Housework and family work

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Housework and family work refers to domestic and family-related work for yourself, for children and relatives living in the household, including your partner and, if applicable, for third parties. Housework and family work are part of the area of care work .

Mother with daughter during housework

Housework is a generic term for all domestic work : work to maintain the household (tidying up, cleaning) and the inventory required for living ( washing clothes, washing dishes , bicycle repairs , wallpapering ); the preparation of meals ( shopping , cooking , baking ).

Family work is often more broadly as a synonym for the duties used of domestic and family work; Family work in the strict sense refers to the supervision, care and education of children and care of family members, as well as costs incurred in this context share of housework and generally speaking, the planning and organization of family life with regard to the everyday life and festivities , the circle of friends and acquaintances who Maintaining contact with relatives and participating in the school or community.


Unpaid "housework and family work" is alsosummarizedunder theterm (family) reproductive workderivedfrom " reproduction "- in contrast to (paid) gainful or production work, which includes financial provision through gainful employment. In some cases, volunteering is also counted aspart of (social) reproductive work . In contrast, the term “family work” is often used synonymously with the generic term of family reproductive work; in individual cases this also applies to the term “housework”. 

Family work and the portion of housework that goes beyond routine activities is also known as family management. The use of this term also emphasizes the need for consensus building among members of the family, for example through family conferences , as well as prioritization , time management and the use of financial resources . In most cases, an actual or desired upgrading of the associated activities is implied - as a reaction to problems arising from gender-specific assignment or rejection of housework and the associated lower evaluation of reproductive work than of gainful work in androcentric societies. Occasionally, housework - defensive, ironic or adapted to the contemporary primacy of the economic economy - is referred to as the management of everyday domestic life . The expression “family manager” is sometimes seen as a euphemism for “ housewife and mother”.

Magazine for the Housewife (USA 1908)

A distinction must be made between “housework” and “ home work ”, a form of wage work with a workplace at home.

Family work is often used as a term for social or educational work with families, for example in the form of “child, youth and family work”.


The domestic division of labor is subject to strongly asymmetrical gender relations in almost all societies and is predominantly assigned or rejected on a gender-specific basis; this concerns both the question of the division between housework and gainful employment (also discussed under the concept of the compatibility of family and work ) and - in the case of more partnership arrangements of housework - the division between different fields of activity within housework. For example, cleaning, washing, sewing and grooming are often viewed as typically female activities, while repair and maintenance work, mowing the lawn and buying drinks have masculine connotations. Housewives (rarely housewives) are adults who - mostly in the context of couple relationships - devote themselves to housework and thus do not combine gainful employment and are deliberately not available to the labor market . For adults who - in spite of the fact that housework is largely indispensable - devote themselves almost exclusively to gainful employment, who do not combine housework with it and are not available to the household, there is currently no generally accepted corresponding term.

Some of the knowledge related to housework is taught at a home economics school , but mostly it is learned through socialization processes as part of growing up . Here, too, an orientation towards traditional gender-specific role models can often be found, so it is still quite a matter of course that girls take part in domestic work, while boys are often drawn to work outdoors.

In peasant societies, the clear separation between gainful employment and housework, as can be found in today's modern societies, was less pronounced. Even there, however, a separation was often found in the sense of women's work in the house and for small livestock and men's work in the field and for large cattle.

Finally, when it comes to housework, it is worth mentioning the progressive simplification and simplification of everyday domestic life from the 20th century onwards through the increasing use of household technology (so-called 'white goods'). This is counteracted by increased demands on housework, so that the time spent on housework has only partially decreased.

In the industrialized countries , in addition to the technical rationalization of housework, an increasing social isolation of housework can also be observed.

A type of housework and family work referred to as “new housework” refers above all to mediation services for various institutions such as markets, banks, insurance companies, transport facilities, health and educational institutions. Interactions between households and institutions that offer services and goods contribute to the increasing complexity of living conditions.

The fact that housework also has a financial value is recognized in German law on damages (see damage to household management ). It is not included in the national accounts : in particular, the European System of National Accounts (ESA) is based on a very comprehensive concept of "production" that includes the entire production of goods and the provision of services, including voluntary and illegal work, however, housework performed privately in households is not recorded. With regard to the non-inclusion of household work, international conventions are mentioned as well as the lack of a clear criterion as to what proportion of the work done for one's own household is to be regarded as household production .

Areas of responsibility


In industrialized countries there are many coordination tasks in the household and family , in particular:

  • Household planning (planning of purchases and purchases, meals, scheduling);
  • Design of the distribution of tasks within the family or the delegation of activities to service providers or domestic staff;
  • Administrative work / bookkeeping (everyday bureaucracy).

Long-term planning for the children's careers and development is detailed in the Family Tasks section .

For the coordination of housework and family work, which can be complicated, especially in households with several children, bookkeeping is required, which is often done in an informal way, with the help of various lists , notes and notebooks   - such as calendars , to- do lists, menu plans , Shopping and memo slips.

Coordination of the distribution of tasks

In well-organized families, children are also encouraged to help.

Unless cultural requirements exist and are adopted without being asked, it is necessary to make implicit or explicit agreements on household duties between the parents and, depending on the age, the children. The division of labor among adults within the family may be the subject of negotiation . The nature and extent of the activities also require coordination in the partnership, as the expectations of the partners in terms of the style of living and furnishing, the standard of order in the household and the style of upbringing can vary greatly depending on the family, social and cultural background. It may always be necessary to clarify individual preferences and to agree on a desired lifestyle in everyday life and on common standards (type of use of the rooms, type and severity of order in certain places in the apartment, responsibilities); This becomes particularly clear in binational partnerships.

If both partners are employed, and especially if a largely egalitarian relationship in the sense of a double- provider model is sought, the professional commitment and the current division of tasks and responsibilities in the family must be coordinated at the same time.


In industrialized nations, individual household tasks are often delegated to external service providers ( see also: work-life service sector ). If tasks are delegated to domestic staff, however, the persons in charge of the household take on the tasks of an employer (e.g. task description, personnel selection, contract drafting, registration, insurance, briefing, quality control and payroll).

A delegation of child care to a day care facility, to host parents or to grandparents leads to more points of connection to the world outside of the family and contributes to a greater complexity of family life. If several childcare resources are used, for example both daycare centers and day-care workers , then there is work to coordinate them. Parents who do not have a family support network have to flexibly compensate for breaks and gaps themselves.

Everyday bureaucracy


The tasks in the household also include administrative work or accounting tasks etc. ä se, for example. administrative procedures (for example, to land or re-registration and if necessary to apply for. children and parental benefits and similar government benefits..) and banking transactions done (especially bills paid and check bank statements ), budget lead to control household finances, plan new acquisitions, conduct correspondence with insurance companies and other contractual partners, including statutory or private health insurance . Certain documents (including pension or tax-related documents on income, receipts for tax returns , invoices and receipts for manual work in the house and on the property , insurance policies , certificates and evidence of training, study and working hours) must be kept for years, sometimes permanently . According to a BITKOM survey, German citizens store an average of seven files at home with contracts and invoices . Alternatively, some of the documents can be stored in a document management system .

Support with these everyday tasks is part of the care of the elderly and also plays a role in supporting and integrating migrants .

The Federal Office for Civil Protection and Disaster Assistance calls the creation of an (emergency) document folder , in the sense of a ready-to-hand compilation of all important documents, as an essential element of self-protection .

In households, data is also stored digitally. Scanners and apps offer interfaces for storing data.

Other household chores

In the household, there are many tasks related to shopping, seasonal storage and maintenance for clothing, food and many other household items.

Housework in industrialized countries usually includes a wide range of household activities in addition to the planning tasks mentioned, for example:

Sometimes the following is also counted as housework:

Worldwide, a large number of people have hardly any technical aids for doing housework, and housework also includes meeting the most basic needs. In Africa, for example, women in particular spend several hours a day fetching water and firewood . In the industrialized countries, the content of housework has changed significantly in the last few centuries, as is clear from a comparison with domestic economics in the 19th century .

Family responsibilities

In everyday life, family work is primarily the design of family life (also called "family culture") and, embedded in it, the upbringing and support of children from birth to adulthood. Parental upbringing requires love , warmth and understanding as well as clear rules and structures. ( See also: "Development of a positive self-concept" according to Carl Rogers .)

The psychologists Krause and Lorenz characterize the changing functions of parents over time as follows:

  • "Parents are communication partners (a function that becomes more important as the child ages),
  • they are educators (a function that diminishes in importance) and
  • Arranger of suggestions and offers for the development of the child (a function that also tends to decrease). "

The actions of parents, teachers and other adults also serve as role models for children .

In detail, family work includes:

There is a smooth transition from family work to hobby - for example, joint craft or sporting activities, games and making music together can be viewed as leisure activities , even if they contribute to the well-being of the family as a whole. The creation of a partnership and the individual search for orientation, even if they have a strong impact on family life, are generally not part of family work but rather private life. Parents also largely decide on the religious upbringing of their children.

The children's success in school can depend on homework supervision and support in practicing school material at home from family members, day parents, educators in after-school care centers or tutors.

In some countries, especially in Germany, parents get involved well beyond supporting their children in school. They often contribute to the catering at school celebrations or are accompanying supervisors during sporting activities. This is especially true in the first few years of school. In Bavaria, it was proposed that legal guardians be used as voluntary substitutes in school lessons in exceptional cases.

From a legal point of view, parental responsibility includes the care, supervision and upbringing of children, their representation and property management . In Germany, the duties of parental custody according to Article 6, Paragraph 2, Clause 1 of the Basic Law and Sections 1626 and 1631 of the German Civil Code are the duty and right of parents; personal care includes the tasks required by representing the child ( Section 1629 BGB) and property management (see obligation of custody ). In Austria, parents have custody with the obligation to maintain and promote the health of the child and to raise it, to represent it and to manage its assets.

Leave in connection with family work

In certain circumstances, those with caring responsibilities are legally entitled to paid or unpaid time off from work ; Further claims to time off can be set out in collective agreements , works agreements (or service agreements in the public sector) and in individual employment contracts . In Germany, claims to time off are specified in particular:

In other countries, exemptions are sometimes more narrowly and sometimes more generously regulated. In several countries, for example, there are regulations for paternity leave and in Sweden, in addition to the regular parental allowance, a “temporary parental allowance” is paid for various exemptions related to raising children; in the USA, for example, there are far fewer entitlements to paid and unpaid leave for family reasons. (See also: Compatibility of family and work in individual countries ).


No systematic training is normally used for work in one's own private household. On the contrary, it is often tacitly assumed that individuals master the practice of housekeeping on an ad hoc basis .

Children usually learn the basics of household chores at home. Individual aspects of housework and family work are partly taught within the framework of school education; Even in after-school care centers, people cook together on occasion. There were and still exist a few special courses, for example in the 1960s there were courses called “mother schools”, which have now been replaced by a wide range of offers from family education centers and parenting courses . In the opinion of the German Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, strengthening parenting skills is “a central component of sustainable family policy ”. The attachment theory also underlines the importance of parental skills for the development of the child ( see also: Sensitivity ).

Systematic training is also not common with regard to home economics. As a leisure activity are cooking courses from community colleges and other institutions. The Caritas offers a budget-organizational training to, as part of their offer of family care .

According to Barbara Stiegler , "the mixing of household chores and personal care for children and the elderly is a highly complex job [...] that requires versatility and flexibility, social competence and stress resistance". A high level of qualification in this area can be achieved through service agencies with professionalization of the activity. At the same time, housework and family work is a valuable area of ​​experience for the individual, especially in terms of social competence . Responsible care for young children and elderly people would result in values ​​and orientations that should not be limited to specialized professionals.

(For training for professional activity in the field of housework or family work, see the articles on the respective job profiles, in particular training as an educator , house and family carer and housekeeping professions .)

Social and economic evaluation

Unpaid housework and family chores are estimated to make up about a third of the national product of modern industrial societies if their monetary value were measured .

The housework performed by the housewife is not work in the sense of German labor law , ie it is not remunerated and it is not subject to social insurance. However, child-rearing periods are taken into account in the pension insurance , and housework can also be represented in terms of compensation law, i. This means that the monetary value of the work can be calculated as damage to housekeeping if the housework manager is absent. The lack of social security for private family work also contributes, as one of the relevant factors, to a gender-related gap in old-age provision ( gender pension gap ). It looks different when housework is done by domestic servants, cleaning women / men, in the past: servants , maids and servants, etc. a. is performed as service work (see under domestic staff ). Housework is one of those industries in which a particularly large number of people without a valid residence permit and uninsured against accidents or illness are employed.

The role of the housewife can be permanently overloaded, even without being combined with gainful employment. This is related to a role expectation that does not include weekends and holidays. This work can also lead to burnout .

The sociologist Monika Setzwein presented housework based on Arnold Gehlen as background fulfillment. According to her, the cultural model of a well-run household is not based on the result, but rather contains an order in which things and activities are in a continuous, smooth flow are located. With regard to doing housework, the sociologist Jean-Claude Kaufmann referred to the importance of a physically internalized drive to act as well as the rhythm and habit of gestures that have become self-evident. By shifting the drive from reason to the physical, a unity is restored for the individual, and the sensations that arise through the correspondence of mental and physical motivation to act would be perceived as their own energy and creative power. Without a physical drive to act, housework seems tiring and appears to be a chore. Spontaneous joint activities to meet everyday needs, such as those that often take place when visiting friends and family - be it cooking, caring for children or tidying up after meals - can also contribute to a positive attitude towards life .

According to an OECD study, women in Germany spend an average of 164 minutes a day doing housework, men just under 90 minutes.

Regulations and models in individual states

Various concepts and models have been developed in individual countries, in particular for a parenting salary and for taking child-rearing periods into account for old-age pensions . These should represent at least partial financial recognition of the reproductive work that has been done.


In the context of financial and tax policy, the economic value of household services such as cooking, cleaning, childcare, etc. is referred to as shadow income in Switzerland. It is controversial whether and how this shadow income, or the loss of such shadow income for full-time workers without a household partner, should be taken into account for tax purposes.


In Germany, housekeeping is recognized as a full contribution to family support according to § 1360 BGB ( see also: Family support ). A draft of a law to amend Sections 1360, 1360a BGB also provided for the following new sentence 3 of Section 1360 BGB: Both spouses have a right to an appropriate share in the income intended to support the family, even if only one the spouse has such .

According to a ruling by the Federal Constitutional Court , raising children and housekeeping is regarded as equivalent to the spouse's gainful employment. The reasoning is based on the assumption that the housework and family work performed also shaped the marital living conditions. A job that is subsequently taken up is seen as a replacement for the previous housework. It is therefore generally assumed that the woman would have earned this income during the marriage if she had not been responsible for children and household. As a consequence of the ruling, according to the difference method, only half of the income from gainful employment after the divorce is offset against the maintenance , whereas according to the previously applicable offset method, it was fully offset against the maintenance.

Since the maintenance reform of 2008 , the German legislator has assumed that a single parent can work full-time as soon as the child is three years old and childcare is available; the other parent then no longer has to pay childcare support. At this point, critics call for greater consideration to be given to the care actually to be provided (education and upbringing), for example in that the non-educating parent has to bear the full costs of recreational activities, personal development and participation in social activities.

Regarding the care of family members, the Federal Constitutional Court ruled on March 26, 2014 that home care for relatives is not remunerated by the state in the same way as care by professional carers. The lower long-term care allowance in comparison to long-term care benefits was considered to be legitimate. The conception of the care allowance is based on “the idea that family, neighborhood or voluntary care is provided free of charge”. The court continued: “The legislature can assume that the decision on family care does not depend on the amount of the remuneration that a professional carer receives for this service. The mutual assistance obligation of family members justifies granting the care allowance in a comparatively lower amount. "

In Germany, the funding of child day care may be lower or limited if the child minder or child minder is related to the child ( see: Restrictions on child day care by relatives ).

Since August 1, 2017, three years have been counted towards the previous insurance periods in the 9/10 rule of statutory health insurance for every natural, adopted or foster child . It doesn't matter whether time was actually spent on upbringing.

Insufficient insurance coverage

In Germany, the accident insurance for housework and family work is incomplete compared to the accident insurance for working people. In Germany, people only enjoy continuous statutory accident insurance cover in connection with housework and family work if they are (insured) gainful employment. Also MiniJobber in the household are assured accordingly. However, there is no statutory accident insurance cover for unpaid housework and family work. A child is legally insured against accidents according to Section 2 of Book VII of the Social Code on the usual way to day care, kindergarten, school or day care center, as well as to day care according to Section 23 of Book VIII of the Social Code , but the person accompanying the child (unpaid) is in the Generally not. Statutory accident insurance cover only exists for an accompanying person in the event of an accident at work in accordance with Section 8 of Book VII of the Social Code, for example if a working person drives to work and brings a child to kindergarten or school, in which case there is also insurance cover for a detour required for this. (For accident insurance, see also: Carpool . For old-age insurance in Germany, see: Pension provision for family work , child-rearing time and mothers' pension .)

In Switzerland, the entire population, including housewives and men, is insured under the first pillar of the three-pillar system . This includes, among other things, a basic pension through old-age and survivors ' insurance and disability insurance . Education and care credits for bringing up children up to the age of 16 and caring for relatives can have the effect of increasing pensions or justify a pension entitlement.

Recognition of competencies

The conventional aptitude diagnostics used in personnel selection and career counseling do not systematically take into account competences that were acquired outside the workplace. The instrument for recording key competences (IESKO) , which has been offered by the UND department since 2002, can serve as a means of recording them . It is adapted to the requirement profile of a position to be filled or a desired activity and allows the knowledge acquired to be taken into account when determining suitability and the experience to be credited. Recognition of experience in bringing up children as a professional qualification is required by various groups; it is, for example, one of the demands of the umbrella association of Swiss men's and father 's organizations .

Parental leave is also not necessarily counted as professional experience. In particular, the CESI criticized the fact that, in accordance with the so-called Cadman judgment of the European Court of Justice of October 3, 2006 , parental leave can only be taken into account if it is paid for; From the point of view of the CESI, this is "discriminatory and completely counterproductive [...] when it comes to a better balance between work, private and family life". CESI highlighted the full crediting of the three-year unpaid parental leave to the seniority levels and experience periods in accordance with the TVöD / TVL collective agreement in the German public sector as positive.

The upgrading of skills acquired in the family when filling vacancies and promotions is also required as part of a systematic family-conscious personnel policy . This serves the advancement of women, the equality of the sexes and the better position of men who decided or wanted to decide for active family work.

Criticism of the division of labor of housework and family work

Since the 1970s in the Federal Republic of Germany, feminism has criticized the ideal of the division of labor between the sexes, in which the man is employed and which has been common in the bourgeois milieu since the 19th century and in the working class since the 20th century Woman is dedicated to housekeeping and bringing up children.

In 1976, a reform of marriage and family law was passed in what was then the Federal Republic of Germany , which since then has allowed women to pursue a professional activity even without the permission of their husbands; in the GDR, the corresponding regulation of the BGB had long been abolished.

Feminist critics believe that women who do both gainful and family work are discriminated against in their " double socialization " in both areas: They are socially obliged to do unpaid housework that is not classified as "real work " and to be integrated into it on an equal footing The employment system would continue to be denied to them or would at least still be made more difficult (Becker-Schmidt 2003). This view is countered by the fact that this approach does not take into account the fact that many, often physically difficult household chores (such as clearing snow, gardening, household repairs, purchasing and transporting beverages) are predominantly performed by men, for whom these obligations were also incurred in addition to their gainful employment .

In Germany, the total time spent on housework has risen significantly, despite automation in the household: In West Germany, men increased their weekly time spent on housework between 1965 and 2000 from an average of three to 17 hours; nevertheless, the amount of time women spend on this activity increased from 31 to 35 hours a week during this period. A similar effect can be observed in eastern Germany: men increased their time commitment from seven to 17 hours, women from 31 to 34 hours a week.

The division of labor with regard to gainful employment, housework and family work is strongly influenced by family models and gender-specific norms and roles. In the course of marriage and especially in the transition to parenthood, roles are typically “ retraditionalized ”.

Housework and family work in other countries

Millet pounding is one of the traditional daily chores in much of Africa .

Which work occurs in a family or household and which family members do which work is largely determined by cultural and economic factors. The composition of the spectrum of work depends not only on the country in which a family lives, but also on how wealthy they are and what social class they belong to.

United States

Even in a country like the USA , which is just as rich as the German-speaking countries, the lifestyle and thus some of the household and family jobs look markedly different than in Europe. This is especially true for the middle class . American middle-class households receive services to a far greater extent than corresponding German households, e.g. B. the services of babysitters , nannies , housekeeping staff , gardeners , laundries , dry cleaners and food and other commercial companies that deliver to the home. Devices such as dishwashers , microwave ovens and tumble dryers are more common in American middle-class households than in German households . To understand this is u. a. in view of the fact that American women, also as mothers, are more often fully employed than Germans, but also against the background of the comparatively low costs of these comfort positions.

Other peculiarities arise in the USA from the country-typical large spatial distances, as a result of which families are strongly committed to the car as a means of transport. Many parents spend a large part of their non-working time driving their children to extracurricular activities (such as sports programs, instrumental lessons or playing dates) or picking them up from there . Because of the high proportion of full-time workers, the long distances to work, the short annual American vacation , and because all-day schools are also the norm for children , many families only live in their homes in the evenings, at night and on weekends.

The time and financial commitment parents spend on their children has increased significantly in the United States over the past 30 years (as of 2018). This phenomenon is subsumed under the term intensive parenting . According to studies, mothers spend five hours a week on activities such as reading, doing handicrafts, accompanying them to class or demonstrations, helping with homework, compared to one hour and 45 minutes in 1975. Full-time working mothers spend as much time with their children as they do in 1975 In the 1970s, inactive mothers ( stay at home moms ) did. According to the media, couples in which both partners are academics are increasingly choosing a polarized division of labor in family and work in view of the increased time requirements in work and family - the man often works 60 or more hours a week and can be reached outside of working hours, the woman, however flexible part-time. This development is also due to the fact that people with working hours of more than 50 hours per week have statistically achieved a disproportionately higher income per hour worked since the 2000s, whereas this was the other way around until the early 1990s, i.e. that the economic incentive for such a polarization has increased.

See also



  • Irene Becker, Jutta Meyer-Kles: Better to be sloppy and happy than properly stressed. Ways out of the perfectionism trap . Campus Verlag, Frankfurt / Main 2004, ISBN 3-593-37430-7 .
  • Horsfield, Margaret : the last shit. From the joys of housework . Verlag Rütten & Loening, 1999 Rütten & Loening, ISBN 3-352-00621-0 (Originally published in USA. The work is much more thorough than the amused-sounding title! There are also further references. )
  • Julia Rogge: Getting a grip on everyday life . Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, Munich, ISBN 3-423-36199-9 .

Household literature

  • Christof Arn: House Work Ethics. Structural problems and options for action around housework and family work from a socio-ethical perspective . Verlag Rüegger, Chur 2000, ISBN 3-7253-0682-6 .
  • Lore Blosser-Reisen among others:
    • Fundamentals of Housekeeping, An Introduction to Household Economics. 3. Edition. Schneider Verlag, Hohengehren 1980, ISBN 3-87116-208-6 . (The basic budgetary work)
    • Scope of action and limits of independent housekeeping in old age . 1982.
  • Aging, integration of social and health aids. Huber, Bern 1997, ISBN 3-456-82812-8 .
  • Jan Künzler: Family division of labor. The participation of men in household chores . Kleine Verlag, Bielefeld 1994, ISBN 978-3-89370-194-0 .
  • Thomas Kutsch, Michael-Burkhard Piorkowsky, Manfred Schätzke: Introduction to household science: household economics, household sociology, household technology . Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 3-8001-2704-0 .
  • Barbara Seel: Economics of the private household. Stuttgart 1991.

Social science literature

  • Regula Bochsler, Sabine Gisinger: Serving abroad. Maids and their masters in Switzerland in the 20th century. Chronos, Zurich 1989, ISBN 3-905278-41-3 .
  • Bärbel Kuhn: The housewife's management and control. Housework in the 19th and 20th centuries . In: Birgit Bolognese-Leuchtenmüller, Michael Mitterauer (Hrsg.): Women working worlds. On the historical genesis of current problems. Publishing house for social criticism, Vienna 1993, ISBN 3-85115-183-6 . (Historical Social Studies 3) (online)
  • Jean-Claude Kaufmann : With body and soul. Household Activity Theory. UVK, Konstanz 1999, ISBN 3-89669-886-9 .
  • The household's “most beautiful jewelry” . The housewife as a consumer expert for the German and English middle classes in the 19th and early 20th centuries. In: Hannes Siegrist, Hartmut Kaelble , Jürgen Kocka (eds.): European consumer history. On the social and cultural history of consumption . Campus, Frankfurt am Main / New York 1997, ISBN 3-593-35754-2 , pp. 411-440.
  • Regina Becker-Schmidt : The double socialization of women . In: gender ... politics ... online. 2003.
  • Ursula Köbl: What is the 'fair wage' for family work? In: Meike Penkwitt (Ed.): Dimensions of Gender Studies (=  Freiburg Women's Studies . No. 13 ). tape 2 . jos fritz Verlag, Freiburg im Breisgau 2003, ISBN 3-928013-20-3 , p. 79 ff .
  • Florian Schulz, Harald Rost: Division of housework and career interruption of mothers under the conditions of the new Parental Allowance Act, first empirical findings from Bavaria. In: Zeitschrift für Familienforschung, issue 1/2012. Pp. 27-45.

reference books

Web links

Wikibooks: Baby book  - learning and teaching materials
Wikibooks: Etiquette: Family  - Learning and teaching materials

Individual evidence

  1. ^ A. Doris Baumgartner: Family work, employment patterns and division of labor in the household. ( Memento of the original from November 16, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Federal Statistical Office (FSO), 4/2005 - see: Introduction @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  2. Anja Steinbach: How couples share the work. ( Memento of the original from October 31, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 194 kB) at: @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  3. ^ Rüdiger Peuckert : Family forms in social change . VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 7th edition. 2008, ISBN 978-3-531-15721-4 , p. 230
  4. Maria Thiele-Wittig: Competent in everyday life: Education for household and family - II. Challenges due to the increasing complexity of living conditions. In: From Politics and Contemporary History (B 9/2003). 2003, accessed April 5, 2008 .
  5. Viktor Lüpertz: Innovations relevant to teaching in the national accounts, pp. 32–44. (PDF) In: Flügelstift 1/2002. Retrieved May 17, 2009 . P. 37.
  6. Gross domestic product 2008 for Germany. (PDF) (No longer available online.) Federal Statistical Office, 2009, archived from the original on June 11, 2009 ; Retrieved May 17, 2009 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. P. 30. ( Memento of the original dated June 11, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  7. ^ Alfred Stobbe : Economics Accounting , 8th edition, Springer, 1994, ISBN 3-540-57851-X , p. 383 ff.
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