The Jodenbuurt (German: Jewish quarter , also: Jewish quarter ) was a district in the center of Amsterdam until the Second World War . These included the Jodenbreestraat, the island of Uilenburg, the Waterlooplein , the Rapenburg and Valkenburg peninsulas and the Nieuwe Herengracht , later also the Nieuwmarkt , the Sint Antoniesbreestraat, the Plantage district , the Weesperstraat and the Weesperplein.
In 1593 the first Sephardic Jews came to Amsterdam from Portugal and Spain , who settled in the area around Jodenbreestraat and Waterlooplein. In the 17th century, many Askenazi Jews from Central and Eastern Europe also moved to the area. 1612, the Jewish population numbered around 500 people, in 1620 there were about 1000 and 1672 circa 2500. The Jewish citizens gave the city of Amsterdam in Yiddish called Mokum , is derived from the Hebrew word Makom ( "City") to indicate that they are in felt at home in the city. In 1579, the Union of Utrecht gave all residents of the republic freedom of belief . For the first time in Europe, freedom of belief was guaranteed by law.
The first Jews from Germany came to Amsterdam around 1600 and between 1602 and 1610 the first synagogue , Bet Jokob, was built. Between 1608 and 1612 the second synagogue, Neve Sjalom, was added and in 1618 the third, called Bet Israel. The Jewish quarter was concentrated around the Waterlooplein, the Jodenbreestraat and the Wibautstraat. Street trading was carried out on Waterlooplein, as well as book printing and some diamond cutting shops.
In the 1930s, many Jews from Germany fled the persecution of the National Socialists to the Netherlands . The Dutch government was only willing to accept Jews who were in “mortal danger”. In 1933 the resolution was passed that the state should not incur any costs as a result.
During the Second World War, the Netherlands was under German occupation from May 1940 to May 1945. In 1941 the Jodenbuurt in Amsterdam was declared a ghetto by the National Socialists and subjected to ever increasing restrictions. On January 10, 1941, all Jewish citizens had to register. From July 6, 1942, Jews were no longer allowed to make phone calls or visit non-Jewish people. Driving for Jews was banned on October 23, 1942, and three major raids took place in Amsterdam in May, June and September 1943 .
The center of today's Jewish cultural life is the Joods Historisch Museum in Amsterdam. Film and music festivals take place every year. There are two Jewish libraries, Et Haim - Livraria Montezinos and in the University of Amsterdam the Bibliotheca Rosenthaliana . There are also various youth, student and women's organizations.
The street Sint Antoniesbreestraat was between the Neumarkt and the Sint Antoniessluis ( Sint Antoniesschleuse ). A 200 m long section of this street between the lock and Mr. Visserplein was named Jodenbreestraat in the second half of the 17th century, as many Jewish traders settled there. The street served as a marketplace and in 1893, by order of the municipality, the traders had to move their street market to the Waterlooplein. This quarter, also popularly known as Jodenhoek (literally: “Judenecke”), was located between Amsterdam Central Station , the Kloveniersburgwal , the Valkenburgerstraat and the Prins Hendrikkade. About 25,000 Jews lived here.
This street is located between the former city scales building de Waag on Nieuwmarkt and the Sint Antoniessluis lock . In the 17th century the street had the nimbus of an artists' quarter. After the Second World War, many of the old houses were demolished.
The place Meester Visserplein was by Lodewijk Ernst Visser called President of the High Council of the Netherlands ( Hoge Raad ). The Portuguese Synagogue , once the largest in Europe, stands in the square . Opposite this is the Hoogduitse Synagogen complex consisting of four former synagogues, which today houses the Joods Historisch Museum .
The Waterlooplein market square was laid out in 1882 after the Leprozengracht and Houtgracht canals were filled in. The square borders the Amstel river , the Zwanenburgwal and the Mr. Visserplein. During the Second World War, the National Socialists declared the Waterlooplein to be a Jewish quarter. In Hongerwinter 1944, because of the great famine and Brennstoffnot looting.
The island of Uilenburg, together with the Rapenburg and Valkenburg peninsulas on the IJ , became part of the municipality of Amsterdam in 1593. At the end of the 19th century, the Uilenburg was so densely populated that contagious diseases were widespread. In 1910, 368 of 861 apartments were declared uninhabitable and then renovated. Most of the Jewish population was deported to extermination camps during the war and killed there.
The Rapenburg peninsula was laid out at the time of the second great urban expansion between 1578 and 1665. In the Rapenburgerstraat there was a synagogue, a diamond cutting shop, an orphanage for girls and a Portuguese-Israelite hospital. After the Jewish population had largely perished in the extermination camps during the German occupation in World War II, the Rapenburg was built over in the 1960s with the Weesperstraat - IJ tunnel.
From 1900 onwards, many Jewish citizens lived in the area called de Plantage . The plantation birth is located around the Artis Zoo and borders the Amsterdam canal belt in the north . This is where the Wertheim Park , the Auschwitz Monument and the Verzetsmuseum, dedicated to the resistance against National Socialism , are located .
Weesperplein and Weesperstraat
The Weesperplein is located between the Sarphatiestraat and the Nieuwe Achtergracht. It connects the Weesperstraat with the Rijnspoorplein in the direction of the Weesperstraat. In 1663 the Weesperstraat was laid out and connected the Weesperpoort city gate with the town of Weesp . In the 1960s, the old Weesperstraat was expanded to become the main traffic axis between Weesperplein and JD Meijerplein. The former street name was retained. The narrow street at that time was called Wazepergas by the Jewish population based on the German word "Gasse" .
In 1937 the nursing home de Joodsche Invalide (literally: "the Jewish Invalide") was opened on Weesperplein . On March 1, 1943, all inmates and the nursing staff of the home were deported by the National Socialists. There is a bronze plaque there today as a reminder. A memorial to the Joodse Erkentelijkheid (literally: "Jewish gratitude"), designed by Jobs Wertheim in 1947 , has been in the Weesperstraat since 1968.
The Nieuwe Herengracht was created during the last great city expansion east of the Amstel to the Schippersgracht. This canal, like the Nieuwe Keizersgracht and the Nieuwe Prinsengracht , belonged to the well-off part of what was then the Jodenbuurt.
- Selma Leydesdorff: Wij hebben as mens gelefd. Het joodse proletariaat van Amsterdam 1900 to 1940. Uitgeverij Meulenhoff, Amsterdam, 1987, ISBN 90-290-9895-3 .
- From Caransa: Verzamelen op het Transvaalplein. The nagedachtenis van het joodse proletariaat van Amsterdam. Bosch & Keuning, 1984, ISBN 90-246-4523-9 .
- Flip ten Cate: Dit volckje seer verwoet: een divorceis van de Sint Antoniesbreestraat. Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Pantheon, 1988, ISBN 90-72653-01-7 .
- Barbara Beuys : “Living with the enemy”. Amsterdam under German occupation 1940-1945 . Hanser, Munich 2012
- February 22, 1941: Raid in the Jewish Quarter on JD Meijerplein . With map and photos. (Dutch)
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- History of the Plantation ( Memento of the original from April 6, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Dutch, accessed March 27, 2015
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- Brief history of the Nieuwe Herengracht ( Memento of the original from August 11, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . With photos. Dutch, accessed November 14, 2011