List of medieval universities

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Lecture at a university in the Middle Ages (14th century)

The list of medieval universities includes all universities that existed in the Middle Ages . It also includes short-lived start-ups and educational institutions whose university status has not yet been conclusively clarified by research. The university with its own organizational structure and its free self-image is a product of the Christian Middle Ages. Up to 1500 the existence of over eighty universities is documented, most of which were located in Western and Central Europe. With the subsequent colonization of America , the university was brought to the New World and thus began its worldwide expansion as the highest educational institution of the present (see list of the oldest universities ).


The multi-volume history of the University in Europe of the European Rectors' Conference offers a short definition of the university with its essential characteristics, as they have developed since the Middle Ages :

"The university is one, yes, the European institution par excellence : As a community of teachers and students, endowed with special rights of self-administration, the definition and execution of curricula and research goals as well as the award of publicly recognized academic degrees , it is a creation of the European Middle Ages ...

No other European institution has achieved universal recognition in the whole world like the university with its traditional structures and scientific achievements. The titles of the medieval university, baccalaureate , licentiate , master's degree , doctorate , are recognized in a wide variety of political and ideological systems. The four medieval faculties of theology , jurisprudence , medicine and artes have been given different names in some cases. Thus the artist faculty became a philosophical one, that of lettres , sciences , humanities . Numerous, above all social science and technological disciplines were added, but the old faculties still form the core of universities around the world. Even the name of universitas , which was used in the Middle Ages for all kinds of cooperatives and accordingly initially only referred to the corporate organization of teachers and students, has received an intellectual upgrade over the centuries: as universitas litterarum , the university has embodied the educational institution since the 18th century which the entirety of the sciences has to maintain and convey. "


The list is sorted according to the time of recognition. Where more than one university has been founded in one location, the name of the institution is in brackets.

Before and during the 12th century

Accepted university Today's country
9th century Salerno Italy
962 Parma Italy
End of the 12th century Bologna Italy
1188 Reggio nell'Emilia Italy

13th Century

Accepted university Today's country
1204 Vicenza Italy
1208 Palencia Spain
Early 13th century Paris France
Early 13th century Oxford England
Early 13th century Montpellier France
1209-25 Cambridge England
1215 Arezzo Italy
1218-19 Salamanca Spain
1222 Padua Italy
1224 Naples Italy
1228 Vercelli Italy
1229 Toulouse France
around 1235 Orleans France
1245 Rome (Curia) Italy
1245 Siena Italy
1248 Piacenza Italy
around 1250 Angers France
1254-60 Seville Spain
1261 Northampton England
End of the 13th century Valladolid Spain
1290 Lisbon Portugal
1300 Lérida Spain

14th Century

Accepted university Today's country
1303 Avignon France
1303 Rome (La Sapienza) Italy
1308 Perugia Italy
1308 Coimbra Portugal
1318 Treviso Italy
1332 Cahors France
1339 Grenoble France
1339 Verona Italy
1343 Pisa Italy
1347 Prague Czech Republic
1349 Florence Italy
1350 Perpignan France
1354 Huesca Spain
1361 Pavia Italy
1364 Krakow Poland
1365 orange France
1365 Vienna Austria
1367 Pécs Hungary
1369 Lucca Italy
1379 Erfurt Germany
1380 Dyrrachium Albania
1385 Heidelberg Germany
1388 Cologne Germany
1391 Ferrara Italy
1395 Buda Hungary
1396 Zadar Croatia

15th century

Accepted university Today's country
1402 Wurzburg Germany
1404 Turin Italy
1409 Leipzig Germany
1409 Aix-en-Provence France
1411 St. Andrews Scotland
1412-20 Parma Italy
1419 Rostock Germany
1422 Dole France
1425 Lions Belgium
1431 Poitiers France
1432 Caen France
1441 Bordeaux France
1444 Catania Italy
1446 Girona Spain
1450 Barcelona Spain
1451 Glasgow Scotland
1452 Valence France
1454 trier Germany
1456 Greifswald Germany
1457 Freiburg Germany
1459 Basel Switzerland
1459 Ingolstadt Germany
1460 Nantes France
1464 Bourges France
1465 Pressburg Slovakia
1470 Venice Italy
1471 Genoa Italy
1474 Zaragoza Spain
1475 Copenhagen Denmark
1476 Mainz Germany
1476 Tübingen Germany
1477 Uppsala Sweden
1483 Palma Spain
1489 Sigüenza Spain
1495 Aberdeen Scotland
1498 Frankfurt Oder Germany
1499 Alcalá de Henares Spain
1500 Valencia Spain


  1. a b c d e f g h i j k l Status or operation as a university questionable

Individual evidence

  1. a b Rüegg 1993, p. 13f.
  2. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch Verger, Jacques: "Basics", in: Rüegg, Walter (Ed.): History of the University in Europe. Vol. I: Mittelalter , CH Beck, Munich 1993, ISBN 3-406-36952-9 , pp. 49-80 (70f.)
  3. Roberts, Rodriguez & Herbst 1996, pp. 213-232
  4. La storia dell'Università di Parma. In: Università degli Studi di Parma. Retrieved February 20, 2017 (Italian).
  5. Simone Bordini, Piergiovanni Genoves: Università di Parma. Un millennio di storia . Ed .: Annamaria Cavalli. Monte Università Parma Editore, Parma 2016, ISBN 978-88-7847-500-7 (Italian).
  6. Anna Maria Tammaro (ed.): Verso l'internazionalizzazione della formazione in biblioteconomia e in scienze dell'informazione. Atti del Seminario internazionale, Parma, 18 March 2002 . Casalini Libri, Fiesole 2002, ISBN 978-88-85297-56-2 (Italian).
  7. Powicke 1949, pp. 200f.


  • Powicke, FM: Ways of Medieval Life and Thought , Biblo & Tannen Publishers, 1949, ISBN 978-0-8196-0137-7
  • Roberts, John; Rodriguez Cruz, Agueda M .; Herbst, Jürgen: “The adoption of European university models ”, in: Rüegg, Walter (Ed.): History of the University in Europe . Vol. II: From the Reformation to the French Revolution (1500–1800) , CH Beck, Munich 1996, ISBN 3-406-36953-7 , pp. 213–232
  • Rüegg, Walter: “Foreword. The University as a European Institution ”, in: Rüegg, Walter (Hrsg.): History of the University in Europe. Vol. I: Mittelalter , CH Beck, Munich 1993, ISBN 3-406-36952-9 , p. 13f.
  • Verger, Jacques: "Basics", in: Rüegg, Walter (Hrsg.): History of the University in Europe. Vol. I: Mittelalter , CH Beck, Munich 1993, ISBN 3-406-36952-9 , pp. 49-80 (70f.)

See also