).
- ↑ a b c Centro de Interpración del Agua. In: Website of the City of Valdepeñas. Retrieved January 5, 2019 (Spanish).
- ↑ Museo municipal. In: Website of the City of Valdepeñas. Retrieved January 5, 2019 (Spanish).