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Green, sharp-edged herderite crystals up to 1.5 cm in size from the Shigar Valley in the Skardu District, Baltistan Region, Gilgit-Baltistan Special Territory, Pakistan (size: 3.8 cm × 3.5 cm × 2.5 cm)
General and classification
other names
  • Haplotyper Allogonite Spath
  • Haplotyper allogonite
  • prismatic river haloid
  • Glucinite
  • Fluorherderite
chemical formula
  • CaBe [(F, OH) | PO 4 ]
  • CaBe (PO 4 ) F
Mineral class
(and possibly department)
Phosphates, arsenates, vanadates
System no. to Strunz
and to Dana
8.BA.10 ( 8th edition : VII / B.01)
Similar minerals Hydroxylherderite, Topaz, Euclas
Crystallographic Data
Crystal system monoclinic
Crystal class ; symbol monoclinic prismatic; 2 / m
Space group P 2 1 / a (No. 14, position 3)Template: room group / 14.3
Lattice parameters a  = 9.82  Å ; b  = 7.70 Å; c  = 4.81 Å
β  = 90.1 °
Formula units Z  = 4
Frequent crystal faces {100}, {010}, {001}, {102}, {011}, {021}, {110}, {111}
Physical Properties
Mohs hardness 5 to 5.5
Density (g / cm 3 ) 3.02 (measured)
Cleavage indistinct after {110}
Break ; Tenacity half-mussel; (very) brittle
colour light green, colorless, pale yellow, greenish white (colorless in transmitted light)
Line color White
transparency transparent, translucent
shine Glass gloss to resin gloss, glass gloss, semi-glass gloss
Crystal optics
Refractive indices n α  = 1.556 to 1.59
n β  = 1.578 to 1.61
n γ  = 1.589 to 1.62
Birefringence δ = 0.029 to 0.033
Optical character biaxial negative
Axis angle 2V = 70 ° (calculated)
Pleochroism weak to moderate from green to yellowish green
Other properties
Chemical behavior Slowly but completely soluble in hydrochloric acid (HCl)
Special features violet fluorescence in UV light, pink-orange colored cathodoluminescence and phosphorescence under X-rays

Herderite , obsolete u. a. as Allogonit or Haplotyper Allogonit as well as Fluorherderit known is a very rare occurring mineral from the mineral class of " phosphates , arsenates and vanadates ". It crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system with the chemical formula CaBe [(F, OH) | PO 4 ], so chemically speaking it is a calcium - beryllium- phosphate with additional fluorine ions . The compounds or elements F and OH indicated in the round brackets can represent each other in the formula ( substitution , diadochy), but are always in the same proportion to the other constituents of the mineral.

Herderite is found mainly in the form of short prismatic crystals stretched along the a-axis or the c-axis as well as {100} thick-tabular individuals that can reach several centimeters in size. Herderite forms a complete series of mixed crystals with its hydroxyl-dominant analogue hydroxylherderite , from which it cannot be distinguished macroscopically. Most of the minerals labeled "herderite" are actually hydroxyl herderite. For all of the minerals shown here, the exact association with herderite or hydroxylherderite is unknown.

Etymology and history

Name giver Sigismund August Wolfgang Freiherr von Herder

The first person to describe Herderite is the Viennese mineralogist Wilhelm Karl von Haidinger , who during a visit to the Werner Museum in Freiberg in 1823 noticed a mineral specimen from Ehrenfriedersdorf with what he believed to be a new mineral. Haidinger did not publish the first description of the new mineral until 1828 and named it in honor of the geologist, mineralogist and Saxon chief miner Sigismund August Wolfgang von Herder (1776–1838), who had provided him with research material from the then only stage in 1825 Herderit a.

This started an almost 15-year-long dispute about the priority of the discovery of the herderite - one of the most curious excesses of the discovery stories of Saxon minerals, which is not exactly poor in bizarre occurrences, which has already been extensively documented. Today, this dispute can be summarized as follows: In 1813 gave away Johann Friedrich August Breithaupt of Abraham Gottlob Werner , a step of Ehrenfriedersdorf in Saxony with a mineral which the latter thought Apatite, but in the opinion of Breithaupt and Karl Gustav Adalbert of Weissenbach ( at that time custodian of the Werner collection) was not an apatite. It took eight years for Haidinger to use this mineral during the above mentioned period. Stay in Freiberg and enclosed the result with a label of the level. Another five years later, Haidinger published his research results as the first description of the new mineral herderite in the “Philosophical Magazine”, which was then published in Edinburgh. In 1830, Breithaupt described a “haplotype allogonite spath” for the first time in his “Uibersicht des Mineralsystem's”, incidentally mentioned the name Herderite chosen by Haidinger and thus suggested his priority in the discovery of this mineral. In 1832, Breithaupt published his “Complete Characteristics of the Mineral System”, in which he referred to this mineral as “Haplotype Allogonite” and declared: “Under this name, I have been considering this mineral that I discovered in my public lectures for 8 years.” In Breithaupt repeated this statement in his “Complete Handbook of Mineralogy” published in 1841. After Ernst Friedrich Glocker had derived the priority of the name allogonite over Herderite from Breithaupt's statements in 1833 , Haidinger saw himself cheated of the fruits of his scientific work and published a clarification that culminated in the following sentences: “I can therefore say with reason: 1) That Mr. Prof. Breithaupt thought this species was apatite until he heard the opposite from my mouth. 2) That he only became acquainted with the dimensions and other properties of the same since he was able to read them written by my hand. In establishing and determining the species of Herderite, Mr. Prof. Breithaupt has no share. " Breithaupt replied: " This provision now belongs only to Mr. Haidinger, not to me; But I never passed it off as mine, and consequently I did not allow myself any plagiarism. Years earlier than Mr. Haidinger made its determination known, I showed the mineral under the name allogonite in my lectures, but only conscientiously named myself as the discoverer, Mr. Haidinger, as the describer, according to an etiquette that was enclosed with the piece by Mr. Haidinger himself. "

This obviously ended the dispute between Haidinger and Breithaupt - further disputes are not known. However, it must be pointed out that Haidinger used the term “allogonite” chosen by Breithaupt as a synonym next to “his” herderite in his “Handbook of determining mineralogy” published in 1845.

A second stage with Herderite was only found in 1835, by the way from Breithaupt also in Ehrenfriedersdorf.

Type material of the mineral (the holotype or the topotype) is in the independent "Werner Collection" within the "Geoscientific Collections" at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg in Freiberg , Saxony , Germany (catalog no. 103800 at the location "Pultvitrine 27 , front row 2 “).


The status of herderite was briefly questioned when microprobe analyzes on 41 "herderites" from 19 different locations could not detect a single fluorine-dominant herderite, but only hydroxyl-dominant hydroxyl herderite with compositions between 98 and 53 mol% hydroxyl herderite. The only exception was a green cut herderite from "Brazil" with 40 mol% hydroxyl herderite. In the meantime, further analyzes of z. Some of the herderites are very rich in fluorine, so that the status of the herderite as an independent mineral is no longer endangered. The problem, however, is the fact that the composition of the Herderite holotype from Ehrenfriedersdorf is unknown, since the definition of a mineral species, if a holotype specimen is available, must be made on this specimen. The holotype stage from Ehrenfriedersdorf is in the Werner collection of the TU Bergakademie Freiberg and thus belongs to the cultural heritage. Such valuable material is very reluctant to provide for analyzes, and two formula-active elements (beryllium and fluorine) are difficult to analyze. The only analysis carried out so far with modern methods on Ehrenfriedersdorf material (but not on the holotype material) showed almost the same content of OH and F with a slight dominance of the former. The corresponding formula is CaBe [(OH) 0.52 F 0.48 | PO 4 ]. This means that there is also a hydroxyl herderite in Ehrenfriedersdorf, but due to the almost equally large contents of OH and F it appears possible that fluorine-dominant crystals or fluorine-dominant areas exist in crystals of the holotype stage. Only in this case, which has to be proven analytically, would the name Herderite continue to be used to denote the fluorine-dominant species. If, on the other hand, an analysis of the Ehrenfriedersdorf holotype material would show that it is hydroxyl-dominant, the herderite would have to be redefined as a hydroxyl-dominant species and hydroxyl herderite would have to be discredited as a mineral. In a further step, the mineral from the localities that supplied fluorine-dominant material would have to be defined as a new mineral - which would then possibly get the name fluorherderite.

“Whether there is Herderite in the sense of CaBePO 4 (F, OH) in Ehrenfriedersdorf remains open at the moment. The only sufficiently analyzed specimen of the type locality can be described as hydroxyl herderite according to current nomenclature. "


Already in the outdated, but partly still in use 8th edition of the mineral classification according to Strunz , the herderite belonged to the mineral class of "phosphates, arsenates and vanadates" and there to the department of "anhydrous phosphates, with foreign anions F, Cl, O, OH", where he together with Babefphit , Bergslagit , Hydroxylherderit and Väyrynenit the unnamed group VII / B.01 formed.

The 9th edition of Strunz's mineral systematics , which has been in effect since 2001 and is used by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA), also assigns herderite to the category of “phosphates etc. with additional anions; without H 2 O “. However, this is further subdivided according to the relative size of the cations involved and the molar ratio of the additional anions to the phosphate, arsenate or vanadate complex (RO 4 ), so that the mineral can be found in the sub-section “With small and medium-sized cations” according to its composition is where it is only together with Bergslagit and Hydroxylherderit the "Herderite group" with the system no. 8.BA.10 forms.

The systematics of minerals according to Dana , which is mainly used in the English-speaking world , assigns herderite to the class of "phosphates, arsenates and vanadates" and there to the category of "anhydrous phosphates, etc., with hydroxyl or halogen". Here he is the namesake of the "Herderit Group" with the system no. 41.05.04 and the other members Bergslagit, Hydroxylherderit and Väyrynenit can be found in the subsection " Anhydrous phosphates etc., with hydroxyl or halogen with (AB) 2 (XO4) Zq ".


Mean values ​​from microprobe analyzes on Herderite from Mogok in Myanmar resulted in contents of 0.29% Na 2 O; 34.45% CaO; 15.30% BeO; 0.01% FeO; 0.02% Al 2 O 3 ; 0.05% SiO 2 ; 43.16% P 2 O 5 ; 8.7% F and 1.39% H 2 O (BeO and H 2 O calculated from stoichiometry). This resulted in the empirical formula Ca 1.004 (Be 1.000 Al 0.001 ) (P 0.994 Si 0.001 ) O 4 [F 0.748 (OH) 0.252 ], which was idealized to CaBePO 4 [F 0.75 (OH) 0.25 ]. The sodium content is attributed to inclusions on the nanometer scale . The formula of the pure fluorine-end member CaBePO 4 F requires levels of 34.39% CaO; 15.34% BeO, 43.53% P 2 O 5 and 11.65% F.

Herderite is the fluorine-dominant analogue of the hydroxyl-dominated hydroxyl herderite, with which it forms a continuous series of mixed crystals . A fluorine content of 5.86% by weight characterizes the center of the mixed crystal row. Crystals with a fluorine content of> 5.86% by weight are herderite; if the value is less than 5.86% by weight, it is hydroxyl herderite.

The only complete analyzes of Herderites with F> OH up to 1976 were published at the end of the 19th century, both on material from Stoneham, Maine / USA. In later investigations of this or similar material from Stoneham in the 1970s, however, fluorine contents of ≤ 4.52% by weight were consistently determined, which means that all crystals were clearly hydroxyl herderite (with 61 to 72 mol% hydroxyl herderite). The occurrence of Herderite in the various locations in Maine / USA is therefore very unlikely.

Crystal structure

Herderite crystallizes monoclinically in the space group P 2 1 / a (space group no. 14, position 3) with the lattice parameters a  = 9.82  Å ; b  = 7.70 Å; c  = 4.81 Å and β = 90.1 ° as well as four formula units per unit cell . Template: room group / 14.3

The crystal structure of the Herderits consists of layers of corner-sharing BeO 3 (F, OH) - and PO 4 - tetrahedra , which in the direction of the c-axis [001] by layers of edge-sharing CaO 6 (F, OH) 2 - polyhedra are connected. Each tetrahedron layer contains alternating PO 4 and BeO 3 (F, OH) polyhedra, which form a framework of centrosymmetrical rings of four and eight parallel (001). The CaO 6 (F, OH) 2 polyhedra can best be described as slightly distorted tetragonal antiprisms that - over common edges - form a layer of rings of six. Despite the pronounced layer structure, the cleavage is only indistinct.

Herderite is isotypic to Datolith , i.e. H. it crystallizes with the same structure as datolith.


Drawing of a Herderite crystal from the type publication of Herderite by Wilhelm von Haidinger from 1828


Herderite crystals have - similar to hydroxyl herderite - strong differences in costume and habit . They can be short prismatic according to the a-axis [100], according to the c-axis [001] or thick panels according to {100}. The pinacoids {100}, {010}, {001} as well as {102} and the prisms {011}, {021}, {110} and {111} dominate the sometimes very large crystals . The Herderite crystals often have a pseudo-orthorhombic effect due to the angle β, which differs only slightly from 90 °. There is no information about the formation of twins on herderite crystals, but it can be assumed that “fishtail” contact twins are as common as with hydroxyl herderite.

physical and chemical properties

Herderite crystals are light green, colorless, pale yellow or greenish white, their line color , on the other hand, is always white with corresponding pale light yellow and light greenish tones. The surfaces of the translucent to transparent crystals show a glassy to resinous sheen . Herderite has medium-high light and medium-high to high birefringence (δ = 0.033). The level of light refraction correlates linearly with the fluorine content of the herderite-hydroxylherderite mixed crystals. It decreases with increasing fluorine content. In transmitted light, the mineral is colorless and without pleochroism , with green herderites showing weak to moderate pleochroism from green to yellowish green.

Herderite is indistinctly cleavable according to (110), but because of its brittleness it breaks like quartz or glass , with the fracture surfaces being half-shell. The mineral has a Mohs hardness of 5 to 5.5 and is one of the medium-hard minerals that can be scratched with a pocket knife just as easily as the reference mineral apatite . The calculated density for Herderite is 3.02 g / cm³.

In front of the soldering tube , the herderite puffs up and melts into white enamel. It colors the flame pale green. In the closed tube the crystals turn white, decrepitate violently and give off weakly acidic water. In hydrochloric acid (HCl) it is slowly but completely soluble. Herderite shows violet fluorescence in UV light , pink-orange cathodoluminescence and clear phosphorescence under X-rays . Intermediate representatives of the Herderite-Hydroxylherderite mixed crystal series from Pakistan show moderate to strong blue fluorescence in long-wave UV light and moderate violet fluorescence in short-wave UV light. Brazilian polished stones have an extremely large variability in their luminescence behavior . In long-wave UV light, some herderites do not fluoresce at all, others weakly with blue, green-blue and purple colors. In short-wave UV light, Herderite show indistinct to weak fluorescence in yellow, yellowish-green, blue, greenish-blue, green-blue or purple hues.

"Compared to hydroxylherderite, herderite remains a poorly charcterized mineral, particularly in regard to the physico-chemical conditions that are conductive to incorporation of F in excess of OH."

- Edward S. Grew

Education and Locations

White herderite crystals on albite and muscovite from San Diego County in California / USA (size: 2.3 cm × 1.5 cm × 1.1 cm)
Green herderite crystals on albite from Chhappu near Skardu, Braldu Valley, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan (size: 3.6 cm × 3.5 cm × 2.3 cm)

Herderite forms during the pneumatolytic - hydrothermal phase of the crystallization of acidic plutonites and pegmatites in granite . The lower the formation temperature, the clearer the crystals are. From the analogy of the occurrence of hydroxyl herderite in granite pegmatites and associated miarolithic cavities , George Harlow and Frank Hawthorne conclude the same for herderite. During the investigation of different representatives of the herderite-hydroxylherderite mixed crystal series, originating from materially and genetically different Brazilian pegmatites, it turned out that the degree of differentiation of the pegmatite magma is possibly the cause of whether herderite or hydroxyl herderite is formed. Samples from pegmatites, which are rich in montebrasite and lepidolite , have low fluorine contents and consequently represent hydroxyl herderites. Samples from triphyline-rich pegmatites show medium fluorine contents and form intermediate representatives of the herderite-hydroxyl herderite mixed crystal series. Samples from muscovite and topaz-rich pegmatites have a high fluorine content and must be referred to as herderite. This relationship can be explained by the degree of differentiation of the pegmatite magma , according to which lithium-rich pegmatites show lower fluorine contents and predominance of hydroxyl herderite in the hydrothermal system, while muscovite and topaz-rich pegmatites have higher fluorine contents and a predominance of fluorine-rich herderite in the hydrothermal system.

According to other authors Herderit is secondary at relatively low temperatures of ≈ 250 ° C at the post-magmatic alteration in rare metal granites. Typical accompanying minerals are muscovite , tourmaline ( Elbaite ), topaz , beryl and fluorapatite .

As a very rare mineral formation, Herderite could so far (as of 2016) only be described by fewer than ten sites. Its type locality is the tin - deposit at the "Sauberg" in Ehrenfriedersdorf in the Saxon Erzgebirge , however, lacks a detailed analysis on Holotypmaterial. Exact points of discovery within the “Sauberg” deposit are “Grube Morgenröthe”, “Einigkeiter Zug” and “Segen Gottes Schacht”. Analytically confirmed fluorine-dominant herderites are only known from Brazil , Myanmar , China (Yichun), Namibia as well as Austria and possibly also Pakistan , Russia and the United States .

The only analytically confirmed herderite over a certain period of time was a faceted green herderite from "Brazil" in the "Gem Collection" of the Smithsonian Institution with 7.01% fluorine (corresponding to 40 mol% hydroxyl herderite), the exact location of which is unknown. Another find in Brazil is the granite pegmatite from “Medina” in Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais . Analyzes on very large, greenish-gray crystals 8 cm in length showed contents of 6.05-7.57% by weight of fluorine.

The world's most fluorine-rich herderites come from a pegmatite near the city of Mogok in the district of Pyin U Lwin in the Mandalay region in Myanmar (see under Chemism). Another location is the pegmatite “Pazun-seik” ( coordinates of the pegmatite Pazun-seik ) discovered in 2004 near Nam-peik not far from Mogok, where herderite was found in the opencast mine. Also just 16 km west of Mogok near Sakangyi (Sakhan Gyi), Kyauk-Pyat-That, are the "Sakangyi pegmatites" ( coordinates of the Sakangyi pegmatites ) - a group of seven small pegmatite mines .

From the small, sheet-like topaz-lepidolite granite Yichun ( "Yichun Mine", "Mine No. 414"), the last formed and developed at the highest unity of the granite complex of Yichun (Yashan batholith), District Yuanzhou , prefecture-level city Yichun Province Jiangxi , China, herderites with up to 7.26 wt .-% fluorine (corresponds to ≈ 65 mol% herderite) have been identified.

From Miarolen in the Erongobergen north of Usakos , Region Erongo , Namibia, v. a. Hydroxylherderite known. In addition, however, z. B. in 2004, also fluorine-dominant herderite confirmed analytically. These are long prismatic, bluish-gray crystals up to 4 cm in size, accompanied by tourmaline, fluorite , muscovite and microcline . The Raman spectra of steps from the farm area "Davib-Ost" in the Erongo indicate that these formations are herderite.

The quarries on the slope of the Luftenberg near St. Georgen an der Gusen not far from Perg , Mühlviertel , Upper Austria , Austria , have delivered up to 4.8 cm large hydroxyl herderites as well as crystals in whose infrared spectrum fluorine clearly dominates over hydroxide.

The "Herderite" known from Epprechtstein and Waldstein , both in the Fichtelgebirge , Upper Franconia , Bavaria , Germany, have proven to be intermediate hydroxylherderite-herderite mixed crystals with a slight dominance of OH over F. The extent to which this applies to the material from all quarries in this area (such as the “Reinersreuth” (“Köhlerloch”), “Zufurt”, “Grasymabruch” or “Schoberth” quarry) still needs an analytical review.

Members of the herderite-hydroxylherderite series that could not yet be clearly assigned to one of the two end members are known from the United States , from the "Himalaya Mine", Gem Hill in the Mesa Grande District , and from the "Cryo-Genie Mine" Warner Springs in the district of the same name, San Diego County , California , from the "Lithium Corporation of America Mine" near Bessemer City , Gaston County , North Carolina , and from the "Rutherford No. 3 Pegmatite ”at Amelia Courthouse , Amelia County , Virginia . Crystals from the Dunton Gem Mine near Newry and Bennett Mine near Buckfield and from sites near Paris , Poland , Auburne , Greenwood , Stoneham and Topsham, all Maine ; the "Keyes # 1 Mine" at Orange ; the “Palemo # 1 Mine” and the “Fletcher Mine”, both at North Groton , all in New Hampshire ; the "Foote Mine", Kings Mountain , Cleveland Co. , North Carolina, and the "Blue Chihuahua Mine" in Riverside County , California, on the other hand, have all been found to be hydroxyl herderite.

Representatives of the herderite-hydroxylherderite mixed crystal series known from Pakistan have not yet been investigated in more detail, so that their exact assignment to the end members of the mixed crystal series is unknown. Green crystals from the "Kandahar Mine" located about 35 km north of Skardu near Baha in the Braldu Valley, Gilgit-Baltistan are, according to their refractive indices, intermediate representatives of the Herderite-Hydroxylherderite mixed crystal series. The same applies to the green crystals from near Chhappu in the Braldu Valley and from the gemstone mining near Doko in the Basha Valley .

Herderite is also said to have been found in locations in Argentina , Finland , Russia , Spain , Sweden , the Czech Republic and the United Kingdom - however, all of these finds lack an analytically reliable proof of the dominance of F over OH in these mineral phases.


Due to its gemological characteristics (color, transparency, refractive indices, hardness and size of the crystals) Herderite is often polished, although with a Mohs hardness of 5.5 or less it is actually too soft for a gemstone. Faceted stones from Maine / USA are usually small and colorless or show only pale hues. Brazilian stones have more intense colors and can weigh 25-30 ct. Well-known cut Herderites are a green stone from Brazil (5.9 ct, Smithsonian Institution), a blue stone from Brazil (3.65 ct, Devonian Group, Calgary, Alberta, Canada) and a light purple octagon from Brazil (4.65 ct , National Museums of Canada, Ottawa / Ontario). Cheryl Y. Wentzell reported on six polished, yellowish-green stones, more or less identical in their properties, which have been shown to be herderite due to their refractive indices. All stones are either pear-shaped or emerald-cut. The largest of these stones weighs 161.09 ct, has dimensions of 57.9 mm × 27.4 mm × 17.1 mm and is said to have come from Ouro Verde, Minas Gerais, Brazil. It is this stone is today but as Hydroxylherderit under catalog number NMNH G10542-00 in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution belonging to National Museum of Natural History , Washington, DC

In addition, Herderite is a sought-after mineral by mineral collectors.

See also


Web links

Commons : Herderite  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Johann Friedrich August Breithaupt : Overview of the mineral system . 1st edition. JG Engelhardt, Freiberg 1830, p.  23 ( available online in the overview of the mineral system, p. 23 in the Google book search).
  2. ^ A b Johann Friedrich August Breithaupt : Complete characteristics of the mineral system . 3. Edition. Arnoldische Buchhandlung, Dresden 1832, p.  78 ( available online in Complete Characteristics of the Mineral System, p. 78 in the Google book search).
  3. a b c d e Wilhelm Haidinger : Ueber den Herderit, a new mineral species . In: Poggendorff's annals of physics and chemistry . 89 (new episode 13). Johann Ambrosius Barth, Leipzig 1828, p.  502–505 ( available online in Poggendorffs Annalen der Physik und Chemie p. 502 ff. In the Google book search).
  4. ^ William Earl Hidden: On the probable occurrence of herderite in Maine. With a note from ES Dana . In: American Journal of Science . 77 (Third Series 27), 1884, p. 73 .
  5. ^ Samuel Lewis Penfield : On the crystallization of herderite . In: American Journal of Science . 97 (Third Series 47), 1894, pp.  329-339 , doi : 10.2475 / ajs.s3-47.281.329 .
  6. a b c d e Hugo Strunz , Ernest H. Nickel : Strunz Mineralogical Tables . 9th edition. E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagbuchhandlung (Nägele and Obermiller), Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-510-65188-X , p.  441 .
  7. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Herderite , In: John W. Anthony, Richard A. Bideaux, Kenneth W. Bladh, Monte C. Nichols (Eds.): Handbook of Mineralogy, Mineralogical Society of America , 2001 ( PDF, 63 kB )
  8. a b c d e f g h Mindat - Herderit
  9. a b c d Joel E. Arem: Color encyclopedia of gemstones . 2nd Edition. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York 1987, ISBN 0-442-20833-2 , pp. 111 .
  10. a b c d Brendan M. Laurs, Elizabeth P. Quinn: Herderite from Pakistan . In: Gems & Gemology . tape XLII , 2006, p. 174-175 .
  11. ^ A b Carl Hintze : Handbook of Mineralogy. First volume. Fourth department. First half . 1st edition. Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin and Leipzig 1933, p.  680-688 .
  12. a b c Wilhelm Haidinger : On Herderite, a new mineral species. In: Philosophical Magazine, or Annals of Chemistry, Mathematics, Astronomy, Natural History, and General Science . tape  4 , 1828, pp. 1–3 ( rruff.info [PDF; 282 kB ]).
  13. ^ A b Gerhard Brandstetter, Martin Reich: Luftenberg - an important pegmatite mineralization in Upper Austria . In: Mineral World . 10 (volume 3), 1999, p. 31-43 .
  14. a b c Stollen troll - The discovery of Herderit
  15. ^ Johann Friedrich August Breithaupt : Complete manual of mineralogy. Second volume. First Division of the Special Part . 1st edition. Arnoldische Buchhandlung, Dresden and Leipzig 1841, p.  275–276 ( available online in Complete Manual of Mineralogy, pp. 275f. In the Google book search).
  16. ^ Wilhelm Haidinger : Correction of a statement by Mr. Prof. Breithaupt, concerning the Herderit . In: Poggendorff's annals of physics and chemistry . 130 (new episode 54). Johann Ambrosius Barth, Leipzig 1841, p.  539–544 ( available online in Poggendorff's Annalen der Physik und Chemie p. 539 ff. In the Google book search).
  17. ^ Johann Friedrich August Breithaupt : Reply from A. Breithaupt . In: Poggendorff's annals of physics and chemistry . 134 (new episode 58, second row 28). Johann Ambrosius Barth, Leipzig 1843, p.  359–360 ( available online in Poggendorff's Annalen der Physik und Chemie p. 359 ff. In the Google book search).
  18. ^ Wilhelm Haidinger : Handbook of determining mineralogy: containing the terminology, systematics, nomenclature and characteristics of the natural history of the mineral kingdom . 2nd Edition. Braumüller & Seidel, Vienna 1845, p.  497 ( available online in the Handbook of Determining Mineralogy on p. 497 in the Google book search).
  19. ^ Johann Friedrich August Breithaupt : Communication to the Privy Councilor of Leonhard from September 11, 1835 . In: New yearbook for mineralogy, geognosy, geology and petrefacts . tape  1835 . Johann Ambrosius Barth, Leipzig 1828, p. 676–677 ( available online in New Yearbook for Mineralogy etc. p. 677 in the Google book search).
  20. ↑ Type mineral catalog Germany - storage of the holotype stage Herderit
  21. ^ Richard V. Gaines, H. Catherine W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosensweig: Dana's New Mineralogy: The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana . 8th edition. John Wiley & Sons, New York 1997, ISBN 978-0-471-19310-4 , pp. 1-1819 .
  22. a b c d e f Peter B. Leavens, Pete J. Dunn, Richard V. Gaines: Compositional and refractive index variation of the herderite-hydroxyl-herderite series . In: The American Mineralogist . tape 63 , 1978, pp. 913-917 ( rruff.info [PDF; 543 kB ]).
  23. a b c d e George E. Harlow, Frank Christopher Hawthorne : Herderite from Mogok, Myanmar, and comparison with hydroxyl-herderite from Ehrenfriedersdorf, Germany . In: The American Mineralogist . tape 93 , 2008, p. 1545–1549 , doi : 10.2138 / am.2008.2943 ( rruff.info [PDF; 1.7 MB ]).
  24. William Earl Hidden, James B. Mackintosh: On herderite (?), A glucinum calcium phosphate and fluoride, from Oxford County, Maine . In: American Journal of Science . 77 (Third Series 27), 1884, p. 135-138 , doi : 10.2475 / ajs.s3-27.158.135 .
  25. Frederick Augustus Genth : On herderite . In: Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society . 21 (No. 116), 1884, p.  694-699 .
  26. George A. Lager, GV Gibbs: A refinement of the crystal structure of herderite, CaBePO 4 OH . In: The American Mineralogist . tape 59 , 1974, pp. 919–925 ( rruff.info [PDF; 764 kB ]).
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  30. ^ A b Edward S. Grew: Mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry of beryllium: An introduction and list of beryllium minerals. In: Edward S. Grew (Ed.), Beryllium: Mineralogy, Petrology, and Geochemistry . In: Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry . tape 50 , 2002, pp. 1-76 .
  31. Petr Černý: Mineralogy of beryllium in granitic pegmatites. In: Edward S. Grew (Ed.), Beryllium: Mineralogy, Petrology, and Geochemistry . In: Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry . tape 50 , 2002, pp. 405-444 .
  32. a b Ray L. Frost, Ricardo Scholz, Andrés López, Yunfei Xi, Camila de Siqueira Queiroz, Fernanda M. Belotti, Mauro Cândido Filho: Raman, infrared and near-infrared spectroscopic characterization of the herderite – hydroxylherderite mineral series . In: Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy . tape 118 , 2014, p. 430–437 , doi : 10.1016 / j.saa.2013.09.021 ( rruff.info [PDF; 14.7 MB ]).
  33. Bernard Charoy: Beryllium speciation in evolved granitic magma: phosphates versus silicates . In: European Journal of Mineralogy . tape 11 , 1999, p. 135-148 , doi : 10.1127 / ejm / 11/1/0135 .
  34. Mindat - Number of localities for Herderite
  35. a b List of locations for Herderite in the Mineralienatlas and Mindat
  36. ^ August Frenzel : Mineralogical Lexicon for the Kingdom of Saxony . 1st edition. Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig 1874, p.  154 ( available online in Mineralogical Lexicon for the Kingdom of Saxony. P. 154 in the Google book search).
  37. ^ Siegfried flat, Fritz Hofmann, Gerald Urban: The minerals from Ehrenfriedersdorf . In: Emser Hefte . 12 (issue 2), 1991, p. 50 .
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  39. Xiao Long Huang, Ru Cheng Wang, Xiao Ming Chen, Huan Hu, Chang Shi Liu: Vertical variations in the mineralogy of the Yichun topaz-lepidolite granite, southern China . In: The Canadian Mineralogist . tape 40 , 2002, p. 1047-1068 , doi : 10.2113 / gscanmin.40.4.1047 .
  40. Ludi van Bezing, Rainer Bode, Steffen Jahn: Namibia: Minerals and Localities I . 1st edition. Bode-Verlag GmbH, Salzhemmendorf 2014, ISBN 978-3-942588-13-3 , p. 104 .
  41. ^ Gerhard Brandstetter, Martin Reich: Luftenberg - an important pegmatite mineralization in Upper Austria . In: Mineral World . 10 (volume 3), 1999, p. 12-18 .
  42. V. Dürrfeld: The Druze minerals Waldstein granite in the Fichtelgebirge . In: Journal of Crystallography and Mineralogy . tape XLVI , 1909, pp. 3-38 .
  43. V. Dürrfeld: The Druze minerals Waldstein granite in the Fichtelgebirge (Supplement) . In: Journal of Crystallography and Mineralogy . tape XLVII , 1910, pp. 242-248 .
  44. ^ Smithsonian Institution - honed hydroxyl herderite