View of the Loccum monastery
according to Janauschek
|Year of dissolution /
|around 1585; since then continued existence as a Protestant convent.|
|Mother monastery||Volkenroda Monastery|
|Primary Abbey||Morimond Monastery|
Reinfeld Monastery (1186)
Kloster Loccum ( Lucca or Luca ) is a Abbey of Cistercian in the city Rehburg-Loccum , the end of the 16th century, the Augsburger denomination adopted. Rehburg-Loccum is located in Lower Saxony , near the Steinhuder Meer . Going back to a foundation of Count Wilbrand von Hallermund , it was established in 1163 as a branch of the Volkenroda monastery in Thuringia, with which it is connected today by the Loccum – Volkenroda pilgrimage route . Primary abbey is the Morimond Monastery . Today, Loccum Monastery, along with Maulbronn Monastery in Baden-Württemberg, is considered to be the best preserved Cistercian monastery north of the Alps .
The Loccum Monastery is an "independent spiritual body" in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Hanover . It serves ecclesiastical purposes within the regional church.
The buildings are now used as a seminar for preachers , as a conference center , as a destination for excursions and for music events such as the KlosterKlangFestival since 2015. In 2013 the monastery celebrated its 850th anniversary.
The castle is named after the Lucca family. It is thought to have originated in the 9th or 10th century. From the castle complex, which consisted of a heaped up circular hill 40 meters in diameter, there are hardly any remains of stone above ground. Archaeological investigations in 1820, 1893 and 1914 found a ring wall 2 meters thick and almost 3 meters deep into the ground . The castle was probably abandoned before the monastery was founded.
In 1163 an abbot and twelve monks from the Thuringian Cistercian monastery of Volkenroda came to Loccum to establish a new branch for their order. The settlement of the monks took place through a foundation of Wilbrand I of Loccum-Hallermund as Count of Hallermund .
Around 1250, a Loccumer monk described the living conditions of the first monks as dramatically poor in the so-called Vetus narratio de fundatione Monasterii Luccensis , ie the "old story of the founding of the Loccumer monastery". After that, the monks would have settled in a “place of horror and far loneliness”, a place “where robbers and highwaymen stay”. The economic conditions were also such that the Loccum founding fathers imitated the poverty of Christ in hunger and thirst. Despite the cold and heat, they would not have stopped working until they had turned the robber's den into a house of prayer. These conditions would have corresponded to the ideals laid down in the statutes of the Cistercians.
However, the description did not correspond to the true circumstances. The immediate vicinity of the monastery was populated. It is disputed whether the Luccaburg , which formed the core of the foundation, was still inhabited. The mention of the Fronhof belonging to the castle in the foundation deed of the Minden bishop speaks for it. According to the deed of foundation, the foundation property also included three towns with known names. The area was also not as inhospitable as described, because in the vicinity of Loccum the agricultural development of the swamp and forest areas had already begun. A ministerial seat set up by the monastery donor , the Count of Loccum-Hallermund , to protect the monastery, is likely to have been Monechusen Castle on the Haarberg (between the present-day towns of Rehburg and Winzlar), mentioned in 1183, the ancestral seat of the Münchhausen family .
The church, which is still standing today, was only started as a construction in 1240. The Loccum monks developed larger areas for agriculture, especially in the immediate vicinity of the monastery and around the Grinder Forest.
Loccum Abbey was a house owner in Hanover as early as 1279 . After the first two stalls at the local Hokenmarket , a courtyard was added in Osterstrasse in 1293 , which was primarily intended to sell its own grain harvest . The monastery expanded this property by purchasing another piece of land at Loccumer Hof , on which history was made well into the 20th century.
Loccum was under the direct protection of the empire and the pope. It carried the title of a Free Imperial Monastery . Starting from the Loccum monastery, the Reinfeld monastery was occupied in 1186 .
For Loccum, signs of a worsening crisis can be seen in the course of the 14th and 15th centuries. As early as 1206 people had started to lease land to farmers. What was exceptional at first became the rule in the 14th century. There were not enough conversations in Loccum either to continue farming the Grangien on their own, the land had to be divided up and given to non- members. The resulting manorial rule of the monastery no longer differed from that of a conventional Benedictine monastery. In this phase the economic growth of the monastery ended and the convent got into increasing economic difficulties. At the beginning of the 15th century, Loccum had to go into debt in order to finance the maintenance of the remaining 20 monks and ten converses. A low point was the pledging of chalices and a manuscript to the Scharnebeck monastery in 1424 , especially since the pledges could not be redeemed.
There are also direct references to the internal crisis of the monastery in the 14th century. Several times there were violent clashes and feuds with gentlemen in the area , which mainly concerned the property of the monastery. In 1320 such a dispute between the monastery and Konrad von Wendessen got so far that three Loccumer brothers kidnapped and killed the son of their adversary.
The bottom and turning point of the crisis was reached in the middle of the 15th century. The year 1454 was decisive, when the election of a new abbot was due. Since no suitable candidate was found in Loccum, the abbot of the founding monastery Volkenroda pushed through the appointment of abbot Heinrich II from the Marienrode monastery. The new abbot began to improve the economic situation. One of his successors, Abbot Arnold Holtvoigt (1458–1483), opened the convent to non-noble choir monks, his successor Abbot Ernst (1483–1492) was a commoner himself. Thereupon the noble monks left the still poor monastery. Such a tendency towards “bourgeoisisation” of the convention is typical of the order reform movement and is not limited to Loccum. The success of the reforms is documented in the 1504 visitation report by Abbot Nicolaus von Volkenroda on the occasion of the introduction of the new Abbot Boldewin Clausing. Now 40 choir monks lived in Loccum again, and the economic conditions were good. This can be seen from the large livestock listed in the document, among other things.
In 1585 the Loccum monastery came under the sovereignty of the Guelph sovereigns upon confirmation of all previous rights . At the end of the 16th century the Augsburg Confession , i.e. Lutheranism, adopted it.
During the Thirty Years' War the "Loccumer Evangelical Conventuals" found refuge for a while at the Loccumer Hof in Hanover after the monastery was occupied by a Catholic Cistercian convent for a time due to the edict of restitution .
With the conversion to the Evangelical Church an end of the monastic life was connected in the original sense. The members of the convent, now Lutheran clergy, no longer took the classic monastic vows of poverty, obedience and chastity, which were binding for the entire lifetime; they had the right to marry, in which case they would have to resign from the convent. Resignations are attested for various reasons and were unproblematic. Membership in the convention had taken on the character of an at least potentially temporary professional position and was generally no longer a life decision. But the community kept their monastery heir to the agrarian reform in the 19th century and has been called since that time calenbergischer country stand out. The incorporation into the state was connected with the assumption of the chairmanship of the state assembly, the Calenberg state parliament , by the respective abbot of the monastery, a task that is carried out to this day.
Between 1581 and 1661 there were a total of 54 documented witch trials in the Loccum monastery area . The climax were the years 1628 to 1638 during the confessional conflicts. About 33 people were executed in witch hunts. With 15 women and five men, most of the accused belonged to the Wiedensahl community . The Protestant pastor Heinrich Rimphoff (1622–1638 in Wiedensahl), later superintendent in Verden , known as the “great witch hunter” and “witch nose”, played a special role . In 1647 he published the book Dragon King - This is: Truthful German Christian and highly necessary descriptions of the gruesome, highly damned witches and spells of Teuffels in Rinteln . In one of the last trials on June 2, 1660, Gesche Köllers , Verw. Weimars from Wiedensahl, executed by the sword in the Stiftsort.
On September 25, 2013, the town council of Rehburg-Loccum passed a resolution on the socio-ethical rehabilitation of the victims of the witch trials, and the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Hanover, the church senate and convent of the Loccum monastery advocate “social rehabilitation” of the victims of the witch trials in Loccum monastery .
The monastery Loccum is known for its well-preserved until the late Romanesque period reaching back buildings, including the church ( Renaissance - baptismal font of 1601) cloister and adjoining rooms and the farm buildings. In the former lay refectory there are wall paintings with biblical scenes, which the painter Eduard von Gebhardt created between 1884 and 1891. The surrounding pond and forest landscape belonging to the Loccum monastery also provides an insight into the original organization of the former monastery as a business enterprise.
In 2017, a new library was built in the southeast area of the monastery complex. The building was built on the foundations of the monastic auditorium as a medieval predecessor, which was demolished in 1815. The historic masonry remained in the ground and was not destroyed by the overbuilding.
The Lower Saxony State Office for Monument Preservation (NLD) carried out excavations before the construction work began . The first excavation campaign was launched in 2014 and continued in 2016. The Romanesque foundation walls of the auditorium built in the 13th century with the dimensions of around 20 × 14 meters were exposed. A barrel-vaulted walled water channel runs under the earlier structure, which leads from the brewing pond to the Fulde brook and is still in use today. In the building basement there used to be a latrine on the water channel. Below the abortion, the archaeologists unearthed a large amount of metal, ceramic and glass objects in the 80 cm thick bottom sediment of the canal. These included 150 coins made of copper and silver, metal book clasps and edge protectors, buckles and applications made of non-ferrous metal, fragments of painted and lead-glazed window panes, shards of drinking glasses from the 17th century, tobacco pipes and coins, including a denarius from the 13th century depicting a bishop . According to the district archaeologist of the NLD Friedrich-Wilhelm Wulf , the many fragments of clay pipes found suggest that the monks were heavy smokers.
The late Romanesque monastery church (or collegiate church ) St. Maria und Georg (today parish church St. Georg) was probably built in the years from 1230/40 to 1280 and thus belongs to the oldest construction period of the monastery. It has remained unchanged in its original form in the simple style of the Cistercians through the centuries.
The collegiate church was completely renovated in the years 2010–2012 in order to secure the statics of the historic monastery church. In addition, the side chapels were expanded and a new organ was installed. A bronze cast "Amplexus" by the artist Werner Franzen was purchased. It is a cast of a work that is in Altenberg Cathedral. It shows Jesus bending down from the cross to hug the Cistercian monk Bernhard von Clairvaux and Martin Luther, who is also kneeling.
The history of the organs in the monastery church goes back to the 14th century. The first, larger organ was probably built in 1417, using material from the first, small instrument. In 1599 the organ builder Andreas de Mare built the third organ, which was expanded in the 18th and 19th centuries and housed in a new case . In 1947 the instrument was destroyed in a fire in the church caused by a fire in the organ motor. It had 32 registers on three manuals and a pedal .
In 2011 this organ was replaced by a new building by the Romanus Seifert & Sohn organ building workshop . This instrument has 37 registers (2,414 pipes) on three manuals and a pedal. A large part of the registers of the main work is on alternating loops, which enable registration to the second manual. The key actions and couplings are mechanical and electrical, the stop actions are electrical.
- Normal coupling: II / I, III / I, III / II, I / P, II / P, III / P
- Sub-octave coupling: I / I, II / I, III / I, III / II, III / III
- Super octave coupling: III / P
- Playing aids: bumper off, front sill off, rear sill on
- group train.
The instrument also has a mid-tone work with 7 registers (so-called Spanish work), which can be played from the first manual. The registers of the Spanish work are mainly divided into bass and treble sides at c 1 / c sharp 1 .
The current legal status of the Loccum monastery results from the church constitution of the Hanover regional church and the monastery constitution. The regional church legislation grants the Loccum monastery extensive autonomy, including the right to freely elect an abbot. However, the regional church supervisory rights, which are exercised by the church senate, are preserved. The only task determined by the church constitution is the maintenance of the seminary . To this day, the monastery is officially part of the Cistercian order (the former Abbot General of the Cistercian order Sighard Kleiner awarded Hanns Lilje the white pileolus , the headgear of the Cistercian abbeys, on July 22nd, 1964 ; on December 26th and 27th, 1977, Kleiner was the first to visit Loccum Monastery Abbot General after the Reformation. In November 1980, the then prior of the monastery, Dieter Andersen , was Lilje's representative Loccum at the symposium of the abbots and abbesses of the Cistercian Order in Rome.) And for the " Community of Evangelical Cistercian Heirs in Germany ."
Loccum Monastery as an independent spiritual body consists of the abbot, who presides over it, and usually four to eight conventuals. This nine-member convent, the monastery, consists mostly of clergymen and lawyers. He complements himself . The regional bishop of the Hanoverian regional church is a member of its own right. The preacher's seminary conventual director of studies is a member for the duration of his term of office. The conventuals and the convent elect the abbot and prior of the Loccum monastery. The convention is basically free to elect the abbot, but the church senate of the Hanover regional church has the right to influence the electoral list.
The convent house was rebuilt between 1778 and 1780 as an impressive late baroque half-timbered building.
The monastery has been the seat of the oldest seminary of the Evangelical Lutheran Regional Church of Hanover since 1820 ( seminary of the Evangelical Lutheran Regional Church of Hanover in Loccum Monastery ) and, since 2009, the only seminary for the training of theologians after graduating from university. As part of this second training phase, the vicars are prepared for practical activities in the parish office . Vicars of the other regional churches in Lower Saxony and Bremen are also trained as part of cooperation agreements . The seminary is advised and supervised by a board of trustees, chaired by a representative of the training department in the regional church office in Hanover . There is also the training advisory board in which representatives of the institutions and bodies involved in training form a “round table”. The head of the seminary is incumbent on the conventual director of studies, who is proposed by the board of trustees in agreement with the convent of the Loccum monastery and appointed by the regional church of Hanover.
The roots of the seminary go back to the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries. Regular study operations began on the initiative of Abbot Johann Christoph Salfeld in 1795. In the Guelph countries there were already practical theological training institutions, such as at the state universities in Helmstedt and Göttingen .
The Evangelical Academy of the Hanover Regional Church east of the monastery has been operating since 1952 .
On March 19, 1955, the Loccum Treaty between the state of Lower Saxony and the Protestant regional churches in Lower Saxony was concluded in the Loccum monastery . It regulates the relations between the state and the Protestant churches, which are recognized as corporations under public law. The contract signed in the Loccum refectory has set the trend for relations between the state and the regional Protestant churches in Germany.
Abbots of the monastery in Protestant times
The title of abbot has been retained through the Reformation and the end of monastic life until today.
- John (VII.) Fenger (1591–1596)
- John (VIII.) Beese (1596–1600)
- Theodor Stracke (1600–1629). As part of the cautious transition of the monastery to the Lutheran faith, this abbot apparently again oriented himself more closely to the Roman creed. A painting of the 2.05 m tall man is on the south wall of the cloister in the monastery. The baptismal font in the west of the monastery church is made to measure.
- Johann IX. Kitzow , 1629-1657
- Johann X. Kotzebue , 1657–1677
- Gerhard Wolter Molanus , 1677–1722
- Just Christopherus Böhmer, 1722–1732
- Georg Wilhelm Ebell , 1732–1770
- Christoph Heinrich Chappuzeau , 1770–1791
- Johann Christoph Salfeld , 1791–1829
- August Ludwig Hoppenstedt , 1830, then vacancy until 1832
- Friedrich Rupstein , 1832–1876
- Gerhard Uhlhorn , 1878–1901
- Georg Hartwig , 1902–1927
- August Marahrens , 1928–1950
- Johannes Lilje , 1950–1977
- Eduard Lohse , 1977-2000
- Horst Hirschler , since 2000
Conventual study directors of the seminary
- Christoph Erich Weidemann: History of the Loccum Monastery. With certificates and a copper plate. Edited, continued and edited from Weidemann's manuscripts by Friedrich Burchard Köster . Baier, Göttingen 1822 ( digitized from Vienna and digitized from Harvard from Google books)
- Wilhelm von Hodenberg (Ed.): Archives of the Loccum Abbey (= Calenberg document book; 3rd department). Jänecke, Hannover 1858. (digitized version)
- Heinrich Ludolf Ahrens : On the oldest history of the Loccum monastery. In: Journal of the Historical Association for Lower Saxony. 38 (1872), pp. 1-47. (Part 1), 40 (1874/1875), pp. 372-423. (Part 2), 41 (1876), pp. 47-156. (Part 3). (Digital copies of the SLUB Dresden)
- Frithjoff Bestmann: Loccum. In: Philipp Meyer (Ed.): The pastors of the regional churches of Hanover and Schaumburg-Lippes. Volume 2: Kaarßen to Zeven. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1941, pp. 84–87.
- Wilhelm Steinmann: The possession of the Loccum monastery until the middle of the 15th century. A study of the economic history of the Cistercians. Diss. Phil. mach. Goettingen 1951.
- Nicolaus Heutger : The Loccum Monastery as part of the Cistercian order history. On the 100th birthday of John XI. Lilje, Abbot to Loccum, and to the Expo 2000. Theodor Oppermann Verlag, Hannover 1999, ISBN 3-87604-030-2 .
- Working group on water management of the Cistercians: The art of hydraulic engineering in the Loccum monastery. Lukas Verlag, Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-936872-81-3 .
- Horst Hirschler , Ludolf Ulrich (Ed.): Loccum Monastery. Lutherisches Verlagshaus, Hannover 2012, ISBN 978-3-7859-1086-3 , table of contents .
- Simon Sosnitza, Ludolf Ulrich (ed.): New research on the Cistercian monastery Loccum. Solivagus-Verlag, Kiel 2015, ISBN 978-3-943025-21-7 , table of contents .
- Eberhard Doll: Burchard Stöter from Neustadt am Rübenberge, Abbot of Loccum (around 1465–1528). In: Zeitschr. f. Low German Family Studies , 84th year, issue 2/2009, pp. 67–71. ISSN 0945-7461.
- Walls for eternity. Documentary, Germany, 2012, 58:30 min., Script and direction: Hanna Legatis , production: NDR , series: die nordstory , first broadcast: March 29, 2013 on Phoenix , synopsis by ARD, ( memento from July 22, 2014 on the Internet Archives ).
- Website of the Loccum Monastery
- Description of Loccum Monastery on the Lower Saxony monastery map of the Institute for Historical Research
- Memories of Johannes Dittrich from his time in the Loccumer Predigerseminar from 1875 to 1877 in 14 chapters
- Loccumer organ booklet on the website of the Evangelical Media Service Center (EMSZ) of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Hanover
- See the website Kloster Loccum 2013 .
- Communicated by the original Latin in Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz : Scriptores Rerum Brunsvicensium. Volume 3, Förster, Hanover 1711, p. 690 f. and with Wilhelm von Hodenberg (ed.): Archives of the Loccum Abbey (= Calenberg document book; 3rd division). Jänecke, Hannover 1858, No. 1, p. 3 ..
- Werner Rösener : The economic structure of the Lower Saxon Cistercian monasteries in the Middle Ages. In: Yearbook for Church History in Lower Saxony. 88 (1990), pp. 41-60, here pp. 48 ff.
- Arnold Nöldeke : Loccumer Hof. In: The art monuments of the province of Hanover. Volume 1, H. 2, Part 1, self-published by the Provinzialverwaltung, Theodor Schulzes Buchhandlung, Hanover 1932 (Neudruck Verlag Wenner, Osnabrück 1979, ISBN 3-87898-151-1 ), pp. 221-224.
- Waldemar R. Röhrbein : Loccumer Hof. In: Klaus Mlynek, Waldemar R. Röhrbein (eds.) U. a .: City Lexicon Hanover . From the beginning to the present. Schlütersche, Hannover 2009, ISBN 978-3-89993-662-9 , p. 413 f.
- Werner Rösener: The economic structure of the Cistercian monasteries in Lower Saxony in the Middle Ages. In: Yearbook for Church History in Lower Saxony. 88 (1990), pp. 41-60, here pp. 57 f.
- Werner Rösener: The economic structure of the Cistercian monasteries in Lower Saxony in the Middle Ages. In: Yearbook for Church History in Lower Saxony. 88 (1990), pp. 41-60, here p. 59.
- Christoph Erich Weidemann: History of the Loccum Monastery. With certificates and a copper plate. Edited, continued and edited from Weidemann's manuscripts by Friedrich Burchard Köster. Baier, Göttingen 1822, pp. 21–31. .
- Christoph Erich Weidemann: History of the Loccum Monastery. With certificates and a copper plate. Edited, continued and edited from Weidemann's manuscripts by Friedrich Burchard Köster. Baier, Göttingen 1822, pp. 21–39. .
- Peter Beer: witch trials in the monastery and monastery area Loccum. V & R Unipress, Göttingen 2007, ISBN 978-3-89971-357-2 , pp. 52-60. and passim for the whole topic.
- List of names of the victims of the Loccum witch trials (PDF file; 12 kB)
- Council of the City of Rehburg-Loccum (PDF; 471 kB), accessed on September 13, 2016.
- Evangelical-Lutheran Regional Church of Hanover, Der Kirchensenat (PDF; 563 kB), accessed on September 13, 2016.
- Georg Speitel: The baptismal fonts in the Loccum monastery church and in St. Marien zu Minden. In: Messages from the Minden History Society. 55: 103-110 (1983).
- Illustration of the mural Expulsion from the Temple by Eduard von Gebhardt in Loccum Monastery , in Rhine and Düssel No. 27, dated July 5, 1913
- 850 years of Loccum Monastery - monastery tour, impressions
- Remains of Cistercian architecture in: Schaumburger Nachrichten of December 16, 2014
- Open Monument Day in Lower Saxony on September 11, 2016 ( memento from September 16, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) at the Lower Saxony State Office for Monument Preservation
- Treasure hunt in the monastery at the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Hanover from October 28, 2014
- Friedrich-Wilhelm Wulf : Monastery library on a historical foundation In: Archeology in Germany 2 | 2017, p. 46.
- On the renovation of the monastery church
- Information from the regional church on the renovation of the collegiate church
- Comprehensive information on the history of the organs and today's instrument
- Constitution of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Hanover. From July 1, 1971. In: Canon Law online reference work.
- Constitution of the Loccum Monastery. May 17, 1980. In: Canon Law online reference work.
- Johannes Jürgen Siegmund: Bishop Johannes Lilje, Abbot of Loccum: A biography . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 2003, pp. 577-580.
- Nothing distracts from prayer and work. In: Calenberger Zeitung. of September 2, 2006, p. 15.
- Heinrich Holze: Between studies and parish office. The emergence of the seminary in the Guelph principalities at the time of the Enlightenment. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1985, ISBN 3-525-55229-7 , pp. 213-220.
- Church law on the treaty between the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Hanover and the other Evangelical Churches in Lower Saxony with the State of Lower Saxony. From April 14, 1955. In: Canon Law online reference work.
Dr. Cord Cordes. In: Stifts-Kirchengemeinde Wunstorf , accessed on June 3, 2015 and chronicle for the year 1950: December 31, 1950. In: Göttingen City Archives .