List of modern universities in Europe (1801–1945)

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The Humboldt University , founded in 1810, emphasized the priority of the scientific knowledge process and the freedom of research over practice-oriented vocational training and thus became the most important stimulus for modern university systems in the 19th century ( Photochrom from 1900).

The list of modern universities in Europe (1801–1945) includes all universities that were founded in Europe between the French Revolution and the end of the Second World War . Universities in the sense of this list are academic universities that have been recognized as universities by the responsible secular authorities or clerical bodies and that have awarded the doctoral degree in more than one faculty . Short-lived start-ups are also included.

At the beginning of the 19th century, the European universities were badly affected by the Napoleonic Wars and their number fell by sixty locations to 83 in the short period from 1789 to 1815. By 1840 there was an increase to 98 universities, with around 80,000 Students and 5,000 professors worked. Despite the trend towards vocational specialized universities - in France, for example, all universities had been dissolved and replaced by grandes écoles - the size of the student body and professorships multiplied to 600,000 and 32,000 members at around two hundred universities respectively over the next hundred years. In total, the era saw the operation of around 220 universities, which are listed below.


The list is sorted according to the time of recognition. Where more than one university has been founded in one location, the name of the institution is in brackets.

19th century

Accepted university Today's country
1803 Rennes France
1804 Kazan Russia
1804 Kharkov Ukraine
1805 Clermont-Ferrand France
1808 Lyon France
1808 Rouen France
1810 Berlin Germany
1810 Laibach Slovenia
1811 Christiania Norway
1816 Warsaw Poland
1816 Liege Belgium
1816/17 Ghent Belgium
1817 Lille France
1818 Bonn Germany
1823 Corfu Greece
1826 Munich Germany
1832 Durham England
1833 Zurich Switzerland
1834 Bern Switzerland
1834 Brussels Belgium
1834 Kiev Ukraine
1836 London England
1836 Madrid Spain
1837 Athens Greece
1845 Belfast Northern Ireland
1851 Manchester England
1854 Dublin Ireland
1860 Iași Romania
1864 Bucharest Romania
1864 Odessa Ukraine
1869 Zagreb Croatia
1870 Aachen Germany
1872 Geneva Switzerland
1872 Cluj-Napoca Romania
1875 Chernivtsi Ukraine
1875 Angers France
1875 Lille France
1875 Lyon France
1875 Paris France
1877 Toulouse France
1877 Amsterdam Netherlands
1877 Stockholm Sweden
1880 Amsterdam Netherlands
1881 Liverpool England
1889 Freiburg i.Üe. Switzerland
1890 Lausanne Switzerland
1893 Cardiff Wales
1900 Birmingham England
1900 Istanbul Turkey

20th century

Accepted university Today's country
1903 Nottingham England
1904 Leeds England
1904 Sofia Bulgaria
1904 Comillas Spain
1905 Sheffield England
1905 Belgrade Serbia
1908 Rome Italy
1909 Bristol England
1909 Neuchâtel Switzerland
1909 Saratov Russia
1911 Reykjavík Iceland
1911 postage Portugal
1912 Debrecen Hungary
1914 Frankfurt am Main Germany
1915 Murcia Spain
1915 Rostov on Don Russia
1917 Turku Finland
1917 Perm Russia
1918 Tbilisi Georgia
1918 Dnepropetrovsk Ukraine
1918 Nizhny Novgorod Russia
1918 Smolensk Russia
1918 Petrograd Russia
1918 Moscow Russia
1918 Voronezh Russia
1919 Warsaw Poland
1919 Brno Czech Republic
1919 Hamburg Germany
1919 Poses Poland
1919 Moscow Russia
1919 Riga Latvia
1920 Turku Finland
1920 Lublin Poland
1920 Milan Italy
1920 Samara Russia
1920 Ekaterinburg Russia
1920 Yerevan Armenia
1921 Minsk Belarus
1921 Moscow Russia
1921 Moscow Russia
1921 Pécs Hungary
1921 Szeged Hungary
1922 Kaunas Lithuania
1923 Nijmegen Netherlands
1923 Bari Italy
1924 Milan Italy
1924 Trieste Italy
1925 Thessaloniki Greece
1926 Reading England
1934 Aarhus Denmark
1940 Salamanca Spain


  1. This number also includes Russian universities in the Asian part of the country, which are not part of this list.

Individual evidence

  1. Rüegg 2004, p. 18f.
  2. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx Rüegg 2004, pp. 547–558
  3. a b c Rüegg 2004, p. 17


  • Walter Rüegg : Topics, Problems, Findings , in Walter Rüegg (Hrsg.): History of the University in Europe . Vol. III: From the 19th Century to the Second World War (1800–1945) , Beck, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-406-36954-5 , pp. 17–41
  • Walter Rüegg: Directory of the scientific universities of Europe 1800–1945: Chronological directory of the universities , in Walter Rüegg (Hrsg.): History of the University in Europe. Vol. III: From the 19th Century to the Second World War (1800–1945) , CH Beck, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-406-36954-5 , pp. 547–558.

See also