Eurostar International

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Eurostar International Limited
legal form Public Company (United Kingdom)
founding 1999
Seat London , UKUnited KingdomUnited Kingdom 
management Mike Cooper, CEO
sales 880 million £ (2017)
Branch Transport / logistics

The Euro Star International Ltd. based in London is the operator of the Eurostar trains on the high-speed connections from London through the Eurotunnel via Lille to Paris , Brussels , Rotterdam and Amsterdam. The operating company and the transport connections offered as well as the rail vehicles with which these services are provided are referred to as Eurostar .

Operating company

The company was created on September 1, 2010 from the merger of the former national French, British and Belgian railway operating companies. Since 2015, 55% of the share capital has been held by SNCF , 30% by Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec (CDPQ), 10% by Hermes Infrastructure and 5% by the Belgian NMBS / SNCB . Until March 2015, 40% of the shares were owned by the UK government.


Eurostar began as a joint project between the French railway company SNCF, the Belgian railway company SNCB and the then British railway company British Rail (BR) to operate the trains through the Eurotunnel under the English Channel. In the run-up to rail privatization in Great Britain, BR created European Passenger Services (EPS), to which it contributed its Eurostar participation. In June 1996 EPS was sold to London & Continental Railways (LCR), which then changed the name of EPS to Eurostar UK Ltd (EUKL) in October . In addition to operating the Eurostars, London & Continental Railways was also commissioned to build the high-speed line from London to Dover ( High Speed ​​One ); massive financial problems resulted in government support measures in 1998; As a result, LCR transferred the operational management of EUKL to InterCapital and Regional Rail (ICRR) until 2010. The British bus and train company National Express Group held 40% of the capital in ICRR, SNCF with 35% and SNCB with 15 % and the airline British Airways as a silent partner with 10%.

In September 1999 the Eurostar Group was formed, which, under unified management, was solely responsible for the common strategy for business development and marketing; each of the three participating railway companies was responsible for the operation of the trains in their area. The trains remained the property of the respective railway company, but were operated in the pool.

In June 2009, the UK government finally took full ownership of LCR. EUKL was then renamed Eurostar International and in September 2010 the respective French and Belgian railway companies brought their respective Eurostar activities into the new Eurostar International. Thus the entire rolling stock came into the hands of the now combined operator.

Sale of the British part

Soon after the High Speed ​​1 railway line opened in November 2006, the British government announced that it wanted to sell its stake in the operator and the infrastructure. In 2008, Deutsche Bahn announced that it might be interested in buying EUKL, but this was strictly rejected by SNCF President Guillaume Pepy . In December 2013, the British government reaffirmed its intention to sell its 40% stake in the now combined operator by 2020 at the latest. Finally, the UK government sold its 40% stake to two institutional investors in March 2015 .


Eurostar route network
End station - start of the route
0:00 London St Pancras
BSicon exKBHFa.svgBSicon STR.svgBSicon .svg
Waterloo International (until Nov. 2007)
BSicon exSTR.svgBSicon eHST.svgBSicon .svg
Stratford International
BSicon exSTR.svgBSicon HST.svgBSicon .svg
0:16 Ebbsfleet
BSicon exSTRl.svgBSicon eABZg + r.svgBSicon .svg
Stop, stop
0:30 Ashford
Eurotunnel (travel time 0:21)
United Kingdom / France border
Stop, stop
0:54 Calais Fréthun
Station, station
1:20 Lille-Europe
BSicon .svgBSicon ABZgl.svgBSicon STR + r.svg
BSicon .svgBSicon STR.svgBSicon GRENZE.svg
France / Belgium border
BSicon STR + l.svgBSicon ABZgr.svgBSicon BHF.svg
1:51 Bruxelles-Midi / Brussel-Zuid
BSicon STR.svgBSicon STR.svgBSicon GRENZE.svg
Belgium / Netherlands border
BSicon STR.svgBSicon STR.svgBSicon HST.svg
3:01 Rotterdam Centraal
BSicon STR.svgBSicon STR.svgBSicon KBHFe.svg
3:41 Amsterdam Centraal
BSicon KBHFe.svgBSicon ABZgl.svgBSicon STR + r.svg
2:15 Paris north
BSicon .svgBSicon STR.svgBSicon KHSTe.svg
(2:53) Marne-la-Vallée - Chessy ( Disneyland )
BSicon STR + l.svgBSicon ABZgr.svgBSicon .svg
BSicon HST.svgBSicon STR.svgBSicon .svg
4:40 Lyon-Part-Dieu
BSicon HST.svgBSicon STR.svgBSicon .svg
5:49 Avignon TGV
BSicon KHSTe.svgBSicon STR.svgBSicon .svg
6:27 Marseille Saint-Charles
BSicon .svgBSicon ABZgl.svgBSicon STR + r.svg
BSicon .svgBSicon STR.svgBSicon KHSTe.svg
(6:00) Avignon Center
Stop, stop
(6:47) Moûtiers (ski)
Stop, stop
(7:19) Aime la Plagne (ski: only get off)
Stop ... - end of the route
(7:37) Bourg-Saint-Maurice (ski)

Times shown are the shortest scheduled
non-stop travel times from London St Pancras.

TGV variants

Eurostar at St Pancras station
Eurostar at Lille-Europe station

The trains were developed by Alstom on the basis of the TGV Atlantique and were originally able to use both power rails and overhead lines, whereby different voltages are possible for the latter (25 kV, 50 Hz alternating current and 3 kV and in some trains also 1, 5 kV DC voltage). The height and width of the trains had to be adapted to the smaller clearance profile on the British routes, so the width of the Eurostar is only 2.81 meters (for comparison: the TGV is 2.904 m in width). In addition, the special safety requirements for traffic through the Channel Tunnel had to be taken into account, including special fire protection devices such as fire doors between individual cars. The trains are equipped with the train protection and signaling systems of the three countries on which they travel: AWS and TPWS for Great Britain, KVB , TVM and Crocodile for France, and TBL and Crocodile for Belgium.

When using the overhead contact line, the trains reach a speed of 300 km / h - during a test run in July 2003 on the Channel Tunnel Rail Link, a speed record of 334.7 km / h was even set for Great Britain. On April 21, 2008, a Eurostar set a new British record with a cruising speed of 198.6 km / h (123.4 miles per hour). He covered the 90.19 km (56.04 miles) long route from Ashford to London in 27 minutes and 15 seconds.

Like the French TGV, the trains consist of a power car at both ends of the train, but with 18 or 14 intermediate cars, and can run in both directions. The trains with 18 cars are also called "Three Capitals", the shorter ones "North of London" (NoL - North of London). The intermediate cars are each connected to nine or seven with Jakobs bogies ; these articulated train parts are connected to one another in the middle of the train and to the power cars via automatic couplings so that they can be easily separated during operation. In the event of damage to a power car, the train should be able to be split or separated from the defective power car and pulled out of the tunnel by the power car at the other end. In the “Three Capitals” with 18 cars, the bogie closest to the power end is driven. The “Three Capitals” are 394 meters long, weigh a total of 815 tons and offer 794 seats, the “North of London” are 319 meters long, weigh a total of 665 tons and offer 578 seats.

These units have been successively converted since 2015 and then marketed as the Eurostar E300 .

Three Capitals

Of the 27 “Three Capitals” units to be deployed between London, Paris and Brussels, twelve are owned by SNCF , eleven are owned by Eurostar UK and four by SNCB . Before the start of Eurostar operations, the SNCF had classified the vehicle reserves as insufficient and therefore procured four more trains outside the vehicle pool on their own account. The total of 31 sets were supplied by Alstom and are listed in the British series register as Class 373/1 . The 22 half-trains "Three Capitals" with the numbers 3001 to 3022 belong to Eurostar UK (EUKL), the eight half-trains 3101 to 3108 of the SNCB / NMBS, the 32 half-trains 3201 to 3232 of the SNCF.

After traffic forecasts of transporting 14 to 16 million passengers in the first three years of operation had turned out to be too high (end of the 1990s: eight million passengers), new tasks were sought for the surplus multiple units. In 1999, only 21 of the 31 long and 7 short trains were required for the operating program. The SNCF then converted nine trains into four-system trains in order to be able to travel to the south of France, which is electrified with 1500 V direct current, as far as the French Alps in the winter season.

After the 31 units were only used with ten train pairs per day at the end of the 1990s, the SNCF withdrew three multiple units and upgraded them for operation with 1.5 kV direct current. From mid-1999 they operated between Brussels and Nice , without service from Paris.

North of London

The 14 “North of London” half trains are run as Class 373/2 and are made up of a powered end car and nine or seven intermediate cars. They belong to Eurostar UK and have the numbers 3301 to 3314. They were procured for traffic north of London, but were never used there because the security requirements (separate station areas, security checks) for equipping the respective stations were too high. Economic considerations and increasing competition with air traffic were also cited against such traffic. The seven trains were initially parked at the North Pole Depot in west London.

For the first time, four of the trains (two for operation and two, in Eurostar colors, as a reserve) were used for the summer 2000 timetable when the Great North Eastern Railway (GNER) expanded their service between London and Edinburgh with them . Three trains were used between 2001 and 2005 on the East Coast Main Line (ECML) by the GNER as the White Rose between London King's Cross and Leeds . The remaining trains were used on the comparatively poorly used Brussels - London route. The long trains released as a result were temporarily used to expand the number of seats on the LGV Sud-Est before new TGV duplex sets were available. The trains were returned to Eurostar at the end of 2005.

Six trains are now used by SNCF for domestic traffic between Gare du Nord (Paris) and Lille-Flandres station. One of these trains was used for tests on the High Speed ​​One line . One of the “NoL” Euro stars was also used for VIP rides, for example for the British Queen.

Night star

For sleeping car trains called Nightstar between the island and the continent, corresponding cars were built, but they were never used. Sleeper trains with 16 cars each pulled by locomotives - 10 sleeping cars, four seating cars, and two service and dining cars - were to connect Glasgow , London , Manchester , Plymouth and Swansea in Great Britain with Amsterdam , Dortmund and Frankfurt am Main on the continent. 139 cars were ordered; from 1992 to 1997, when the project was put on hold, 45 cars were completely and 32 partially completed. In 1999 the plan was finally abandoned. The vehicles built by Alstom , which had been parked on two British military sites (as of July 2000), were sold to VIA Rail , a Canadian railway company, in 2001 .

Eurostar 320

In October 2010, Eurostar announced that it wanted to acquire ten Eurostar 320 multiple units from Siemens Mobility . Despite a pending lawsuit by the competing bidder Alstom against the tender or contract award, the contract was signed in December 2010. In November 2014, Eurostar announced that it would order seven more trains.

The first of the trains ordered have been in use since November 2015. These trains, which have a capacity of 894 seats, are intended to expand the number of destinations in the Eurostar system. Eurostar has been serving a new connection between London and Amsterdam with the e320 trains since April 2018.


A Eurostar in Moûtiers, French Alps

On their journey from England to France, the Eurostar trains cross under the English Channel through the Eurotunnel, which was completed in 1994 and have been operating almost exclusively on high-speed lines since 2007 . In addition to the train stations Bruxelles-Midi and Paris-Nord , the train station Marne-la-Vallée - Chessy ( Disneyland Resort Paris ) is served once a day and seasonally once a week in Avignon in the south of France and Bourg-Saint-Maurice in the French Alps. Since May 1, 2015, a connection to Marseille (with stops in Lyon and Avignon) has been offered several times a week .

Within England, some of the trains on the way to the Channel Tunnel still stop at Ebbsfleet International station and / or Ashford International station and after crossing the tunnel again at the earliest in Lille or Calais-Fréthun station in France .

Since September 2003, the first section in England has been able to be used for high speeds ( Channel Tunnel Rail Link ). On November 14, 2007, the second section of the high-speed line, renamed High Speed ​​1 in November 2006, went into operation and the London terminus of the line was moved from Waterloo station to the renovated St Pancras station. With the commissioning of the new line section, Eurostar's turnover rose by 20 percent within six weeks; the train connections between London and Paris achieved a market share of around 70 percent according to data from Eurostar in 2008. In the business travel market, the market share between the two cities was given as 86 percent.

On November 19, 2007, the new Ebbsfleet International station in western Kent went into operation. The Eurostar company combined the opening of the new Ebbsfleet train station with the support of the Ebbsfleet United football club . At the end of 2009, the new Stratford International station in East London was also opened. This is not served by Eurostar despite political pressure, as the additional stop 9 km before the terminus St Pancras would mean too much time lost.

On May 16, 2006, a special train with multiple units 3209 and 3210 covered the 1,421 km route from London to Cannes in 7 hours and 25 minutes. The journey should go down in the Guinness Book of Records as the longest international non-stop train journey with an electric drive .

The previous London depot North Pole Depot in west London was replaced in November 2007 by the new Temple Mills Depot north of Stratford International station.

Since April 4, 2018, two train pairs have been running daily between London and Amsterdam with stops in Brussels and Rotterdam. As there is not yet an agreement between the Netherlands and the United Kingdom on the implementation of border controls on Dutch soil, passengers heading for London will have to get off in Brussels until further notice in order to complete the entry controls. The travel time from London to Rotterdam is around 3 hours; the travel time to Amsterdam Centraal is around 3 hours and 41 minutes. The return journey time is around half an hour longer because of the border controls in Brussels. According to media reports, the border controls in the direction of London should be able to take place in Amsterdam from 2020, so that there will be no change in Brussels.

Special features when boarding as a passenger

The Eurostar uses a separate terminal that is separate from other rail traffic. In order to get on board the trains, a check-in as well as passport and security controls are required (similar to air traffic ). Passengers must for check-in no later than 30 minutes before the scheduled departure of the Euro Star at the check-in desks have to see this Euro Star terminal and log in there with her ticket for clearance. After check-in, the necessary passport controls for entry to the destination country take place on the continent or in Great Britain .

Since Great Britain only participates to a limited extent in the Schengen Agreement and has retained its border controls, the passports of passengers traveling to Great Britain are checked by both the border control of the country of departure and the British border control before boarding the Eurostar. After the passport control, a security check is carried out on the passenger and the luggage he / she is carrying. When traveling within the Schengen area (for example from Bruxelles-Midi / Brussel-Zuid to Lille-Europe), passengers did not have to identify themselves at the British border control, which was often used as a loophole by illegal immigrants without valid entry papers. Since December 2014, travelers from Brussels to Lille or Calais have therefore been handled in a separate area and transported in a separate car. Tickets for the connection from Brussels-Midi to Lille or Calais can only be booked on the Eurostar website if “Great Britain”, “France” or “Belgium” has been selected as the country of residence. For details of border controls → main article Early border controls on the English Channel .

If the check-in as well as the passport and security controls have been successfully completed, the rest of the way leads first to a waiting room before boarding. Only when the staff in the terminal has cleared the Eurostar for boarding can its carriages be entered from the platform like those of an ordinary passenger train.

Development of the number of passengers

In 1996, the operating company LCR expected a total of 21.4 million passengers carried per year in 2004. In fact, only a third of them, namely around 7.3 million passengers, were carried. However, a continuous increase in the number of passengers can be observed; since 2013, more than 10 million passengers have been carried regularly every year. The following table gives an overview of the development of the number of passengers (in millions):

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
3.0 4.8 6.0 6.3 6.6 7.1 6.95 7.1 6.31 7.27 7.45 7.85 8.26 9.1 9.2 9.5 9.7 9.9
2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
10 10.4 10.4 10.0 10.3 10.9 11.0

With regard to the distribution of transport services between rail and air traffic, 81 percent of travelers in rail and air traffic between Paris and London now use the Eurostar trains (as of 2008). In the business travel market, the market share between the two cities is given as 86 percent (as of 2012).

Previously, the market share of trains in comparison with air traffic in 2000 was 63.4% between London and Paris and 46% between London and Brussels. By the end of 2004 it rose to 68 percent between Paris and London and 63 percent between Brussels and London. A significant increase took place in 2008 when the new line to London's St Pancras station went into operation, reducing travel time by 20 minutes.

The average utilization of the trains in 2011 was around 70 percent.

Rail team

The Eurostar Group is a founding member of the Railteam , which was founded on July 2nd, 2007 , an amalgamation of initially seven European railway companies to strengthen international high-speed rail traffic in order to counterbalance comparable amalgamations of airlines . This means that travelers who have a Eurostar frequent traveler status can use all lounges of the partner railways and, conversely, all frequent passengers from partner railways can use the three Eurostar lounges in Brussels, Paris and London.

Future development

A Eurostar and a Thalys in the Gare du Nord in Paris

For a long time, technical and political factors stood in the way of expansion to other destinations on the continent, which made service beyond Paris and Brussels uneconomical. On the one hand, the Eurostar trains derived from the TGV were set up as multi-system vehicles for operation in Great Britain (LCR), France (SNCF) and Belgium, but the installation of additional train control systems would have failed due to a lack of space. The preparation for operation below 15 kilovolts at 16.7 Hertz, as is common in the rail network of German-speaking countries, would have been a redesign.

In addition, the network statement from Eurotunnel required that the trains must be at least 375 meters long and passable for passengers, so that in the event of an emergency stop in the tunnel, all passengers can get out of the train through a door to one of the emergency exits, which are every 375 meters to the service tunnel to lead. In addition, until 2011 the British-French concession agreement required that - “unless otherwise regulated” - all trains must have a locomotive at the front and rear so that they could each pull part of the train out of the tunnel.

With the commissioning of the new Eurostar 320 trains based on the Siemens Velaro platform in November 2015, these technical obstacles were removed. As early as 2011, the European Railway Agency (ERA) issued a positive opinion on the distributed drive system used in the Eurostar 320. For this reason, the Eurostar Group announced at the end of September 2013 to expand its offer to Amsterdam (Netherlands); the project was finally implemented in April 2018.

Because of this network expansion, Deutsche Bahn planned to compete with Eurostar to use two new ICE 3 trains that were coupled to one another (and therefore not completely accessible) between Frankfurt am Main and London and between Amsterdam and London - this is the one Eurostar 320 development lines similar to the Velaro. However, those plans were put on hold in 2014.


  • At the end of May 2000 a Eurostar train lost a bogie when entering the Eurotunnel.
  • On the evening of June 5, 2000, the Eurostar multiple unit 3101/3102 with around 240 passengers derailed at around 240 km / h near Arras . 13 people, mostly train personnel, were injured.
  • On the night of April 18-19, 2008, the Eurostar 9054, which had around 640 passengers, stopped about 100 km from Paris. After a chain of technical and organizational problems, the train reached the destination Paris Nord with a delay of almost ten hours.
  • On December 19, 2009, a weather-related breakdown occurred at Eurostar. Several trains had stopped in the tunnel under the English Channel because their technology could not cope with the formation of condensation water caused by melting snow. More than 2000 travelers were stuck for hours.
  • On January 7, 2010, after heavy snowfalls in France and Great Britain, another train got stuck in the tunnel. It was towed into Ashford Station by a locomotive with 240 passengers on board . Eurostar then closed the tunnel for further passage.
  • On the evening of May 7, 2014, a train coming from London (EST 9054) crashed into a deer standing on the tracks near Lille. The approximately 450 uninjured passengers arrived at their destination in Paris at around 4.30 a.m. delayed by more than five hours.
  • On the night of November 20-21, 2014, two Eurostar trains stopped near Lille due to damaged contact lines. About 1,300 passengers were affected on the two trains. There were delays of six or nine hours.
  • In the summer of 2015, African and Asian refugees who wanted to continue from France to Great Britain repeatedly entered the trains in front of or in the tunnel. In total there were several thousand people who were repulsed with great effort. In the night of September 1st to 2nd, 2015, 5 trains were stopped because of people on the tracks, 3 of them were driven back. Hundreds of passengers had to wait hours in stations.


  • Friedhelm Ernst: "Eurostar" and "Eurotunnel" . In: Railway courier . No. 272 ​​/ Volume 29/1995. EK-Verlag GmbH, ISSN  0170-5288 , pp. 84-86.
  • Nicholas Comfort: The Channel Tunnel and its High Speed ​​Links . 256 pages, 100 photos, 16 maps. Usk, Oakwood Press, 2007. ISBN 0-85361-644-2

Web links

Commons : Eurostar  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Eurostar appoints Mike Cooper as its new Chief Executive Officer. In: press release. Eurostar, January 9, 2018, accessed April 17, 2018 .
  2. a b "Eurostar reports a £ 58m profit" message in Railway Gazette of February 28, 2018
  3. a b BBC: UK government sells Eurostar stake for £ 757.1m , March 4, 2015
  4. ^ "We'll buy UK's share of Eurostar - and run it better, say Germans" . The Times , December 12, 2008
  5., January 15, 2008 ( Memento from April 2, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
  7. ^ Message Fastest ever average speed . In: Modern Railways . Vol. 65, No. 718, 2008, ISSN  0026-8356 , p. 9.
  8. ^ Brian Perren: High-speed rail gains from air . In: Modern Railways . Vol. 65, No. 719, 2008, ISSN  0026-8356 , p. 58 f.
  9. a b c Brian Perren: The three "faces" of the Eurostar . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , Issue 10/2001, ISSN  1421-2811 , pp. 459-460.
  10. a b c d Theo Stolz: The Eurostar traffic in 1999 . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 7/2000, ISSN  1421-2811 , p. 308 f.
  11. Eurostar report in TGV traffic . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , No. 9, year 1999, ISSN  1421-2811 , p. 379
  12. Report Eurostar to York . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , Issue 8–9 / 2000, ISSN  1421-2811 , p. 371.
  13. Eurostar report no longer with GNER . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International . Issue 2/2006, ISSN  1421-2811 , p. 85.
  14. Eurostar (Ed.): Eurostar announces £ 700 million investment in its fleet . Press release from October 7, 2010.
  15. David Briginshaw: Euro Star plans to buy more high-speed trains. International Rail Journal, November 13, 2014, accessed November 14, 2014 .
  16. ^ A b Inaugural Eurostar service sets off from London to Amsterdam. In: press release. Eurostar, February 20, 2018, accessed February 26, 2018 .
  17. EUROSTAR DIRECT AND SEASONAL SERVICES to Disneyland Paris, the French Alps, Lyon and the South of France. (PDF), archived from the original on April 4, 2015 ; Retrieved April 4, 2015 .
  18. EUROSTAR SETS OFF TO THE SUNSHINE. In: May 1, 2015, archived from the original on February 14, 2016 ; accessed on February 14, 2016 .
  19. ICE and TGV are speeding up against the aviators ( Memento from May 16, 2008 in the Internet Archive ). In: Handelsblatt , March 18, 2008.
  20. a b Eurostar plans express service from London to Germany ( Memento from May 9, 2013 in the Internet Archive ). Message on from April 16, 2013.
  21. ^ Matthew Beard: Boris Johnson urges Eurostar to start using Olympic Park station. London Evening Standard, July 29, 2013, accessed December 14, 2013 .
  22. Eurostar record trip to Cannes . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International . Issue 8–9 / 2006, ISSN  1421-2811 , p. 395.
  23. RAILNEWS: Eurostar launches regular Amsterdam services | Railnews | Today's news for Tomorrow's railway. Retrieved June 2, 2018 .
  25. Eurostar next year direct from Amsterdam to London. Retrieved September 25, 2019 (Dutch).
  26. Illegals immigrants can exploit 'Lille loophole' to get in to UK on Eurostar
  27. Check-in at Brussels-Midi for your journey to Lille or Calais will take place at the intra-Schengen Terminal. This dedicated check-in area is located on the mezzanine floor of Midi station accessible by the stairs and lifts rather than in the Channel Terminal.
  28. Forecasting of passenger traffic on
  29. ^ Richard Latten, Yearbook European Railways 1999, trans press Verlag, Stuttgart, ISBN 3-613-71094-3 , page 134
  30. ^ Richard Latten, Jahrbuch Europäische Eisenbahnen 2000, trans press Verlag, Stuttgart, ISBN 3-613-71116-8 , page 186
  31. ^ A b Richard Latten, Yearbook European Railways 2001, LOK Report- Verlag, Berlin, ISBN 3-921980-75-5 , page 189
  32. A thin declaration of war to the low-cost airlines . In: Stuttgarter Zeitung , August 2, 2003
  33. Busiest ever Christmas and New Year period helps Eurostar to a record 2004 ( Memento from October 10, 2008 in the Internet Archive ). Press release from January 5, 2005
  34. Record year for Eurostar as business travelers switch from airlines ( Memento of December 9, 2008 in the Internet Archive ). Press release from January 16, 2006
  35. Record year for Eurostar as more travelers switch from airlines ( Memento of May 29, 2009 in the Internet Archive ). Press release from January 11, 2007
  36. a b Eurostar reaches record traveler numbers thanks to boost from High Speed ​​1 ( Memento from January 20, 2009 in the Internet Archive ). Press release from January 13, 2009
  37. ^ Légère croissance pour Eurostar en 2009 ( Memento of January 26, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Press release of January 19, 2010
  38. Eurostar reports strong growth in 2010 with sales revenue up 12% compared with 2009 ( Memento from January 20, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Press release from January 14, 2011
  39. Eurostar reports continued growth in 2011 with increasing sales revenues and passenger numbers ( Memento from April 20, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  40. Eurostar passenger volumes up . English. Railway Gazette online, March 25, 2013.
  41. Eurostar tops 10 million passengers . English. Railway Gazette online January 2, 2014.
  42. RESULTS D'ACTIVITE 2014: EUROSTAR ENREGISTRE UNE CROISSANCE CONTINUE DE SON TRAFIC ET DE SES VENTES. Eurostar press release, February 18, 2015, archived from the original on May 4, 2015 ; Retrieved June 9, 2015 .
  43. Eurostar reports stable passenger numbers and successful introduction of new e320 trains in 2015. Eurostar press release, March 15, 2016, accessed on April 27, 2016 .
  44. Eurostar reports positive start to 2017. Eurostar Financial Results, March 16, 2017, accessed on March 25, 2017 .
  45. Getlink 2018 revenues: 9th year of growth. (pdf) In: Press release. Getlink SE, January 22, 2019, accessed on January 22, 2019 (English).
  46. Getlink 2019 revenue stable despite difficult context. In: press release. Getlink SE, January 23, 2019, accessed on January 23, 2019 .
  47. International Union of Railways : High speed rail: Fast track to sustainable mobility . 28-page brochure dated February 2008, Paris 2008, p. 5
  48. News Eurostar on the road to success . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 5/2001, ISSN  1421-2811 , p. 223.
  49. Announcement Ten years of Eurostar . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , Issue 1/2005, ISSN  1421-2811 , p. 29.
  50. ^ Richard Brown: Lessons from Europe . In: Modern Railways . Vol. 68, No. 759, 2011, ISSN  0026-8356 , pp. 42-45.
  51. ^ Eurostar announces new direct service between London and Amsterdam. In: September 27, 2013, accessed February 14, 2016 .
  52. Bahn blows tunnel ICE to attack air traffic. In: Reuters Germany. October 19, 2010, accessed on February 13, 2016 (German): "Frankfurt and Cologne, but also Amsterdam and Rotterdam are to be connected to the British capital by high-speed trains through the Channel Tunnel."
  53. Germany's Frankfurt-London high-speed rail link put on ice. In: Reuters UK. February 18, 2014, accessed February 13, 2016 (UK English).
  54. Report of the Eurostar derailment . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 7/2000, ISSN  1421-2811 , p. 322.
  55. If everything goes wrong: The record delay of the Eurostar 9054 . In: Swiss Railway Review , 6/2008 edition, ISSN  1022-7113 , p. 286
  56. Article on Spiegel Online
  57. Another Eurostar is stuck . Handelsblatt (online edition), January 7, 2010
  58. Accident during the night: Eurostar train collides with deer. In: Spiegel Online . May 8, 2014, accessed June 9, 2018 .
  59. ( Memento from November 21, 2014 in the web archive )
  60. A total of five trains affected,, September 2, 2015, accessed September 2, 2015.