Compatibility of family and work in individual countries
Under work-life balance means the possibility adult of working age, at the same time professional and career on the one hand and life in the family and devote the care of children and dependent persons and individuals, taking into account the difficulties that may appear in this process.
Politically, economic and business aspects play an important role. A better work-life balance is often seen as a prerequisite for gender equality in work and in bringing up children . In the course of demographic change , which is characterized by longer lifespans and low birth rates, an improvement in reconciliation is considered to be a suitable political means to use women's human capital and at the same time to counteract the reduction in birth rates. In addition, there is often a shortage of skilled workersforecast, giving increasing importance to education, employment and careers of both sexes. Conditions of compatibility are increasingly seen as hard locational factors for recruiting workers.
With regard to the family and work, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights specifically mentions the protection of the family (Article 16), the right to work (Article 23), to rest and leisure (Article 24) and to an adequate standard of living (Article 25). codified.
The International Labor Organization (ILO) put up by the Convention 156, the "Convention on equal opportunities and equal treatment of men and women workers: workers with family responsibilities" prior conditions to reconcile employment with family responsibilities for children and other immediate family members, in particular in:
- Article 3 (1):
- With a view to creating real equality of opportunity and equal treatment of male and female workers, every member must make it an objective of national policy that persons with family responsibilities who are or want to be gainfully employed are enabled to exercise their rights to do so without exposing themselves to discrimination and, as far as possible, without creating a conflict between their professional and family responsibilities.
To date, 38 countries have joined this ILO agreement, including 19 European states, but not Germany.
The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), which has been signed by 184 states so far (as of August 11, 2006), in Article 11, among other things, requires the contracting states to take appropriate measures “to promote the provision of the necessary supportive social services that enable parents to reconcile their family responsibilities with their professional duties and participation in public life, in particular by promoting the establishment and expansion of a network of childcare facilities ”.
Anchored in the Charter of Fundamental Rights and the European Social Charter
Individual aspects of the compatibility of family and work are anchored in Article 33 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (Article II-93 of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe and the Treaty of Lisbon ):
- Article 33 - Family and professional life
- (1) The family's legal, economic and social protection is guaranteed.
- (2) In order to be able to reconcile family and professional life, every person has the right to protection against dismissal for a reason connected with maternity and the right to paid maternity leave and to parental leave after the birth or adoption of a child.
Several of the 31 rights and principles of the European Social Charter in the revision of May 3, 1996 are related to family and work, in particular:
- 4. All workers have the right to fair pay that ensures them and their families an adequate standard of living.
- 8. Female workers have the right to special protection in the event of maternity.
- 16. The family, as the basic unit of society, has the right to appropriate social, legal and economic protection which is able to ensure its full development.
- 27. All persons with family responsibilities who are or wish to become gainfully employed have the right to do so without exposing themselves to discrimination and, as far as possible, without creating a conflict between their professional and family obligations.
The articles that correspond to these rights and principles contain obligations of the contracting parties, in particular work breaks for nursing mothers (in Article 8) and measures related to return to work , child care , parental leave and protection against dismissal (Article 27).
Guidelines and framework agreements
A basically non-transferable parental leave of at least three months with the right to return to the previous or, if applicable, equivalent job was already introduced by Council Directive 96/34 / EC of June 3, 1996 (Great Britain: 97/75 / EC of December 15 1997). The introduction of parental leave was based on a framework agreement concluded between the European social partners UNICE , CEEP and ETUC . By Directive 2010/18 / EU , which came on 8 March 2010 to replace the Directive 96/34 / EC, the minimum entitlement to parental leave from three to four months was extended and provided protection from discrimination and measures to return to work. There is also a directive on part-time work (97/81 / EC) and a framework agreement on teleworking .
Priorities and measures since 2000
According to a Eurobarometer survey carried out in 2003 in the then 15 EU Member States, 84% of fathers or fathers-to-be said they had not taken parental leave or were not planning to; The main reasons given were financial considerations or fear of impairing their career opportunities. According to a communication from the European Communities of October 2006, in addition to parental leave and leave for family reasons, “the introduction of a right to more flexible forms of parental leave - such as the right to take leave by the hour - [...] could be an incentive for fathers, Take parental leave and also reduce the risk of career opportunities for women taking parental leave '.
The “Resolution of the Council and the Ministers for Employment and Social Policy United in the Council of 29 June 2000 on a balanced participation of women and men in work and family life” describes the reconciliation of work and family life as “a right of women and men , a factor for self-realization in public and social life as well as in family and private life, a high social value and a responsibility of society, the Member States and the European Community ”. In 2000 the European Parliament called on the Commission to submit a proposal for the revision of the Maternity Protection Directive 92/85 / EEC and in 2004 drafted the “European Parliament resolution on the reconciliation of work, family and private life”.
The Barcelona European Council in March 2002 called on Member States "to remove barriers preventing women from participating in the labor market and to seek to match the demand for childcare facilities and in line with national standards of care provision up to." To provide care places for at least 90% of children between the ages of three and compulsory school age and for at least 33% of children under three years of age ". These goals became known as the so-called “ Barcelona Goals ”.
The reconciliation of work and private life is an explicit goal of the European Employment Strategy, guidelines 2005–2008
- Guideline 18: Promote a life cycle approach in employment policy through the following measures: […]
- - Strive for a better work-life balance and provide accessible and affordable care facilities for children and other dependents; [...]
In the Roadmap for Equal Opportunities for Women and Men 2006–2010 , the EU Commission declared in March 2006 a better work-life balance as one of the priorities for EU measures on equality for the period 2006–2010. The Commission is carrying out a consultation with employees and employers on the reconciliation of work, private and family life, including the availability, costs and quality of care offers for children and those in need of care, incentives for fathers to give more time to raise their children as well as Possibilities of flexible working conditions are discussed.
The European Commission for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities presented a proposal on October 3, 2008, which provides for the right to longer maternity leave under better conditions. Another proposal is to give self-employed women the right to maternity leave and to give those who work in the family business access to social security. At the same time, a communication from the commission on improving the work-life balance of parents and a report from the commission on childcare, in particular with regard to the “Barcelona goals” mentioned above, were published.
On September 17th, 2008, the European social partners started negotiations to revise the existing Directive 96/34 / EC, which regulates parental leave. In its resolution of 27 September 2007, the European Parliament called on the Member States to apportion the cost of maternity and parental leave to ensure that women no longer incur higher labor costs than men. In its impact assessment report of October 8, 2008, the European Commission came to the conclusion that legally binding measures at Community level would be an appropriate means to enable better compatibility. She referred to negotiations between the social partners on parental leave and the Commission's efforts to amend the Maternity Protection Directive .
The European Pillar of Social Rights , initiated in 2016, also includes goals for the reconciliation of work and private life. In a communication of April 26, 2017, the European Commission named the following priority areas for action with regard to better compatibility:
- Improving the design and gender-balanced use of vacation for family reasons and flexible working arrangements,
- Improving the quality, affordability and availability of childcare and long-term care,
- Measures against negative economic incentives for parents and other carers or carers to pursue gainful employment.
On January 24, 2019, the European Parliament and the Council reached provisional agreement on a proposal from the European Commission for a new directive on the work-life balance for parents and carers. The agreement includes Europe-wide regulations in the following areas:
- Paternity leave of at least 10 days, paid in the amount of sick pay ;
- two non-transferable months of at least four months of parental leave, whereby parents can take this on a part-time basis or in sections up to the child's 12th year (instead of the previous 8th year);
- Entitlement to leave from work for five days per year for the care of seriously ill or needy family members;
- Strengthening the rights of working parents of children up to 12 years of age and for family carers when applying for flexible working arrangements (part-time, flextime and teleworking).
The directive was adopted by the Council on June 13, 2019 and published in the Official Journal on July 12, 2019. It comes into force twenty days after its publication, i.e. on August 2, 2019, and is to be implemented in national law by August 2, 2022.
Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Liechtenstein
In comparison to other EU countries, housewife marriage was particularly important in Germany, Austria and Switzerland at the beginning of the second half of the 20th century. In these three countries, a reconciliation model of male care marriage with the mother's time off from work as long as the children are very small and subsequent part-time work as long as they are viewed as in need of care dominates in these three countries .
|Protection against dismissal
after maternity leave
|36 months (1)||24 Months||No||3 months (4)|
(except child benefit)
24 (2) or 12/14 (3)
|Legal entitlement to
a kindergarten place
|from 3 years||No||part||from 4 years|
(1) Protection against dismissal only exists if parental leave is taken; however, young mothers who return to work after maternity leave have no special protection against dismissal
(2) for children born up to December 31, 2006 (3) for children born on or after January 1, 2007 born children
(4) flexible, even hourly basis , are taken
Germany has a high rate of money transfers to families, but little incentives and support for the second parent to take up gainful employment. In 2005, both partners were gainfully employed in over 50% of couples with children in Germany. The employment rate of fathers (in 2003) was largely independent of the number of children at around 80-90% and that of mothers, at a low overall level of around 60-70%, and from a number of three children significantly lower at around 50% . In 2008, one third of the mothers with children under the age of three and two thirds of the mothers of school children were employed; conversely, married fathers were more likely to be gainfully employed than single or divorced men. In an international comparison, Germany is one of the countries in which the birth of a child has a particularly negative effect on the employment of women. The employment of German mothers was (in 2002) significantly higher than that of foreign mothers in Germany. In an international comparison, however, the employment rate of women in Germany , especially of highly qualified mothers, is noticeably low. Gainful employment in Germany is polarized according to qualifications and gender : men increasingly work over 40 hours, with the increase in the 48 hour period being particularly large; Women, on the other hand, work increasingly for less than 30 hours, with a particular increase in the area of less than 15 hours. There is a big difference between the employment desired by parents and the employment actually carried out. The stress potential for families due to the increasing spatial and temporal delimitation of work is also emphasized .
In contrast to the means of family policy , which support the family itself (for example through spouse splitting ), raising children (for example with child benefit ) or secondary education (such as BAföG ) for children, the compatibility of family and work relates to Measures that are directly related to a professional activity of parents. One of these measures is the parental allowance passed by the Bundestag on September 29, 2006 , which, according to the law of November 3, 2006, replaces the child-raising allowance for all children born after January 1, 2007 . The parental allowance partially compensates for the loss of income due to childcare for up to 12 or 14 months. Since the introduction of parental allowance, the proportion of fathers who take parental leave has risen from 3% to 18.5% (as of first quarter of 2008). Before the introduction of the parental allowance, critics objected that the parental allowance was not socially fair and that it was not a solution for working parents, since after this time there were still not enough crèche places available and thus professional continuity was not given. In a 2002 McKinsey survey , 80% of West German non-employed mothers of preschool children cited a lack of childcare options as a reason not to go to work. In Germany, many months before the Child Promotion Act was passed, there was an intense political debate about the expansion of crèche places and the introduction of childcare allowances .
Other aspects of the compatibility of family and work, for example with regard to the organization of working hours , are attributed more to labor market policy than to family policy; on the other hand, financial support for domestic help and childcare - through subsidies or tax considerations as a special expense or exceptional burden - belongs to the area of financial policy ; The promotion and care of preschool and school children is also an area of educational policy . As part of health policy , a care -leave model has been discussed since 2006 , which is intended to grant employees the right to time-limited time off or a reduction in working hours for caring for relatives. As of July 1, 2008, the Nursing Leave Act entitles you to a six-month leave of absence.
The 2001 “report on the job and income situation of women and men” prepared on behalf of the BMFSFJ stated that the “withdrawal from the labor market or the renouncement of (re) entry [...] is supported, all the more so, the more consistently it takes place ". These negative incentives for the employment of wives are caused by several factors: the spouse splitting with different distribution of the splitting advantage to the spouses through the tax class combination III / V , the regulations for marginal employment relationships as well as the system of derived social benefit entitlements (non-contributory family co-insurance in the statutory health and long-term care insurance and survivors' pensions). In addition, it is problematic in terms of distribution policy that the amount of wage replacement benefits, such as unemployment benefit, is based on the net salary, while the contribution payments are based on the gross salary.
According to surveys, the situation with regard to reconciliation differs in various professional activities and is rated more positively in higher professional positions: in a representative population survey in 2009, 35 percent of the executives surveyed stated that their employer was doing something to make it easier for women to get back into the job, whereas only 18% of the skilled workers stated this. In this survey, workers in particular said it was difficult to combine family and work.
Child care and school
There are marked differences between West and East in childcare . In the new federal states, children of working parents usually attend a crèche , a kindergarten and then a school day care center , whereby these three types of day care are often combined in a day care center that is open all day . In West Germany there is no such homogeneous state care offer; informal networks and private forms of care play a greater role.
In 1988 Hanna-Renate Laurien characterized the difficulties of mothers of small children looking for work as follows: “When she is working, she has to prove that her child is in a kindergarten or day-care center. There, however, she will only get the place if she already has a job. "
Children under the age of three have had a legal right to a childcare place since August 1, 2013 from the age of one; this is regulated in the Child Promotion Act. A right to a kindergarten place has existed since 1996 on the basis of SGB VIII from the age of three to school entry.
When a child starts school in West Germany, there are often greater problems than during kindergarten. The commitment of the parents, for example in the everyday life of childcare facilities and schools, as well as for homework supervision , is often taken for granted. The full half-day school or a reliable elementary school , which ensure the care of school children at least for a certain number of hours a day, is not offered everywhere. Many parents therefore have to be prepared for irregular morning school hours. There are also limited offers of longer daily care such as lunch at school and after-school care or places in all-day schools . Some forms of care require full attendance throughout the week, which goes against the needs of parents who work less than five afternoons during the week. The remaining time together within the family can be burdened by school stress. The first years of primary school were overshadowed by the selection of secondary school. The media reported that, especially in middle-class families, mothers, including those with a PhD, gave up their jobs or switched to part-time work to coach their children in the afternoons while studying. According to the results of a study by the TU Chemnitz, the difficulties that arise for working parents often increase again after the end of primary school due to a lack of all-day care. In addition, "the relieving infrastructure for families with several kindergarten and school children are not fully developed and coordinated".
According to a study by the Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung , especially in the middle class, mothers tend to take on an auxiliary teacher role to help schoolchildren cope with school, including in lower secondary level . This consolidates the role of the mother as responsible for the household and the father as the breadwinner.
In many cases, parents cannot cover the children's school holidays with their own days off. In Germany, schoolchildren have 75 working days of vacation per year ( Hamburg Agreement ), whereas adults with a 5-day week are entitled to at least 20 or, in many professions and industries, 30 days of annual vacation . For part of the holiday resort parents possibly partly on their claims out of their working time accounts , a holiday care - about Summer School, nursery or summer camp - or care by grandparents or other people back.
Compatibility and Migration
The microcensus counts among the "families with a migration background" all parent-child communities living in a household with children under 18 years of age, in which at least one parent has a foreign nationality, German citizenship through naturalization or - as in the case of repatriates - through received measures equivalent to naturalization, regardless of whether these people immigrated or were born in Germany. The totality of families with and without a migration background differ in their employment behavior in Germany. So the male's sole breadwinner model more common in families with immigrant backgrounds than in families with no immigrant background, in families without a migrant background is the Zuverdienermodell with male full-time and female part-time is more widespread than in families with an immigrant background:
In addition, children from families with a migrant background are only given external childcare later. According to the BMFSFJ, emphasis is placed in this connection on a. the importance of measures such as: support in reconciling family and work, all-day care , recognition of foreign degrees and professional qualifications , offers of German courses with childcare, compulsory integration courses and measures to promote greater gender equality in the family division of labor for people with and without a migration background.
According to a study by Prognos from 2010, around two thirds of mothers with a migration background were well integrated in the labor market, while one third required intensive support due to different risk factors.
A study published in 2018 by the Institute for Employment Research (IAB) compared regions in Germany that have a comparatively higher proportion of immigrants in the population with other regions there. It turned out that German women in these regions have significantly higher weekly working hours, are more likely to have a child and spend less time on housework and family work. The effect is strongest in women with medium qualifications. The explanation given is that immigrant women often work as help in the household, in childcare or in care for the elderly, whereby they charge lower prices due to the competition and thus relieve other families.
In the Weimar Republic , maternity leave was introduced, but family policy mainly included measures against women being employed. For example, the downsizing ordinance of October 27, 1923, in response to the financial bottlenecks caused by inflation , stipulated that only unmarried women were allowed to work in the civil service. In the time of National Socialism , too, the participation of women in the labor force was strongly counteracted , which can also be seen in connection with the unemployment figures at the time; this policy changed when the switch to war production from 1936 required additional workers.
In the former GDR , men and women were integrated into society primarily because of their employment. Through the participation of women - in addition to the use of labor - gender equality in society was sought. The women's and family policy of the GDR promoted a work-life balance geared towards women . As a rule, only the mothers were allowed to use childcare facilities, not the fathers. Care facilities, which were often directly attached to the company, initially existed in the 1950s primarily for the areas of agriculture and industry; In the 1960s, company care facilities were created primarily in women-specific areas of the textile and food industries. Politics initially did not deal with the division of duties within the family; this changed in 1965 with the introduction of a new family code and in 1967 with the Seventh Party Congress of the SED . Especially in the 1970s and 1980s since the 8th party congress of the SED from June 15 to 19, 1971, in addition to general family support measures, a network of services and childcare offers was implemented. The model practiced was to combine (full-time) gainful employment with family responsibilities. With exceptions for pre-retirement workers, part-time work was uncommon, and even women who worked “short hours” because of family responsibilities worked 40 hours a week. Critics argue that the change in family policy was primarily aimed at functionalizing the family as an institution and an instance of socialization. It is also stated that household and parenting work remained primarily the responsibility of women: gender-specific statistics - which, however, are only available for 1974–1985 - show male participation in housework and family work in the range of 25–30%. In addition, reconciliation measures were designed as privileges of women (such as an extended "week vacation" and the "baby year" for mothers), which gave rise to special treatment of women in more demanding positions, which often resulted in professional sideline; the social policy of the GDR thus allows women to combine family and work. but does not guarantee a compatibility of family and career . The role of the father, in comparison to that of the mother, was not brought to the fore; thus the simultaneity of motherhood and work in the GDR merely represented a new variant of a polarization within the existing gender order.
In West Germany, the housewife marriage model initially predominated in the post-war years . Designations such as “female double earners” and “ key child ” indicated undesirable deviations from the model of women and families. The Federal German Equal Rights Act of 1958 provided in Section 1356 BGB : “The woman runs the household on her own responsibility. She is entitled to be gainfully employed insofar as this is compatible with her duties in marriage and family. ”The federal government had declared during the legislative process that gainful employment“ by vocation ”was compatible with these duties. In the wake of emancipation efforts, especially after 1968, there was a change in the attitude of West German women towards gainful employment. In the 1970s there was a debate in West Germany about whether parents with sufficient earnings could not work part-time and share childcare on an equal footing. At the same time, the increase in illegitimate partnerships contributed to a reduction in the role of the traditional family. With the 1st marriage law reform in 1977, the division of tasks stipulated in § 1356 BGB was replaced by the requirement that applies to spouses "[b] when choosing and exercising gainful employment [...] to take due consideration of the interests of the other spouse and family" . West German trade unions were aloof from female employment, due to fears that part-time arrangements would lose the assets they had fought for so far. Judgments of the Federal Constitutional Court on tax fairness ( tax splitting I , II and III , see also: spouse splitting , single parent relief amount ) had a significant impact on the legislation regarding the taxation of income to be applied to families; Social security provisions are also related to relevant decisions of the Federal Constitutional Court.
Since the 1990s, a reconciliation model based on part-time work for mothers has prevailed in Germany . The female employment rate , which in a society oriented towards male employment is regarded as an indicator of the degree of compatibility of family and work, has risen almost steadily in Germany since 1989, but is well below the female employment rate in the GDR shortly before the fall of the Berlin Wall . Differences in attitudes towards female employment and role models between East and West Germany persisted even after reunification.
By the end of 2000, 1.5% of fathers in Germany took parental leave; their share rose to 5% after the amendment to the Federal Childcare Allowance Act on January 1, 2001, made it possible for mothers and fathers to take parental leave together or at different times.
In Germany, the compatibility of family and work became a political issue, primarily due to the population development. For example, Federal President Horst Köhler named three central elements of a family- and child-friendly society in his address after his election as Federal President on May 23, 2004 in connection with the population development in Germany : the recognition of parental work, the compatibility of family and work as well as the appreciation of Children.
A report by the Federal Statistical Office in 2005 that 40% of female academics remained childless received a lot of media attention ; however, this number could be explained as a result of a lack of data. In 2007, the microcensus law was amended to allow more precise data collection on the number of children.
In 2005 and 2007, Prognos AG, in cooperation with the Ministry of Family Affairs and the newspaper Die Zeit ” , published a family atlas, a classification of districts and cities in Germany based on family-friendliness profiles. In 2005, the infrastructure with regard to crèches, kindergartens, all-day care, family-friendly companies and flexibility of the labor market were assessed as benchmarks for the compatibility of family and work; for 2007, the ratio of the employment rates of men and women, the proportion of children under three years of age and the proportion of children aged 3 to 6 who are cared for for more than seven hours were given. Family friendliness is increasingly seen as a hard location factor and is also associated with the brain drain ( talent drain ). In connection with a shortage of skilled workers , and especially in East Germany, it is becoming increasingly important to business.
In 2005, the German Chamber of Commerce and Industry published 100 proposals for more growth in Germany , the last five of which were aimed at strengthening the work-life balance:
- Increase the childcare quota, especially in western Germany
- Orient the opening times of the care facilities more closely to the parents' working hours
- Reduce parental leave and pay financial compensation as a percentage of the last net income
- Grant full deductibility of employment-related care costs for children
- Promote the “Local Alliances for Family” initiative
An analysis published by the WSI in 2005 found that trade unions and employers' associations were far from exhausting the possibilities offered by collective bargaining policies to promote work-life balance and gender equality. Although collective agreements often contain specific provisions on this, the inclusion of corresponding regulations in more collective agreements and greater legally binding force is necessary. On the basis of the reform of the Works Constitution Act of 2001 , the works council can achieve family-friendly working hours in a variety of ways through its co-determination, can take action against violations of agreements or the Working Time or Occupational Health and Safety Act and support employees in exercising their rights, for example with regard to part-time and parental leave .
The compatibility of family and work has also become an important issue for the unions. The DGB propagated with the project "work-life balance make" the position of "family-friendly jobs rather than job-oriented families"; The main aim of the project is to provide works councils with better information and to anchor the topic in the educational work of the DGB. One focus of the DGB is to ensure that employees can exercise their rights. The main work here is done by the works councils, who, if necessary, can draw on legal and scientific support from the union and its research institutes. In 2007, the DGB created the DGB Good Work Index for the first time and, among other things, a special analysis of the data collected from the point of view of the compatibility of family and work.
The issue of parental freedom of choice between caring for oneself and others and the employment that is reasonable for a caring parent played an important role in the decision of the Federal Constitutional Court of February 28, 2007 on the duration of maintenance , as well as in the ensuing efforts to reform the Maintenance Act. As early as 1998, the reform of the child rights law had changed the general conditions of employment for separated mothers and fathers by introducing the possibility of joint custody . The possible effects of joint custody on parents and children of divorce were examined between 1998 and 2002 in a study carried out among youth welfare offices, judges and 7,600 divorced parents. It was found that mothers with joint parental custody are more often employed than mothers with sole custody. The financial situation of many divorced parents with minor children is extremely difficult and stressful, regardless of the form of care. The lack of childcare facilities, the difficult labor market situation and the expectations that the world of work places on parents would make it difficult for both mothers and fathers to take up employment. In December 2007, the maintenance reform tightened the requirement for divorced parents to earn their own livelihood with the change in childcare support.
The observed extension of working hours and the increase in precarious employment relationships can put a strain on the family life of working parents. At universities, academic staff who are employed by temporary contracts have comparatively unfavorable conditions for a work-life balance ; in particular, the statutory regulations for maternity protection and parental leave apply to academic staff with budget positions , but not to third-party funded academic staff.
Pro Familia Landesverband Schleswig-Holstein pointed out in its 2007 annual report that, in the more than 10,000 consultations carried out, more than 40% of women seeking advice named “professional reasons” when deciding on an abortion , this being the most frequent statement. This is "also an expression of how difficult it is to combine family and work in Germany".
An OECD study from 2008 found that in Germany the tax burden, especially for single parents with a low income (two children and 2/3 of the average wage), is much higher than in other OECD countries and that this fact, together with relatively high Financial transfers when not working could be a negative incentive to take up work.
With the Federal Parental Allowance and Parental Leave Act of December 5, 2006, which reorganized parental leave and introduced parental allowance, as well as the Child Promotion Act of December 10, 2008, which as of August 1, 2013 a legal right to the provision of a childcare place for all one to three year old children introduced, the legislature introduced essential innovations for the compatibility.
In the 3rd balance sheet published in 2008 on equal opportunities for women and men in the private sector , the federal government and the central associations of the German economy emphasize that between 2003 and 2008 the greatest progress towards equal opportunities in the reconciliation of family and work was recorded: family-friendly measures in particular were much more widespread in companies in 2008 than five years earlier. The desire for reconciliation also has a high priority among the population: in a representative survey of the Allensbach Institute for Demoscopy commissioned by the Federal Ministry for Family Affairs in 2008, a large majority of respondents expressed their desire for a policy that promotes the reconciliation of family and work, above all through sufficient places in kindergartens and day care centers (74%) as well as increased all-day care (65%); With regard to company measures, the areas of childcare (61%) and flexible working hours (57%) are considered necessary.
On February 8, 2011, Federal Family Minister Kristina Schröder and representatives from business and politics signed a charter for family-conscious working hours . In May 2011, the Süddeutsche Zeitung reported on a draft of the Federal Government's concept for securing skilled workers , which emphasized the mobilization of the hidden reserve as a priority over the promotion of immigration; at the same time the newspaper reported:
“The government relies most on mothers and women who have not previously worked or not worked full-time. Here there would be "considerable potential that can also be mobilized in the short term."
The role of a combination of social infrastructure measures and changes in family-related transfer payments and taxation in reducing child and family poverty is emphasized from several quarters, for example by the Federal Youth Board of Trustees and several interest groups such as the associations represented in the alliance for basic child protection and the social service of Catholic women .
In 2015, the Federal Ministry of Family Affairs set up the Advisory Board for Advisory Board on the compatibility of care and work . Its 21 members represent interest groups, trade unions, employers, charities, senior citizens' organizations and social and private long-term care insurance. According to the BMFSFJ, the advisory board "deals independently and on a voluntary basis with questions about the compatibility of care and work, accompanies the implementation of the relevant legal regulations and advises on their effects".
In view of more recent socio-economic developments, feminist criticism has shown that the distinction between adult worker model and double provider model in the sense of Pfau-Efinger's family models does not represent the real situation of families in a sufficiently differentiated manner. A division into family models according to the type of their economic security is presented:
- Economized family model of two breadwinners who have at least an average wage and who rely on external support from household service providers (mostly female, and often mini-jobbers or “illegalized migrants”), and who would primarily be supported by measures such as parental allowance ;
- precarious family model with a maximum of one full-time employee - who is often unable to feed a family with children at an average standard of living - and at least one adult employed in precarious employment. These families are at risk of slipping into the group of recipients of unemployment benefit II and have an insecure pension scheme. Even single parents were often in this group. There is a double burden, especially for women in this group;
- subsistenzorientiertes family model in which the family as a community of need summarized the unemployment benefits is subject, and stood short-term strategies for the organization of basic needs such as food, clothing or shelter in the foreground and their members - have to accept any job - with the exception of a parent within three years after birth. They are socially excluded, also with regard to their educational opportunities. Within this group, women in particular would exercise education and care.
According to this characterization, each of these primary family models is based primarily on the assumption of reproductive work by low-paid women. This is how neoliberal class relations are reflected in a division into class, gender and ethnicity. Instead of “promoting the most cost-effective reproduction of labor with the associated gendered and ethnicized discrimination” and thus “comprehensively economizing” human needs, according to this criticism, the realization of high-quality reproductive activities must be sought. The satisfaction of basic human needs for high-quality food , housing , education and health must be the guideline of political action, whereby every child and every adult must be given the opportunity to fully develop their own personality. In particular, the following should be promoted: the expansion of high-quality services in the social, health and educational sectors, especially in the field of free all-day schools and professional care for children and those in need of care, a general reduction in working hours to 25 or 30 hours per week while exhausting the possibilities for individual time and location sovereignty, a professionalisation of domestic services through service pools an unconditional basic income or a basic social protection for children and the unemployed.
- The law on the protection of working mothers ( Mutterschutzgesetz - MuSchG) of January 24, 1952, last amended on October 23, 2012 applies to pregnant women , women who have recently given birth and breastfeeding who are employed as employees .
- With the 1957 amendment to family law based on the Equal Opportunities Act , which came into force on July 1, 1958, the husband's right to terminate an employment relationship entered into by his wife was abolished . The wife's employment, however, was dependent on it being compatible with her duties in marriage and family. Conversely, unpaid work in the husband's business was an obligation.
- The first law for the reform of marriage and family law ( 1. EheRG ) of June 14, 1976 replaced the legal division of tasks in marriage with a partnership principle on July 1, 1977 .
- From 1979 to 1985, employed working mothers were entitled to extended maternity leave and maternity leave allowance ; these have been 1 January 1986 through parental leave and child-raising allowance replaced (predecessor of parental leave and parental benefits).
- With the Survivors ' Pension and Parenting Periods Act (the law on the reorganization of survivors' pensions and the recognition of child-rearing periods in the statutory pension insurance ), a child-rearing period was taken into account for the first time in pension law from January 1, 1986 .
- With the Pension Reform Act 1992 , the rentenbegründende and pension enhancing parenting time were per child increased from one to three years and, in addition for births from 1992 into account time for times of raising a child up to the age of 10 ( children into account time ) and times are not in employment caring for relatives ( Care consideration times ) introduced. The latter were abolished on April 1, 1995 in connection with the introduction of long-term care insurance .
- The second law amending the fifth book of the Social Security Code (SGB V) , in force since January 1, 1992, changed, with regard to SGB V, the time off work and sick pay when a child is ill . The age limit was raised from 8 to 12 years and the duration of benefits extended from 5 to 10 days per child and year, with an upper limit of 25 days (single parents: 20 days per child and year up to a maximum of 50 days). From July 1, 2001, the age limit for disabled children no longer applies.
- The Pregnancy and Family Assistance Act of July 27, 1992 changed the Child and Youth Assistance Act ( Book VIII of the Social Code ), which grants children aged three and over from January 1, 1996 a legal right to attend a half-day kindergarten . This regulation was intended to make it easier for women to carry an unintentional pregnancy to term and was related to the deadline regulation with the obligation to advise on termination of pregnancy
- The Occupational Safety and Health Act (ArbSchG) of August 7, 1996 goes beyond the pathogenesis (development of diseases) with a preventive and holistic approach and includes salutogenesis (development of health) and occupational health promotion in occupational safety . The case law on this sets a broad concept of health as the norm, which also includes the psychological well-being of the employees.
- The Children's Law Reform Act changed 1 July 1998, among other things, the provisions on parental authority and expanded in particular the visits and use rights not custodial people.
- The law on part-time work and fixed-term employment contracts ( Part-time and Temporary Employment Act - TzBfG) of December 21, 2000, in force since January 1, 2001, last amended on December 24, 2003, defines a legal framework for part-time work, including to prevent discrimination or disadvantage.
- The law on childcare allowance and parental leave ( Bundeserziehungsgeldgesetz - BErzG), in force since December 6, 1985, was partially replaced by the law on parental allowance and parental leave on January 1, 2007 and will cease to apply in full on December 31, 2008 . The time frame for childcare allowance and childcare leave was originally set at ten months in 1986 and increased in the following years to 12 months (1988), 15 months (1989), and 18 months (1990). In 1992, the childcare allowance for children born after January 1, 1992 was extended to two years and childcare leave was extended until the child reached the age of three. The amendment that came into force on January 1, 2001 granted a legal right to part-time work at least in companies with 15 or more employees, enabled fathers and mothers to take parental leave at the same time, to combine parental leave and childcare allowance with part-time work of up to 30 hours and one year of Postpone parental leave until the child is eight years old. Since the change of January 1, 2004, father and mother are each entitled to parental leave up to the child's third year of life, without taking into account the partner's parental leave.
- The Works Constitution Act (BetrVG) obliges employee representatives in companies with a works council to protect and promote the free development of the personality of the employees in the company and to ensure compliance with the protective rights of employees. Since the reform of the Works Constitution Act of July 23, 2001, according to (1) No. 2b BetrVG , one of the tasks of the works council is to “promote the compatibility of family and work”; According to BetrVG, works and departmental assemblies can, among other things, deal with issues of promoting equality between women and men and the reconciliation of family and employment that directly affect the company or its employees.
- The Job Active Gesetz increased from 1 January 2002, including the grant for child care costs for the unemployed during vocational training.
- The law to ensure the care and care of critically ill children of July 26, 2002, in force since August 1, 2002, lifted the time limit on children's sickness benefits for severely ill children who, according to a medical certificate, have a life expectancy of weeks or a few months on.
- The law on the quality-oriented and needs-based expansion of day care for children ( Tagesbetreuungsausbaugesetz - TAG), in force since January 1, 2005, aims at the quality-oriented and needs-based expansion of day care, especially for children under three years of age, as well as the expansion of childcare and Youth welfare.
- The amendment to the Vocational Training Act (BBiG) introduced the possibility of part-time vocational training in .
- With the law on the compensation of employer expenses (AAG) of December 22, 2005, the allocation of costs of maternity protection was reorganized.
- The Law on Tax Promotion of Growth and Employment of April 26, 2006 ( Federal Law Gazette I, p. 1091 ) regulates, as part of the family benefits equalization, among other things, the tax deductibility for childcare costs and the expansion of tax deductibility for household services , in particular handicrafts and care - and care services for a person in need of care. (For household-related employment , however, (1 ) EStG applies.)
- The General Equal Treatment Act (AGG) of 14 August 2006 prohibits certain forms of discrimination, including indirect discrimination in the workplace based on gender, for example for reasons related to motherhood.
- The law on parental allowance and parental leave (Federal Parental Allowance and Parental Leave Act - BEEG) of September 29, 2006 introduces parental allowance for births from January 1, 2007 .
- The Child Promotion Act (KiföG) of December 10, 2008 provides for a further expansion of childcare, as well as a monthly payment (e.g. a childcare allowance ) for parents who do not want or cannot have their children up to three years of age looked after in day care facilities. From August 1, 2013, there is a legal right to a childcare place for children from the first to the third year of life.
- The Science Employment Act of 12 April 2007 provides the scientific and artistic staff in relating to child care and care specific extensions of the limit maximum duration and / or the employment contract academic background before.
- Since the Care Leave Act of May 28, 2008, which came into force on July 1, 2008 , there is a right to 10-day to six-month unpaid leave for care under certain conditions .
- The new version of the Federal Civil Servants Act , which came into force on December 31, 2008, improves the compatibility of family and work for civil servants and ensures that no person is disadvantaged in terms of employment or promotion because of pregnancy, maternity leave, parental leave or part-time employment.
- As of January 1, 2009, SGB III was revised on the compatibility of family and work. It replaced the previous version of § 8 on the advancement of women.
- With the law amending SGB VI of 2009, parents who are entitled to the crediting of child-rearing periods but have not fulfilled the general waiting period of 60 months can obtain the statutory standard retirement pension by paying as many voluntary contributions on request when they reach the standard retirement age as are still required to meet the general waiting period.
- The Family Care Leave Act (FPflZG), which came into force on January 1, 2012, grants a right to a temporary reduction in working hours under certain circumstances, with the loss of wages being extended over a longer period of time.
- The law on better compatibility of family, care and work grants employees from January 1, 2015 a care support allowance for up to ten days of care time for the short-term organization of an acute care situation, a legal right to family care time with a maximum of 24 months off work to care for a close relative and an interest-free loan for up to six months of partial or full exemption under the Care Leave Act or the Family Care Leave Act .
- The law introducing Parental Allowance Plus with a partnership bonus and more flexible parental leave in the Federal Parental Allowance and Parental Leave Act changed the Federal Parental Allowance and Parental Leave Act so that parents of children born on or after July 1, 2015 who work part-time during parental leave , receive half of the parental allowance for can receive twice the duration ( Elterngeld Plus ) and that those parents who work part-time at the same time are entitled to a partnership bonus.
- The reform of the psychotherapist training, which was decided in September 2019, provides for a hardship rule in which the transition period for ending the psychotherapist training in the case of bringing up children or caring for relatives can be extended from 12 to 15 years.
- The law on the protection of the population in the event of an epidemic of national scope , which was passed during the COVID-19 pandemic , made provisions for working custodians and their families: With the changes to the Infection Protection Act , working custodians of children have been given since March 30, 2020 who suffer loss of earnings due to officially ordered daycare and school closings, up to six weeks 67 percent of this (maximum 2016 euros) as compensation; this entitlement is limited to a maximum of six weeks and the regulation will expire on January 1, 2021. The BMAS makes it clear that the vacation of the previous year must be used, but not that of the current year, as it is viewed as subordinate. In addition, it was stipulated that income from secondary employment in systemically relevant industries and occupations is not taken into account in the short-time work allowance as long as 100% of the original salary is not reached; this rule applies from April 1, 2020 to October 31, 2020.
The Federal Ministry for Family, Seniors, Women and Youth publishes information on, among other things, laws and draft bills on the subject of work-life balance.
(For information on regulations for members of the Bundeswehr, see: Compatibility of family and service in the Bundeswehr .)
A child care allowance in Austria replaces the parental leave allowance that was valid until then for all children born after January 1st, 2002 , and if necessary, a repayable bridging allowance is also possible. Additional earnings can be earned up to a certain limit without any reduction in benefits, whereby only the income of the parent who receives the childcare allowance is taken into account. Studies give rise to the assumption that in view of the additional income limit for childcare allowance and the higher average salaries of men, there is little incentive for fathers to take family-related time off, and that even well-paid part-time work is not financially worthwhile for mothers and fathers. The possibility of earning additional earnings free of credit up to the additional income limit should, among other things, make it easier for parents with small children to re-enter the labor market. The child care allowance is paid for a maximum of 30 months, or 36 months if both parents devote themselves to child care; The protection against dismissal only exists up to four weeks after the end of parental leave ; this ends on the child's second birthday. After the introduction of the child care allowance in 2002, the proportion of mothers who returned to work by the age of 30 months for their child fell from 54 to 35%. For children born on or after January 1, 2008, a higher childcare allowance can now be chosen with a shorter period of benefit so that the duration of protection against dismissal is not exceeded.
There is no legal entitlement to a kindergarten place in Austria , but it is under discussion. A study published by the OECD in 2006 speaks of maternalism in the sense of a prevailing societal attitude “that young children should best be cared for in the family and especially by their mother”. The daily school time is very short, at least during the first four years of school, and children are expected to have lunch and do homework at home.
A legal right to part-time employment (parental part-time ) with the simultaneous right to return to the original working hours has existed since July 1, 2004 in companies with more than 20 employees after a period of employment of at least 3 years for parents of children up to the child's 7th birthday, respectively until he starts school, if it is later. Any waiting period will be counted as a period of employment. A shift in working hours can also be requested, for example a four-day week with the same number of hours per week. Protection against dismissal for parents who are on parental part-time work continues for up to four weeks after the child's 4th birthday. Some critics criticize the requirements of three years of employment with the company and the company size of over 20 employees as well as difficulties in implementing the legal entitlement in companies, especially for managers; others fear a negative impact on the hiring of young women.
There is also a legal right to part-time employment for caring for relatives and, prior to retirement, in the form of partial retirement .
The House Care Act, which came into force on July 1, 2007, facilitates the care of people in need of care.
In 2006, Familie & Beruf Management GmbH, owned by the Federal Ministry of Economics, Family and Youth , was founded as an Austria-wide coordination center for the reconciliation of family and work, offering funding for childcare projects and the berufundfamilie audit for companies.
According to the Federal Social Insurance Office, the reconciliation of family and work in Switzerland comprises the following areas: childcare beyond the family , family-friendly framework conditions in the world of work, the elimination of negative financial incentives in the tax system for working mothers, time off for the birth of a child or for caring for Relatives, as well as equal pay to enable fathers to participate in bringing up children without a substantial reduction in family income.
The federal referendum in Switzerland on the amendment of the Income Compensation Act (for service providers and maternity) of September 26, 2004 resulted in 55% votes in favor. The corresponding law came into force on July 1, 2005. Since then, working women have received 80% of the last salary up to an upper limit as compensation for loss of earnings (the so-called maternity allowance ) through maternity insurance 14 weeks after the birth ; some of the Swiss cantons have more generous provisions. Until the beginning of 2005, financial benefits were granted during the period of the maternity-related prohibition of employment, as well as in the event of other incapacity for work, according to the “Bern scale” or collective agreements, mostly for a shorter period of time, depending on seniority; the federal popular initiative “for effective protection of motherhood” failed in 1984.
An important element for the work-life balance in Switzerland, in addition to measures of family policy , especially the operational framework. For example, several Swiss employers have introduced paternity leave as a form of "fringe benefit" . The length of paid paternity leave in Switzerland varies between zero days and four weeks; a motion to introduce paternity leave of several weeks was rejected on December 19, 2007. The “Platform for Family and Work”, a collaboration between the Swiss Employers' Association, Pro Familia and Pro Juventute, presents companies with a family-friendly profile. In it stand out features such as individual work schedules ( flexible working hours , four-day workweek with full wage, job sharing , teleworking , home working , flexible distribution of working time over the year, part-time work for managers ), unpaid vacations , operational paternity leave , child day care (about Employer crèche and after-school care center ) or the efforts to develop long-term and strategically oriented family-friendly company structures. These are particularly important because the general social framework for reconciliation is often perceived as more difficult in Switzerland than in other nations. The Swiss Federal Statistical Office found that at the beginning of the 21st century a satisfactory work-life balance was not guaranteed in Switzerland for either mothers or fathers. The State Chancellery of the Canton of Bern enables companies to use the tool box tool box to check full -time positions for their part-time potential.
According to the report "Health of Mothers and Children Under Seven" by the Institute for Social and Preventive Medicine at the University of Zurich , single mothers and mothers of more than two children are particularly at risk for their health , mostly in connection with a combined burden in the family, Employment (mostly part-time) and household. In addition, these families are particularly vulnerable to child poverty . The report proposes better financial aid, better education for parents, stronger networking between parents in the community, an expansion of maternal and father counseling centers and childcare as well as greater involvement of fathers in education and housework as elements of a solution.
From a statistical point of view, two models of role allocation predominate in Switzerland: the traditional model of a fatherly job alone and the modernized traditional family model of full employment on the father's side and part-time work for the mother. Only a small minority of couples share work and family work. These roles are based partly on parental ideas and wishes, and partly on the difficulty of reconciling gainful employment with domestic responsibility. Taking care of children is a private area of responsibility; Childcare offers are rare and expensive, and the opening times of kindergartens and other childcare facilities are often not tailored to parental occupation. Schools usually have a longer lunch break during which the children come home to eat. To make matters worse, parents who share their work and family work as partners are exposed to clear social criticism.
However, when determining working hours and rest times, employers are required to take family responsibilities such as looking after children under 15 or caring for relatives into account. People with family responsibilities may only be called in to work overtime with their own consent and are entitled to a lunch break of at least one and a half hours upon request.
The Swiss vote on the family policy of 3 March 2013. inclusion of an article on family policy in the Federal Constitution failed because of the cantons , despite the majority in the population. Rural cantons in particular voted against it.
In Liechtenstein , in view of the need for well-trained workers, the compatibility of family and work is seen as a challenge for families and the economy, but increasingly also as a state task. Appeals to the economy, financial support and greater competition among schools and kindergartens should in future give parents greater freedom of choice with regard to childcare.
In Liechtenstein there is a maternity allowance, child benefit and parental leave, as well as free of charge for kindergarten and school. Since 2004 there has been a right to three months of unpaid parental leave, which can be taken full-time, part-time, in parts or by the hour up to the child's third year of life (or, in the case of adoptions and foster child relationships, up to the fifth year of life). Children from 4 years of age are entitled to a place in kindergarten. Some of the political parties advocate extended and financially supported parental leave. A family allowance of up to CHF 750 per month in the first three years of life, more flexible childcare and reducing the kindergarten age by one year are also under political discussion.
In France , culturally, it is almost natural for both men and women to work and this attitude remains largely even after they become parents. At the same time, there is a lot of trust placed in state childcare.
France has a high birth rate (for example, it was the highest in the EU in 2006). There has long been a high female employment rate, and the majority of women have full-time jobs that are only briefly interrupted by the birth of children. 75% of French mothers with two children and even 51% of mothers with three or more children are employed.
Fathers of children under the age of 7 in a couple relationship are mostly employed and only 3% of them work part-time. Little more than half of women in households with at least one child under the age of 7 are employed; almost a quarter of them work part-time, with 80% of them wanting this. Half of the women who choose to work part-time do not work on Wednesdays. The employment and part-time rate among mothers varies greatly with the standard of living and it depends, much more than among fathers, on the level of vocational qualifications: low-skilled mothers of young children are more likely than other mothers to forego gainful employment and work more often in Part time.
Maternity Benefit ( indemnités journalières de maternité ) is paid for between 16 and 26 weeks (up to 46 weeks for multiple births) and is subject to tax and social security contributions; Depending on the collective agreement, the employer supplements these payments. The father is entitled to three days of leave at the time of birth and, in addition, to eleven days of paternity leave for the birth or adoption of a child (18 days for multiple births). Maternity and paternity allowances are paid by the social security system ( sécurité sociale ). Parental leave or, alternatively, part-time parental leave is granted for one year without wage compensation and can be extended twice, up to the child's third birthday.
If the child is ill, parents are given leave of absence for up to 120 days a year, with the same remuneration rules as for parental leave.
The pro-natalist (birth-promoting) family policy of France , and policies of the third child called, led many income and child-speed-dependent financial assistance and for parents who were often granted only with the birth of the second child. A childcare allowance ( allocation parentale d'éducation, APE ) was only paid if the family had at least two children, one of whom was younger than three years, and provided that one parent only worked part-time and had previously held a full job for a long time. Only families with two or more children were entitled to child benefit. If the family only had one child, an upbringing allowance could be paid by the family benefits office ( caisse d'allocations familiales, CAF ) depending on the income . In addition, there were allowances for childcare at home and, depending on, among other things, the age of the children, social security contributions and tax benefits when employing a trained childcare aid ( aide à la famille pour l'emploi d'une assistante maternelle agréée, AFEAMA ) as well as single parent allowance ( allocation parent isolé, API ). The childcare allowance was mainly used by two groups of employees: on the one hand, women with a secure job and parental leave approved by the employer, and on the other hand, women with a clearly precarious career.
The prestation d'accueil du jeune enfant (PAJE) replaced a number of the previously applicable grants for children born after January 1, 2004; Between 2004 and 2006 , the APE and AFEAMA were progressively replaced. Following a reform of the PAJE , since July 1, 2006, parents with three or more children can choose an increased child-raising allowance with a reduced period of benefit of one year instead of three years.
In France, families benefit from a form of family splitting that takes into account a so-called family quotient, which among other things depends on the number of children. As a result, only half of all French households pay wage and income tax at all; From the third child onwards, parents with average incomes are de facto tax-free. Transfer benefits for families are designed in such a way that working parents with several children can often afford a nanny more easily than with one or two children, in order to improve compatibility. In France, mothers of three or more children also traditionally enjoy some employment-related privileges that fathers of three children are now generally entitled to in the interests of gender equality . In particular, parents who have raised three children receive a 10% supplement on their old-age pension. For this group of people, as for single parents, the age limit usually applicable for the entrance examination to the prestigious École nationale d'administration (ENA) did not apply; subsequently the age limit was generally abolished. Mothers of three children who are alive or who have died due to war reasons and who are active in the civil service are entitled to a pension after 15 years of employment; Fathers in a comparable position were awarded the right to equal rights in the first instance, which gave rise to negotiations in parliament.
For reasons of labor market policy, the weekly working time was set at 35 hours in 2002; however, in practice it varies. Since the labor market reform passed under President Nicolas Sarkozy in 2008 , companies have been able to negotiate longer working hours with their employees.
State day nurseries with a focus on early childhood education are supplemented by state-sponsored childminder models, although the need for care for children under two and a half years is not fully covered. The form of childcare ( crèche ) is particularly widespread in large cities. Care by a childminder ( assistante maternelle agréée ) or nanny ( garde à domicile ) is also widespread . Often a nanny of two families is hired together ( assistante maternelle partagée ), where the care takes place mostly alternately in the homes of two families. Another common forms of care is, especially in big cities, the crèche ( crèche ). In addition, there is the family crèche ( crèche familiale ), a family care service in which one or more child minders usually look after up to three children in their own apartment or in specially rented rooms. In France, from a pedagogical point of view, criticism is expressed when parents leave their children in day nurseries from a very early age and for many hours, often during their free time and during vacation periods, because there is little room for an affective upbringing.
The école maternelle , which accepts children from two and a half or three years of age, is attended by 99% of children from three years of age. The all-day secular republican school system had developed in the 1880s as a result of the confrontation between church and republic over influence on education. School starts at 9 a.m. in the école maternelle , at 8 a.m. in the primary school and ends at around 4.30 p.m. The timetable with supervised sports and games on Wednesday afternoons and hot lunches in the school's own canteens as well as school-side childcare after school and sometimes during the holidays make it easier for parents of school-age children to combine family and work. More recently, there has been a trend towards private, albeit publicly funded, childcare. While childcare in France is largely institutionalized or publicly funded, the care of older people is largely left to the private sphere.
The Chèque emploi service universel is a tax-subsidized means of payment for a wide variety of household and family support services. a. can be used for domestic help, for childcare and for the support of elderly, disabled or people in need of care.
Women are very involved in the labor market in Great Britain and around three quarters of family households have both parents in employment. For a long time, the British state oriented itself towards the male breadwinner model , but the employment rates show a trend towards the additional earner model (towards a full-time / part-time combination). There is a polarization of working hours : women work 40% part-time, men 60% more than 40 hours a week. The employment rate of mothers in couple households in Great Britain is almost twice as high as that of single parents.
The cost of childcare rose sharply around the turn of the millennium. State measures to care for young children and people in need of care are primarily aimed at low-income households, while higher-income parents organize the care required for their work largely privately. According to criticism, this separation can be accompanied by social segregation .
Parents of school-age children may be able to work due to long school hours and afternoon clubs. However, a report by the German-British Foundation for the Study of Industrial Society from 2002 states that poorer women in particular are under considerable pressure due to a combination of low wages, high dependency on inadequate public transport and few childcare options. A recommendation by the OECD in 2005 aimed, among other things, at integrating forms of childcare more closely with one another and expanding childcare subsidies.
After the changes in the 1980s under Margaret Thatcher , when society and the state developed in the direction of a performance society and a liberal welfare regime, the possibilities of reconciling family and work were largely left to the individual and dependent on market-mediated services. The childcare services expanded in the 1980s; However, most of the childcare was provided unpaid and the majority only allowed women to work part-time.
In the 1990s, the poverty rate rose , especially in single parent households: the UK had one of the highest poverty rates among children in single parent families in the EU. These also made up a high proportion of families, and a large proportion of single parents were inactive. But the poverty rate also rose in couple households at this time, and the number of gainfully employed people without a livelihood ( working poor ) increased. The child poverty was in the 1990s and early 21st century, by EU standards very high.
Better work-life balance has been seen as an objective since the late 1990s, related to but subordinate to the primary objective of UK family policy of reducing child poverty. The labor, tax and family policy set the fight against child poverty as the most important goal. It has focused, especially since the election of New Labor in 1997, on transfer payments for children in families with low incomes: child benefit was increased, while family taxation was gradually individualized. It also aimed to increase the employment rate of single mothers, and changes in labor market, family and tax policies encouraged the modernization of family employment patterns. Mothers became a target group in terms of labor market policy, but to a large extent for marginal, low-wage employment . Childcare places were made available in large numbers - even if only for a few hours per week and for 2/3 of the calendar year.
Since 2003, there has been an entitlement to a 26-week partially paid parental leave followed by a 26-week unpaid parental leave. The Employment Act 2002 grants parents of a child under 6 years of age and parents of a disabled child under 18 years of age the right to apply for flexible working conditions from April 6, 2003, provided they have worked for the same employer for at least 26 weeks. This right relates to a change in the weekly working hours and their timing as well as the option to work from home. The employer can reject the application in justified cases.
A counseling interview at the employment office when the youngest child reaches school age has been mandatory for single parents since 2000, and since 2004 also for the partners of transfer recipients, with the option of voluntary participation in qualification measures. The Working Tax Credit includes a negative income tax and a subsidy for childcare costs incurred with minimum employment of 16 hours per week. In view of the increase in the marginal earnings threshold, it is largely a question of the labor market integration of women through marginal part-time work in the low-wage sector .
In Northern Ireland , maternity, paternity and parental leave rights were reorganized in 2002.
In Ireland , a pilot scheme in 1998 gave parents and others with long-term care responsibilities in some areas of the public service the possibility of taking unpaid leave during the summer school holidays ( Term Time Scheme ). This regulation was extended in two amendments from 2002 and 2006 to all civil servants and employees of the public service with at least one pre-school child or school attending child under 18, provided that this does not hinder the work of the respective department. In 2009, a regulation was issued that lifted the restriction to the summer holidays and to parents and carers and which now allow up to three shorter absences of up to a maximum of 13 weeks per year; this is unpaid leave for which part of a basic salary is granted ( Shorter Working Year Scheme ). This regulation was initially enacted for three years, was then extended and is also in force in 2014. Since the jobs are normally not filled elsewhere in the meantime, lower total salaries are assumed.
The following information relates to the period from June 25th to December 31st, 2015, as an extension of these regulations made under the Italian labor market reform “Jobs Act” is still pending.
In Italy , in addition to maternity protection, there is a right to parental leave of six months; this period is extended to up to eleven months if the father also takes parental leave, a total of eleven months assuming that both parents take at least three months of parental leave. With five days (before 2015: 15 days) notice to the employer, short-term parental leave can be taken with half the working day (based on the average daily working time); this time off can only be taken more flexibly on an hourly basis if a corresponding agreement has been negotiated with the employer. Since 2015, there has also been the right to convert parental leave that has already been applied for into part-time.
Parental leave can be taken up to the child's 12th year of age (before 2015: up to the child's eighth year of age), although the total duration of the parental leave (cumulative) must not be exceeded.
The extent to which compensation is granted for this period depends on the age of the child and the income of the parents: Up to the child's sixth year of age (before 2015: until the child's third year of age), all parents receive partial compensation for parental leave of Granted 30% of the remuneration; Since 2015, it has also been granted for low-income recipients in the same amount up to the age of eight.
In some cases, mothers terminate their employment in the first year of their child's life and are thus entitled to subsequent eight-month unemployment benefits with full pension insurance. Critics criticize the fact that this enables mothers to have temporary social security, but at the same time they are pushed out of the labor market.
In the Scandinavian countries of Sweden , Denmark and Norway , state childcare with all-day school offers is widespread. At the same time, the participation of parents in bringing up children is encouraged, especially fathers.
Swedish family policy is based on a welfare model that aims to integrate all individuals into the labor market and is committed to gender neutrality and equal opportunities . The inclusion in social security associated with the family does not take place in Sweden through marriage, but through caring for children.
Sweden has the lowest gender gap in labor force participation in the EU and is in first place worldwide according to the Gender Gap Index compiled by the World Economic Forum in 2005, 2006 and 2007 . However, an OECD study from 2005 found a lack of equality in upper management and, within the top 20% of earners, the gender pay gap of 19% compared to an OECD average of 16%. There are also differences in the type of employment between men and women: more than half of working women in Sweden work in the public sector, but just under a quarter of men.
In 1974 Sweden was the first state to introduce parental allowance ( föräldrapenning ) for either father or mother, which amounted to 90% (currently 80%) of the gross salary. At the same time, child care was greatly expanded. It is almost entirely in the hands of the state, with half-day and full-day day care centers as well as recreational homes with afternoon and holiday programs for school-age children.
In the late 1970s, public campaigns, educational measures, and structural measures followed, aimed at increasing the involvement of men in family work. For example, courses and educational projects on roles that were carried out as part of military service and by sports associations, authorities, private companies and trade unions encouraged men to examine the role of men and fathers. Furthermore, since 1995 part of the parental leave has only been granted if the second parent also takes a professional break; this share was one month in 1995 and is currently two months.
In Sweden, as of January 1, 2002, entitlement to parental allowance was increased to a total of 480 days; 80% of the previous salary is paid out for 360 days. The benefit can optionally also be taken up to an eighth (i.e. about one hour) per day until the child is 8 years old. This percentage utilization means that parental allowance can be drawn over a longer period of time until it has been fully claimed. Parental benefit is financed as parental insurance through social security contributions. A “speed bonus” introduced in 1980 stipulates that for a further child born within 24 (since 1986: 30) months, the parental allowance is based on the income before the birth of the previous child; this does not discriminate against parents who have worked part-time between births. After the introduction of this regulation, especially after 1986, the average time between sibling births became significantly shorter. Parents also have the right to reduce their working hours by up to two hours a day until the child is eight years old, but without wage compensation. In the event of illness of a child, visits to the doctor, school enrollment or similar situations, one of the parents or any person commissioned by the parents is entitled to time off and the associated granting of temporary parental benefit ( tillfällföräldrapenning ) in the amount of 80% of the income for up to 120 days per year and child. Couples who split their parental leave in partnership have received a gender equality bonus ( jämställdhetsbonus ) of up to SEK 3,000 per month since July 1, 2008 .
Other Nordic countries also provide for parental allowance. In Norway , parents can choose between one year of parental allowance at 80% of previous wages or, alternatively, 42 weeks at 100%, in Finland parental allowance is granted for nine months with average support of 66% of previous wage , in Denmark at least six months . In Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Iceland , part of the parental allowance is reserved for the second parent. Every child in Finland has a legal right to a place in a public day care center.
Scandinavia is also breaking new ground when it comes to combining work and private life in general, not just for parents. In 2002, Sweden, like Denmark before, as a temporary pilot project, the possibility of a career break ( alternerings ledighet, AL ) of up to one year for personal development or acquisition of new competencies. During the leave of absence, an employee can receive remuneration that is roughly based on unemployment benefit, provided that an employee with the same level of qualification takes on his position as a representative.
Outside of Europe
In Australia, the primary carer is entitled to 18 weeks paid parental leave (PPL), during which the minimum wage ( adult minimum wage ) is paid. The PPL cannot be divided equally between the parents. The government under Tony Abbott plans to increase the PPL to 26 weeks; The amount of the payment should be the same as the wages, but limited below by the minimum wage and capped by a maximum amount of 75,000 AU $ for six months. Two weeks of paid time off are planned for the partner, with a proportionately similar cap. The measure is to be funded through a pay-as-you-go system with a 1.5% allocation to Australia's 3,000 largest companies; In return, the corporate tax for all companies will be reduced from 30% to 28.5%. Rules currently in force in the public service. B. enable you to receive your PPL with half the salary for twice the time are not provided. The National Foundation for Australian Women criticized that the effect of the planned PPL on the labor market participation of women should be examined and a comparison drawn with measures for childcare.
The Meiji period developed a hierarchically structured, traditionally oriented family model in law and ideology in which each member assumed a role prescribed by age and gender and the upbringing of women aimed at their role as housewife and mother, and that until after 1945 the family characterized in Japan .
Japanese women are now considered to be the women with the best education worldwide. Despite all-day schools and all-day care places for the youngest, they are under great pressure in their professional life , primarily due to long working hours and the prevailing expectation that women look after older family members. Nevertheless, over half of them work at least part-time; however, around three quarters of working women work part-time. After having their first child, seven out of ten Japanese women stop working for about ten years.
In everyday life, men usually only spend a short time within the family: Socially, high moral demands are placed on their work , especially those of the man, and travel times to work in metropolitan areas are very long, often up to two hours. Since the children's success in school depends above all on the grade of the school reached , a change of school often stands in the way of moving when changing jobs.
Housework and child-rearing are largely the responsibility of women; they spend an average of three and a half hours a day on it, whereas men only spend eight minutes. At higher hierarchical levels, such as in top management and politics, women are far under-represented at the national level. Only since the change in labor law and the Equal Opportunities Act on April 1, 1999, companies are no longer allowed to advise female employees to retire from working life when they get married.
In the male-dominated professional world, the career opportunities of men and women are still very different. For the most part, Japanese women take on part-time work after a family phase. The social status of the housewife is defined by the position of the man and the success of the children in the school career.
In the professional world, the traditional view of the role of mother and father still prevails. Single mothers have a hard time getting a skilled job ;; Especially in single parent families, children are often poor . There is a right to maternity leave, which has been 14 weeks since 1995. Since the beginning of the 1990s, mothers and fathers have been legally able to take childcare leave up to the child's first birthday, which is paid at 25% of the salary, but it is almost exclusively due to the expectations in companies Women used.
Younger people in Japan in particular regret the strong separation of areas of life: men would like more time for their families, women more time with their husbands and a greater presence in public life. In negotiations in 2004, the JEIU trade union made the balance between work and professional life the main focus and thus achieved better conditions for paternity leave. Instead of equality, Japanese women's rights activists emphasize opportunities for self-realization for women and a humanization of the working world for men.
The Japanese tax and welfare system offers financial incentives for earning marriage: If a wife has only a low income, her husband receives tax breaks and she is entitled to a non-contributory state pension. In many companies it is also customary to pay men with an inactive wife a wage subsidy.
Labor law provisions in the USA primarily relate to weekly working hours , minimum wages and the reduction of wage discrimination . The family is widely viewed as a private domain that should not be hindered or specially supported from outside. Although the US is seen as a pioneer in terms of equality in terms of equal opportunities ( equal opportunities ) Policy regarding there is the agreement between family and work but only in relatively small scale. The USA and Australia were recently the only western industrialized countries that did not provide paid leave for parents to care for a newborn. However, Australia introduced paid parental leave with effect from 2011.
American parents work longer hours away from home and are more likely to lose their jobs at birth than in Europe; external child-rearing is more expensive and often of lower quality. According to a study by Harvard and McGill University, the United States lags far behind almost all wealthy states in terms of family-friendly conditions such as maternity leave, paid sick leave, and enabling breastfeeding.
Parental employment patterns in the US
In the second half of the 20th century, the female participation rate in the United States, particularly the participation rate of married women and that of women with young children, increased significantly. Fathers are more involved in raising children than they used to be, but spend about half as much time on it as mothers.
However, full-time work and often long commutes are the norm in the US; So, even for working parents, absences of twelve, thirteen or more hours from home are not uncommon. Private childcare for small children ( pre-school, nursery school ) and pre-school ( kindergarten ) often attached to the school , possibly combined with an au pair or babysitter, as well as schools with school buses , lunches and all-day lessons (or mostly six-hour school days for primary school students ) and afternoon care offered by independent providers ( after-school child care ), give parents the opportunity to pursue a career. According to genealogist Gisela Erler , a larger proportion of mothers in the USA are gainfully employed than in Germany. Even in couples in which both work, mothers usually have a job that allows them to pick up children from school or to look after them at home when they are ill. Conversely, the proportion of non-working parents, especially mothers ( stay-at-home moms ), is quite high. While men usually continue to play the role of bread winners and aim for a career, women largely reduce their working hours in whole or in part and forego activities that would require their constant availability or business trips. This is also known as the mommy track . In the United States, maternal discrimination is considered to be the strongest and most overt form of gender discrimination.
Those who work part-time receive an average of 21% less hourly wages than a full-time position. This discrepancy is far larger than in most countries: it is twice that of the UK and seven times that of Sweden. Even an actual working week of 40 hours in the USA is often not considered a full commitment.
On the other hand, it is reported that companies are increasingly willing to adapt to the wishes of their employees with regard to the family. According to Erler, although the working hours have increased significantly in the last 20 years, parents spend more time with their children than 20 years ago. This is mainly due to the fact that fathers are more involved, children of working parents go to bed later and the time together is used more intensively. Parents forego free time.
The annual leave in the US is short, so that families collective holidays is not much time. According to a report by the Families and Work Institute , Americans take an average of 14.6 days of annual vacation annually; some would not take the annual leave offered to them. Many prefer to tackle work that has been left behind instead of taking vacation. This number of vacation days is significantly lower than in European countries.
Political development in the USA
With the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) in 1993, unpaid family leave of up to twelve weeks was institutionalized, to which both sexes are entitled equally in the event of birth, adoption or serious illness. However, the FMLA only applies to certain groups of employees - they must have worked at least 1250 hours in the previous 12 months for an employer who continuously employs at least 50 employees. In the US, for example, there is no general right to paternity leave or time off for breastfeeding. Neither the weekly working time nor the number of overtime is limited by law. There is also no statutory entitlement to annual leave or a minimum number of days off per week.
There are many calls for a stronger institutionalization of family-friendly regulations. Some relate to financial support for care and a right to paid absences in the event of birth, adoption, or illness, as well as incentives for creating family-friendly jobs with protection against dismissal.
Proponents of Work & Family Bill of Rights are finding American workers shared tends into two groups, one have jobs with high salary, high benefits ( benefits ) but long hours and little time for family and leisure, the other getting low Salaries and benefits and have too little flexibility and financial resources for the family. The requirements under a Work & Family Bill of Rights relate to annual leave, maternity leave, time off work in the event of illness or visits to the doctor, a right to part-time and flexibility, availability of childcare and care, a minimum salary and general health insurance.
In September 2003, the US Senate voted to designate October as National Work and Family Month .
The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) announced on May 23, 2007, the Enforcement Guidance on Unlawful Disparate Treatment of Workers with Caregiving Responsibilities out, often referred to as Guidelines on Caregiver Discrimination referred to which policies represent regarding unlawful discrimination between employees out with family care responsibilities. These guidelines state that the Enforcement of Equal Opportunities laws do not prohibit discrimination against carers per se, but that employees who raise children, look after the disabled or care for people in need of care may experience professional disadvantages due to their care obligations under the title VII of the Civil Rights Act 1964 or the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) 1990 constitute unlawful discrimination. The guidelines are intended, among other things, to educate employers and employees. They perform a variety of scenarios of discrimination against workers because of family commitments ( family responsibilities discrimination, and caregivers discrimination called) on. According to these guidelines, it is in particular impermissible discrimination if an employer treats mothers and fathers differently or if stereotypical ideas about the behavior of mothers and fathers have a decisive influence on a hiring or promotion - but a general and gender-neutral disadvantage of parents compared to childless applies as admissible. Since Title VII prohibits discrimination on the basis of pregnancy, the EEOC therefore advises employers against carrying out pregnancy tests, as the EEOC would in principle take an adverse decision by the employer after such a test as an indication of such discrimination. According to the EEOC, stereotypes about colored mothers often lead to an overlap of gender and racial discrimination . Discrimination on the basis of caring for disabled people is generally not permitted due to the ADA. The EEOC also pointed out cases that were perceived as gender-based harrassment of mothers or pregnant women by superiors.
President Barack Obama's program included extensive changes in the work-life area. His program mentioned the following points in this area:
- Extend the Family and Medical Leave Act to include companies with 25 or more employees (versus 50 today) and include care leave, up to 24 hours a year absence for school activities and time off to deal with situations of violence in the family be included,
- Encourage all 50 states to introduce regulations for paid leave from work,
- expand government support for after-school care,
- expand the Child and Dependent Care Tax Credit ,
- implement the guidelines on Caregiver Discrimination guidelines of the EEOC and
- Support companies with the introduction of flexible working hours and teleworking.
Projects of individual companies
Individual companies in the USA have introduced paid parental leave (e.g. Yahoo: 16 weeks for mothers and eight weeks for fathers since 2013; Apple: 14 weeks for mothers and six weeks for fathers; Facebook: four weeks for mothers and fathers; Google: 18 weeks for mothers and fathers). There was a lot of media coverage when Netflix introduced fully paid one-year parental leave for its employees in 2015, which can be designed as part-time or as full or partial time off. A similarly large media coverage had previously triggered the offer by some tech companies to finance their employees' preventive freezing of their unfertilized egg cells ( social freezing ).
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