This article deals with the opera genre Pastorale in its various forms and with its historical origin and development, taking into account related genres such as serenata , cantata , masque , etc. a.
The pastoral is an operatic genre of the 17th and 18th centuries based on the fashion of shepherd poetry and shepherd play that emerged in the 16th century . The plot is therefore set in an idyllic shepherd or shepherd milieu, and revolves primarily around love entanglements.
In addition to shepherds and shepherds, the staff of the pastoral opera typically also includes nature spirits such as nymphs , naiads , dryads or satyrs , as well as demigods or gods of Greco-Roman mythology ; occasionally also river or sea deities.
The pastoral also appeared as a mixture with other genres. B. Mattheson (1739) has a tragic, heroic, comic or “country-like” form, but he emphasizes that it is “... your right noblest characteristic ...” “... not in frolock and rejoicing, not in splendid procrastinations; but in an “innocent”, “modest” love, in an unadorned, innate and pleasant simplicity ( naiveté ) ... to which all kinds and parts of the same must conform ; the melodies in particular ”.
Even in antiquity , Theocritus sang the life of the shepherds in his bucolic idylls , who, like Homer , often played musical instruments such as the panpipe ( syrinx ). Virgil's eclogues were performed in the 1st century with background music. The biblical tradition is particularly well-known that Jesus Christ was waited for by shepherds at his birth (and he himself is called a “ good shepherd ” and the “ Lamb of God ”). This idea of Christmas pastoral music led to the instrumental form of the pastoral in the Baroque era .
Italy in the 16th and early 17th centuries
Thus, the figure of the shepherd had been from time immemorial a symbol of a nature close almost childlike innocence , purity and virtue , a peaceful royal and love knows full being that no evil. Against this Christian background and some literary examples from antiquity, the genus of the pastourelle emerged in the Middle Ages . During the Italian Renaissance , several major stage works were created: Angelo Poliziano's La favola di Orfeo (approx. 1480) played in a pastoral milieu until Euridice's death; it is considered the forerunner of opera and has been shown to have been performed with music by composers such as Marchetto Cara and Tromboncino . The important shepherd poetry of the 16th century and above all the two shepherd games Aminta (1573) by Torquato Tasso and Il pastor fido (= The Faithful Shepherd; 1590) by Giovanni Battista Guarini had an enormous influence on the development of music, and ultimately contributed to it Origin of the opera at. Selected texts and longer dialogue passages from the works by Guarini and Tasso (and other shepherd poems) were initially set to music in numerous versions as madrigals , which were most likely also sung in performances of the two stage works. Some examples of settings from Guarini's Il pastor fido alone are:
- "Tirsi morir volea" by Giaches de Wert (7th Madrigal Book , 1581!);
- the 4 madrigals "Deh, Tirsi, Tirsi, anima mia, perdona", "Anima cruda, sì, ma però bella", "Udite Lagrimosi" and "Ah, dolente partita!" from the 6th book of madrigals (1594) by Luca Marenzio ;
- Alone from the 5th book of madrigals (1605) by Claudio Monteverdi : “Cruda Amarilli” and “O Mirtillo, Mirtill ', anima mia”; a five-part madrigal sequence “Ecco Silvio…” (a dialogue between Dorinda and Silvio); the three-part madrigal sequence “Ch'io t'ami” (from Mirtillo's mouth); and "M'è più dolce il penar per Amarilli" (also Mirtillo);
- "Cruda Amarilli" was also composed by Sigismondo d'India (1st Madrigal book à 5, 1606); later examples are “Ombrose e care selve” and “Quell'augellin che canta” from the 3rd madrigal book (à 5, 1615).
- A very famous example is the solo madrigal "Amarilli mia bella" by Giulio Caccini ( Le Nuove Musiche , Florence 1601), a member of the Florentine Camerata , which was directly involved in the development of the opera based on Greek models.
This is only a small selection, to which there is a veritable flood of pieces based on texts by other authors such as Tasso, Marino , Rinuccini , etc. who also belong to the pastoral genre, for example Monteverdi's famous duet “Zefiro torna” (Libro IX, 1651; text by Rinuccini).
An important pastoral composition of somewhat larger dimensions is Monteverdi's “Dialogo e Ballo” Tirsi e Clori , which was performed in Mantua in 1616 and published in the 7th Book of Madrigals (1619). The text came from Alessandro Striggio , who had also created the libretto for Monteverdi's opera L'Orfeo (Mantua, 1607). This, too, is strongly influenced by the pastoral genre: the libretto probably goes back to Poliziano's Favola d'Orfeo , and the entire wedding scene of the first and second acts takes place in a bucolic shepherd and shepherd milieu, with several solo chants and choirs for the shepherds. The same goes for other early operas, such as Jacopo Peri's Dafne (1597/1598), Caccini's "favola pastorale" L'Euridice (1602, Florence) or Stefano Landis La morte d'Orfeo (1619), which as a "pastoral Tragicommedia" referred is.
In the further development of the opera, more and more heroic and aristocratic figures from ancient mythology or history came to the fore, but the shepherds and shepherds were often not far - always as a positive, unspoiled counter-image of a natural, simple world where there was only peace and love gives, and no courtly intrigues or armed conflicts. An example is the good old shepherd Eumete in Monteverdi's Il ritorno d'Ulisse in patria (1641).
In France, even before the actual invention of French opera, the shepherd theme often served as an allegorical “pretext” for numerous airs de cour , a genre that led directly to opera. Keywords that reveal (or pretend?) A pastoral milieu are of course the direct mention of “berger” (shepherd) or “bergère” (shepherdess), but also poetic descriptions of nature such as the mention of trees, forests, streams, rivers, meadows , Flowers, birds, etc., and on the other hand certain names that come from the shepherd poetry or well-known shepherd games and novels, such as B. "Iris" or "Philis". The master of this genre Michel Lambert wrote tragic as well as funny, frivolous or ironic shepherd airs, duets or trios. Even Jean-Baptiste Lully set to music some of these texts in his youth.
The first attempts towards an independent French opera were some five-act pastorals by Robert Cambert , namely La Pastorale (1659), and later Pomone (1671) and Les Peines et les plaisirs de l'amour (1672). Overall, the subject was exhausted to such an extent that Molière and Lully brought a "comical pastoral" onto the stage as a funny alternative in 1667 (La pastorale comique LWV 33). Three years later he had his bourgeois gentilhomme (1670) ask uncomprehendingly after he had performed a languishing Schäfer aria (by Lully): “Pourquoi toujours des bergers?” (Why always Schäfer?).
Despite Molière's jokes, the French tragédie lyrique of the 17th and 18th centuries often featured entire shepherd or shepherd scenes with choirs and ballet , e. B. in the second act by Jean-Baptiste Lullys Amadis (1684), or in the fourth act of Callirhoë (1712) by André Destouches . Especially in the 18th century, bagpipes ( musette ) were sometimes used to get as close as possible to the shepherd's milieu in terms of instrumentation, and a separate genre of baroque dance also emerged: the musette .
Lully also invented the independent genre of Pastorale-héroïque ( heroic pastorale), which formally consists of a prologue with only three acts , not five acts like the great tragedy lyrique . In addition, the plot is not exclusively idyllic, but interspersed with dramatic, tragic and even heroic elements. What was new about it, however, was not the intermingling of pastoral and tragic or heroic elements, which can already be found in Monteverdi's "Orfeo", where the death of Euridice "ruins" the happy wedding feast with the shepherds. And of course, as mentioned, the shepherds also had their role in Lully's Tragédies. The three-act form and the weighting are new: In the Pastorale héroïque , the shepherds become the heroes of the plot. The first work in this genre was Lully's last opera Acis et Galatée (1687); Astrée (1691) by Pascal Colasse with a text by La Fontaine , referred to as “Tragédie”, is in reality a typical three-act pastorale-héroïque , the action of which takes place in a pastoral setting. Issé (1697), the first opera by André Cardinal Destouches with a libretto by de La Motte (1697), was a huge success . It was performed before Louis XIV at Fontainebleau , and the king was very impressed and said he had enjoyed the music as much as the late Lully; Issé's success also extended beyond France's borders. a. performed in Brussels, The Hague and Wolfenbüttel. Jean-Philippe Rameau alone later composed five works of this genre: Zaïs (1748), Naïs (1749), Acanthe et Céphise (1751), Daphnis et Aeglé (1753), and Lysis et Délie (1753; music lost). He could z. T. make extensive use of his orchestration skills, which he was able to use especially in this genre for successful and poetic imitations of nature, such as B. the birdsong in the aria "Chantez Oiseaux" from Zaïs , or the glittering stars in Neptune's aria "La jeune nymphe" from Naïs .
Other examples of French pastorals are Boismortier's Daphnis et Chloé ( op.102 , 1747), Pancrace Royers Myrtil et Zélie (1750), and Mondonvilles Isbé (1742), as well as Titon et l 'Aurore (op.7, 1753), which der greatest success of his life. A year later Mondonville brought out Daphnis et Alcimadure (op. 9), a pastoral languedocienne in Occitan (!), Based on a fable ( Livre XII , no. 24) by Jean de La Fontaine . Understandably, the piece was played not only in Paris, but also in cities in southern France, such as Montpellier and Toulouse , where Occitan dialects were spoken. It was also parodied several times and later translated into French.
Pierre-Montan Berton wrote the pastorals Sylvie (1749) and Erosine (1765); and together with Jean-Claude Trial and Louis Granier Théonis, ou le Toucher (1767). In 1771 Trial's La Fête de Flore had its premiere.
In the 1760s, some pastorals by Jean-Benjamin de la Borde , a student of Rameau, were performed on various Parisian stages : Annette et Lubin (text: Jean-François Marmontel, March 30, 1762) and Amphion (October 13, 1767) were only one act. But La Cinquantaine (13 August 1771, Académie royale de musique) was a full-blown “pastorale en 3 actes”.
Even François-Joseph Gossec created some pastoral: Les Agréments d'Hylas et Sylvie (1768), Alexis et Daphné (1775), and Philémon et Baucis (1775). In Grétry's extensive operatic oeuvre , there is only La rosière de Salency , which was premiered in Fontainebleau in 1773.
The existence and success of the Pastorale-héroïque did not mean, however, that the "lovable" shepherds were now completely banned from all other French operatic genres such as tragédie lyrique , opéra-ballet , comédie-ballet or acte de ballet .
Italy around 1700
In Italian music of the 17th and 18th centuries, after the “death” of the madrigal (around 1640/50) and especially after the founding of the Accademia dell'Arcadia (1690), numerous cantatas or “ serenates ” in the pastoral genre were created here basically served as a poetic pretext for love arias , duets and even laments . Here, too, names such as “Clori”, “Tirsi”, “Mirtillo”, “Filli”, “Amarilli”, “Silvio” or “Fileno” reveal the shepherd's milieu at first glance, as they are often taken from well-known works such as Il pastor fido (Mirtillo, Silvio, Amarilli), or from Aminta (Filli, Tirsi, Silvia). Masters of these smaller or medium-sized pastoral genres, which were often accompanied by string orchestras with continuo , were the great opera composers, above all Alessandro Scarlatti with works such as “Clori et Mirtillo” (soprano, alto), “Filli che esprime la sua fede a Fileno " (alto solo), " Bella madre de 'fiori " (alto solo) a. a. There are other examples from basically every composer of Italian operas, from Agostino Steffani to Antonio Caldara to Johann Adolph Hasse .
Alessandro Scarlatti also left behind - in a preserved complete work of 59 operas - some larger three-act acts: Dafni (1700) and Il pastore di Corinto (1701) he called "favola boschereccia" , or "forest fable ". Both were performed in Posilippo in the palace of the Viceroy of Naples . La fede riconosciuta (1710) is referred to as “dramma pastorale” ( pastoral drama ), but Benedetto Marcello is also a possible author .
Also Giovanni Bononcini wrote several Serenate in pastoral genre: La costanza non gradita nel doppio amore d'Aminta (1694) apparently goes on Tassos Aminta back; conversely, Silvio trionfante degl'amori di Dorinda e Clori is based on Guarini's Il pastor fido. Fully grown operas are L'amore eroica fra pastori (1696) and the “pastorella” Cefalo (1702). In the same year he also composed Polifemo (1702), based on the famous Galatea story, which was also set to music by Ziani (1667, Vienna), Lully (1686), and later twice by Handel (1708 and 1718). Bononcini's "favola pastorale" Erminia (1723), with the castrato soprano Domenico Gizzi (1687–1758) and the Neapolitan alto Francesco Vitale was created for the carnival season of 1719 at the Teatro della Pace in Rome . The opera is based on the story of Erminia and the shepherds from Tassos Gerusalemme liberata , which was transformed into an opera libretto by Cardinal Giulio Rospigliosi (later Pope Clement IX ) in 1633 . Bononcini's version was a huge success. It was also re-performed as Handel's rival during his time in London (1723). Later he wrote the “festa pastorale” Amore per amor (1732).
Here are a few more examples of pastoral operas by other successful Italian opera composers:
Carlo Francesco Pollarolo , who worked in Venice and wrote about 80 to 90 operas, wrote
- Il pastore d'Anfriso (tragedia pastorale, libretto: Girolamo Frigimelica Roberti, on the Georgica by Virgil , 1695, Venice),
- L'enigma disciolto (favola pastorale, libretto: Giovanni Battista Neri, 1698, Reggio Emilia; revision: Gli amici rivali , 1705, Venice),
- La fede riconosciuta (dramma pastorale per musica, libretto: Pasquaglio, 1707, Vicenza)
- La vendetta d'amore (pastorale per musica, 1707, Rovigo),
- L'Ergisto (dramma pastorale, libretto: Francesco Passarini, 1708, Rovigo),
- La ninfa riconosciuta (melodramma pastorale, libretto: Francesco Silvani , 1709, Vicenza),
- Amor per gelosia (favola pastorale, 1710, Rome),
- Marsia deluso (favola pastorale, libretto: Agostino Piovene , 1714, Venice).
From Antonio Lotti , who also worked in Venice and left a total of 24 operas, are:
- Il Tirsi (1st act) (dramma pastorale, libretto: Apostolo Zeno ; together with Antonio Caldara (2nd act) and Attilio Ariosti (3rd act), 1696, Venice),
- Ama più chi men si crede (dramma pastorale, libretto: Francesco Silvani, 1709, Venice),
- La ninfa Apollo (scherzo comico pastorale, libretto: Francesco De Lemene; together with Francesco Gasparini , 1709/1710, Venice) was a comical libretto that had been set to music by the young Carlo Agostino Badia in 1692 , and which will be set to music several times would u. a. by Francesco Rossi (1726, Venice), Galuppi (1734, Venice), and Bernasconi (1743, Venice),
- Giove in Argo (melodramma pastorale, libretto: Antonio Maria Lucchini , 1717, Dresden).
Among the approx. 60 operas by Francesco Gasparini are:
- Elpino (componimento pastorale, 1702, Venice),
- La Dorinda (favola pastorale, libretto: Benedetto Marcello, 1723, Rome),
- La Silvia (dramma pastorale, libretto: Enrico Bissari, 1723, Foligno), a story that Domenico Scarlatti set to music for the theater of Maria Casimira , ex-Queen of Poland, in the Palazzo Zuccari in Rome in 1710 ,
- La Tigrena (favola pastorale con intermezzi, 1724, Rome).
The following works by Antonio Caldara (from approx. 78 operas) are worth mentioning :
- Paride sull'Ida, overo Gl'amori di Paride con Enone (favola pastorale, 1704, Mantua),
- Il selvaggio eroe (tragicommedia eroico-pastorale, 1707, Venice),
- Dafne , dramma pastorale, 1719, Salzburg / Vienna (dedication to Franz Anton Graf von Harrach , Prince Archbishop of Salzburg)
- Ghirlanda di fiori (componimento pastorale, 1726, Vienna (?)),
- Amor non ha legge (favola pastorale, 1728, Jaroměřice Castle ).
- also a large Cantata pastorale eroica a 5 (1730, Vienna).
The following pastorals stand out from Antonio Vivaldi's surviving 21 operas:
- La Silvia (RV 734, dramma pastorale, libretto: Enrico Bissari, 1721, Milan, to celebrate the birthday of Empress Elisabeth Christine )
- Dorilla in Tempe (RV 709-A, melodramma eroico pastorale, libretto: Antonio Maria Lucchini, 1726, Venice)
- La fida ninfa (dramma pastorale, 1732, Verona)
From the examples cited alone, it can be seen that the pastoral as a full-blown opera also had its place on the stages of baroque Italy, which, however, seems relatively modest compared to the enormous amount of “drammi”.
Germany and England
In England Henry Lawes composed incidental music for Milton's Comus (1634). Even John Blows three-act Masque Venus and Adonis (ca. 1681) is partly set in a pastoral setting. Henry Purcell did not write a pastoral opera, but wrote a delightful scene in King Arthur (1691), where the shepherds sing: "How blest are Shepherds, how happy their lasses ...". The scene ends with a horn pipe .
The first completely preserved German-language “opera” is the “… spiritual forest poem or play of joy, called Seelewig” by Sigmund Theophil Staden , performed in Nuremberg in 1644 , with a libretto by Georg Philipp Harsdörffer . As the name "forest poem" suggests, it is a real pastoral with shepherds, shepherdesses and nymphs as the main characters.
50 years later, in 1694, Johann Sigismund Kusser created the “Shepherd's Play ” Erindo or Die Unpäfliche Liebe for the Hamburg Opera on Gänsemarkt . Kusser was a pupil of Lully, and so his Erindo already corresponds formally to the French pastoral héroïque with 3 acts. As a result, Reinhard Keizer , the greatest composer of the German-language baroque opera, created a whole series of pastoral operas , which he too often (but not always) referred to as the “shepherd's game”. Here, based Friedrich Christian Bressands libretto for The Royal Shepherd or Basil in Arcadia (1694) on the history of Il Re Pastore , who still after 1750 in the processing of Metastasio would be set to music many times (see below). Even the beloved Adonis (1697) plays in the pastoral environment. In his Perfect Capellmeister (1739), Mattheson mentions Keiser's Ismene (1695/1699) as a particularly "... good pattern ..." for the genre of the pastoral, and adds: "Not to mention this famous author to many others". Other shepherd games by Keizer are: The morning of European luck or Aurora (1710), The discovered disguise or The secret love of Diana (1712, 1724 reworked as The avenging Cupid ), L'inganno fedele or The faithful betrayal (1714) and the pasticcio Cloris and Tirsis (1721).
German baroque composers also created Italian operas and pastorals, such as B. Christoph Graupner's La costanza vince l'inganno (1715/1719). Probably the same libretto or at least the same material was set to music a few years later by Georg Caspar Schürmann under the slightly modified name Amor costante vince l'inganno (1733) for the court theater in Wolfenbüttel . Even Carl Heinrich Graun's Giove in Argo (1730 (?)) Was Wolfenbuttel, his "pastoral" Il giudizio di Paride (1752) was in Charlottenburg Palace , premiered at the court of Frederick the Great . Also worth mentioning are Wagenseil's “favola pastorale” Euridice (1750, Vienna), and Holzbauer's Il figlio delle selve (1753, Schwetzingen Palace Theater ).
Johann Adolph Hasse - the most important German and international rococo opera composer between 1730 and 1770 - treated the shepherd theme almost exclusively in cantatas, some of them with obbligato solo instruments or with orchestral accompaniment; larger works are the “cantata pastorale” Sei tu Lidippe, o il sole (1734) and the pastoral operas Astarte (1737), Leucippo (1747) and Il re pastore (1755). A resumption of Leucippo in Dresden on the birthday of Friedrich August II. In October 1763 turned into a not at all idyllic moment of fate for Hasse because of the sudden death of the elector. The performance fell through at the last moment, and he and his wife Faustina Bordoni were dismissed just two days later after decades of service at the Saxon court.
Georg Friedrich Handel's lost early German operas The happy Florindo (HWV 3) and Die bewandelte Daphne (HWV 4) probably belonged to the shepherd game genre, or at least were a mixture, with several shepherds and nymphs as secondary characters (Damon, Tyrsis, Lycoris, Galathea ). He wrote many pastoral cantatas during his Italian period, including some larger with orchestral accompaniment as Delirio amoroso HWV 99 or Il duello amoroso HWV 82. An extended one-act plays and a half hours' duration over the treated already by Lully and Bononcini history of Galateia 's Aci, Galatea e Polifemo HWV 72 (for three voices), which he created for Naples in 1708, and which was performed five years later in the palace of the Neapolitan viceroy as "... la famosa Serenata ..." ("... the famous Serenata ...") after his departure . He wrote the same story in 1718 as the English Masque Acis and Galatea for a performance in Cannons, this time for five voices, e.g. Sometimes sing in a choir. The libretto was probably based on e.g. T. on John Lyly's Galathea (1584) and on Dryden's translation (1717) of Ovid's Metamorphoses . This English version of Handel's Acis and Galatea was immensely popular, it saw eight revivals, was revised and reworked several times by Handel (partly with material from his Italian Serenata), and even Mozart adapted the orchestration in 1788 for a performance by van Swieten the customs of the Viennese classic . Handel's Masque is a masterpiece in its entirety, but a particularly popular piece is the aria of the amorous Cyclops Polyphemus "O ruddier than the cherry", because of the funny and poetic contrast between the deep bass voice and one high, quasi chirping piccolo recorder in the orchestra.
Handel also set a libretto based on Guarini's Il pastor fido , a first version as early as 1712 (HWV 8a), and a second extended version in 1734 (HWV 8c). The aria Occhi belli (HWV 8a, No. 10) was praised by Reichardt in 1782 as a model "... noble, beautiful sympathy and lively expression". Gluck and Salieri later created other settings of the famous material ( Il pastor fido , 1789); the libretto for Salieri was written by Lorenzo da Ponte , who is famous as Mozart's lyricist.
The most famous librettist of the opera seria of the 18th century, Pietro Metastasio , wrote a few librettos for pastoral operas or “serenates” in addition to his “usual” operas , which were set to music several times by various composers. One example is the Dramma pastorale Angelica (e Medoro) , which was first brought to the stage by Porpora in 1720 , with Farinelli, just 15, in the role of the shepherd Tirsi. The text was later set to music about ten times, including a. by the Portuguese João de Sousa Carvalho (1778) and by Cimarosa (1784). Metastasio's La danza is also available in some interesting settings (1744 von Bonno , 1755 Gluck , 1775 Hasse and others); it is actually a dialogue between a nymph and the amorous shepherd Tirsi, which is intended as an introduction to a ballet. A pastoral cantata is La scusa ("The Excuse"), of which versions by Hasse and Galuppi stand out.
A pastoral libretto that caused a sensation with performances throughout Europe is Metastasios Il re pastore (= The royal shepherd; Vienna 1751). The subject was not new, but this version alone had been set to music over 30 times by the end of the century. a. by the most important opera composers of the era such as Giuseppe Bonno (1751), Giuseppe Sarti (1753), Johann Adolph Hasse (1755), Gluck (1756), Niccolò Piccinni (1760), Baldassare Galuppi (1762), Niccolò Jommelli (1764) and Mozart ( KV 208 ; Salzburg 1775).
Rousseau's naive one-act act Le devin du village (“The village fortune teller”, 1752) stands a little apart . This both in formal terms and because, in contrast to the French pastorale-héroïque , he is committed to a “natural realism” where there are no longer any supernatural powers or gods. Nevertheless, it can be described as a pastoral, and according to Mattheson's categories as a "land-like" one. The same applies to Mozart's playful arrangement of the material in his youthful work Bastien und Bastienne (1768).
In 1759 Niccolò Jommelli created the Pastorale Endimione , ovvero il trionfo d'Amore , for the court theater in Stuttgart , based on a libretto by Metastasio, which is often set to music; and in 1763 the “azione pastorale” Il trionfo d'amore for a performance in Ludwigsburg Palace .
Giuseppe Sarti wrote a number of pastorals for the Royal Theater in Copenhagen: in 1760 the “opera pastorale” Il Filindo and in 1763 Il Narciso (“ Narcissus ”) - the story of Narcissus, who falls in love with his own reflection, has been used several times for pastoral operas was (already by Marco Scacchi in 1638, then by Pistocchi in 1697, and by Paganelli in 1733); Also for the carnival season in Copenhagen, Sartis Il naufragio di Cipro (1764) followed a year later .
Gaetano Pugnani's “favola pastorale” Apollo e Issea (1771, Turin) is based on the same material as the famous French opera Issé by Destouches (1697).
The most successful opera composers of Mozart's time Giovanni Paisiello and Domenico Cimarosa no longer wrote operas that are expressly referred to as pastoral; In addition to the still cultivated opera seria, the taste now tended strongly towards the opera buffa , which with its relatively real and funny people from the people represented particularly strong competition in the long term, especially for the idealized world of the pastoral.
From Mozart's immediate surroundings there are two other pastorals by Antonio Salieri - apart from the already mentioned Il pastor fido (1789) - which he composed for the Burgtheater in Vienna in his youth. The libretto for L'amore innocente (“pastorale” in 2 acts) was written by Giovanni Gastone Boccherini, brother of the famous composer Luigi Boccherini (1770); the libretto for Daliso e Delmita ("azione pastorale" in 3 acts) was created by Giovanni di Gamerra (1776), who had made the libretto for the young Mozart for his opera Lucio Silla (1772–1773, Milan). One of the stars of Lucio Silla was the soprano Venanzio Rauzzini , who went to England, and there in 1776 composed a “Pastoral entertainment” called L'ali d'amore (“Wings of Love”) with a libretto by Carlo Francesco Badini; it premiered at London's King's Theater in the Haymarket . Also Joseph Haydn's opera La fedeltà premiata (1781), for the Palace Theater in Eszterháza is a "dramma giocoso pastoral".
For Vienna, the Valencian Martín y Soler wrote in 1787 on a libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte L'arbore di Diana (“The Tree of Diana”). Although this work is called Dramma giocoso , its staff with several shepherds and nymphs is very typical of pastoral opera. One detail deserves special attention: the constellation of the moon goddess Diana with her three nymphs anticipates the Queen of the Night with her three ladies in Mozart's Magic Flute (1791), whose most important librettist was known to be Da Ponte. In the Magic Flute there are other borrowings from the pastoral genre in general and from L'arbore di Diana in particular , above all the character of the nature boy Papageno (in Martín's opera: Doristo) and the mixture with wonderfully religious plot moments - all of this, however a special kind of Masonic prepared.
Conclusion (late 18th & 19th centuries)
A relatively late and rare example from the pastoral genre is Meyerbeer's Gli amori di Teolinda ("Teolindens Liebschaften"), an eight-movement "scenic cantata" for soprano, solo clarinet, "Choir of the Shepherds" and orchestra, which he made friends in Venice in 1816 Singer Helene Harlas and the clarinet virtuoso Heinrich Joseph Baermann composed. The clarinet is to be seen here as a new shepherd's instrument, and at the same time embodies her lover in dialogue with “Teolinda”. Also Rossini composed in 1823 a small Omaggio pastoral , and Donizetti 1825 "azione pastoral melodrammatica" I voti de 'sudditi (Naples, San Carlo).
Already towards the end of the 18th century the interest in the pastoral declined, however, in the 19th century opera became more and more dramatic, gradually becoming more and more "realistic", in line with contemporary tastes. The shepherds passed on their innocent simplicity, naturalness and amiability for a while to the new genre of touching opera semiseria , where a singing shepherd sometimes appears and exerts a kind of therapeutic effect: Paisiellos, at the time extremely popular opera Nina o sia La pazza per amore (1789/1794) plays in the country and her naive, lovely tone fits perfectly into the musical scheme of the pastoral. At the end of the first act, a real “pastore” serenades the “crazy” Nina to her delight to accompany a zampogna (an Italian bagpipe). Towards the end of the genre in Donizetti's Linda di Chamounix (1842), this model becomes a "poor Savoyard orphan boy" Pierotto, who is friends with the title character and sings a song to accompany a hurdy-gurdy in the first act . Basically, however, this is a bad sign, because the hurdy-gurdy was a typical beggar's instrument in the past, and so the poor boy from the mountains, who we don't even know whether he is a shepherd boy, ends up in the "romantic" and realistic 19th century at least temporarily on the streets of Paris.
“Anyone who wants to bring pastoral work to music with good applause must, in general, devote himself to such melodies that express a certain innocence and kindness: he must feel so much in love himself ...
(§ 53) The heroic shepherd games, where kings and printzen are introduced under disguised costumes, identical deities and Lufft chariots, certainly require a lofty style ... But the said main point must surely protrude above all others. And when a prince poses like a shepherd, he must also sing like a shepherd.
(§ 54) It is true that the shepherds have their merrymaking as well as other people; but they are simpler, more childish and more in keeping with country life. The pastorals also have elevators and public games, but they are not magnificent, just good ... "
- Sigismondo d'India: Filli, mirando il cielo , 1st Madrigal Book 1606 on YouTube , sung by La Venexiana (viewed on August 28, 2017).
- Jean-Baptiste Lully: Scène des bergers (scene of the shepherds) from the 2nd act by Amadis (1684) on YouTube , concert performance with the ensemble “Les Talens lyriques” under Christophe Rousset at the Opéra Royal de Versailles, July 5, 2013 (Accessed August 26, 2017).
- Henry Purcell: “How blest are shepherds”, from King Arthur , Act 2, 1691 on YouTube , Michael Schade (solo) in a modern production with Nikolaus Harnoncourt, Salzburg 2004 (viewed on August 28, 2017).
- Henry Purcell: "Shepherd, shepherd, leave decoying", from King Arthur, Act 2, 1691 on YouTube , Cèline Scheen, Hana Blazikova, La Fenice, J. Tubéry, Beaune 2009 (viewed 28 August 2017).
- Jean-Philippe Rameau: Air des Neptun “La jeune nymphe” from Naïs on YouTube , Zachary Wilder - tenor, recorded live in 2012 (viewed on September 13, 2017).
- Jean-Philippe Rameau: Air “Chantez Oiseaux” from Zaïs on YouTube , Isabelle Desrochers - soprano, Ensemble Ausonia (viewed on September 13, 2017).
- WA Mozart: "L'Amerò, sarò costante" from Il re pastore on YouTube , with Sonya Yoncheva as Aminta, Thibault Noally - violin, Les Musiciens du Louvre under Marc Minkowski (viewed on September 13, 2017).
Other web links:
- Category pastoral operas on IMSLP: http://imslp.org/index.php?title=Category:Pastoral_operas&transclude=Template:Catintro (as of August 30, 2017).
- A list of 271 pastoral operas can be found on Corago by entering the term “% pastoral” (with a percentage sign at the beginning) in the “Genere” field (viewed on September 13, 2017).
- Giacomo Badoaro, Silke Leopold and René Jacobs: Libretto and booklet texts for the CD: Monteverdi - Il ritorno d'Ulisse in Patria , Bernarda Fink, Christoph Prégardien, Concerto Vocale, René Jacobs, published by: harmonia mundi France 1992 (3 CDs) .
- Heinz Becker: Booklet text on CD: Giacomo Meyerbeer - Gli Amori di Teolinda (1816). Julia Varady, Jorg Fadle, RIAS Kammerchor, Radio-Symphonie-Orchester Berlin, Gerd Albrecht, published by: Orfeo, 1983 (CD).
- Johanna Fürstauer: “The Re-pastore theme and the formal scheme of the Opera seria”, and “Libretto and performance history of Il Re pastore” , booklet texts for the recording: Mozart - Il Re Pastore , Concentus Musicus Vienna, Nicolais Harnoncourt, published by : Teldec, 1995/1996 (2 CDs), pp. 25-30.
- Anthony Hicks: "Aci , Galatea e Polifemo", booklet text for the recording: Handel - Aci, Galatea e Polifemo , Sandrine Piau, Sara Mingardo, Laurent Naouri, Le Concert d'Astrée, Emmanuelle Haim, published by: virgin veritas, 2003 (2 CDs), pp. 14-17.
- Robert King: Booklet text for CD: Handel - Acis and Galatea (+ Look down harmonious saint) , Claron Mcfadden, John Mark Ainsley u. a., The King's Consort, Robert King, published by: hyperion, 1989 (2 CDs).
- Jean-François Lattarico: “Entre dérision et subversion: La morte d'Orfeo de Stefano Landi”, booklet text for the CD: Stefano Landi: La morte d'Orfeo - Tragicommedia pastorale , Cyril Auvity, Guillemette Laurens u. a., Akadêmia, Françoise Lasserre, published by: ZigZag Territoires, 2006 (2 CDs).
- Catherine Massip (translated by Therese Wagner): Booklet text for the CD: Michel Lambert - Airs de Cours , Les Arts Florissants, William Christie, published by: harmonia mundi 1984/1992, pp. 9-11.
- Johann Mattheson: "A pastoral, or shepherd game - tragic, heroic, comic, country-like ..." , in: The perfect Capellmeister 1739 , ed. v. Margarete Reimann, Kassel et al .: Bärenreiter, pp. 218–219.
- Raffaele Mellace: Johann Adolf Hasse , Palermo: L'Epos 2004 (Italian).
- “Pastorale-héroïque” (article), in: The New Grove Dictionary of Opera , hrg. v. Stanley Sadie, London 1992, ISBN 0-333-73432-7 .
- Walter Siegmund Schultze: Georg Friedrich Händel , VEB Deutscher Verlag für Musik, Leipzig 1980.
- Text for: Music from Versailles, Vol. 2 (orchestral suites from Destouches' Issé and others). English Chamber Orchestra, Raymond Leppard, published by: Decca 1968 (2 LPs).
- Giulio Caccini: Le Nuove Musiche , Florence 1601. Facsimile, Studio per Edizioni Scelte (SPES), Firenze 1983, pp. 12-13.
- Robert Cambert: Pomone , Paris 1671. Original edition by Christophe Ballard. From: http://imslp.org/wiki/Pomone_(Cambert%2C_Robert) , viewed August 30, 2017.
Recordings (+ libretti + booklet texts)
- Caldara - Medea (Cantates Pour Alto Solo) . Gérard Lesne, Il Seminario Musicale, published by: virgin classics (VC 7 91479-2), 1991 (CD).
- Giaches de Wert - Il settimo libro de madrigali 1581 . The Consort of Musicke, Anthony Rooley, published by: Virgin veritas, 1989/1994 (CD).
- Gaetano Donizetti - Linda di Chamounix . Edita Gruberova, Monika Groop and others, The Swedish Radio Symphony Orchestra, Friedrich Haider, published by: Nightingale Classics, 1993 (3 CDs).
- Baldassare Galuppi - La Scusa (+ sonatas, concertos) . Sara Mingardo and others, L'Opera Stravagante, Ivano Zanenghi, published by: ORF, 2002 (CD).
- Handel & Hasse - Arias . Vivicagenaux, Les Violons du Roy, Bernard Labadie, published by: Virgin classics, 2006 (CD).
- Trade - Italian Cantatas . Mária Zádori, Ralf Popken, Concerto Armonico & Capella Savaria, Pál Németh u. a., published by: Brilliant classics (originally Hungaroton 1995) (2 CDs).
- Handel & Scarlatti - Cantatas . Gérard Lesne, Sandrine Piau, Il Seminario Musicale, published by: virgin veritas, 1991 & 1996 (2 CDs).
- Johann Adolf Hasse - Italian Cantatas with obbligato instruments . Éva Lax, Mária Zádori, Noémi Kiss, Affetti musicali Budapest, János Malina, published by: hungaroton, 2000 (CD).
- Il Lamento d'Olimpia - Cantate Italiane . Vol. 1 (Alessandro Scarlatti & Giovanni Bononcini). Gloria Banditelli, Ensemble Aurora, Enrico Gatti, published by: Tactus, 1988 (CD).
- Vicente Martín y Soler - L'arbore di Diana . Harry Bicket, Gran Teatre del Liceu , Barcelona, published by: Dynamic 2009 (CD and DVD). Libretto with translation into English ( digitizedhttp: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/1%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.dynamiclassic.it%2Farea_pubblica%2Fbooklets%2FCDS651-%2520Libretto%2520online.pdf~GB%3D~IA%3D~MDZ%3D%0A~SZ % 3D ~ double-sided% 3D ~ LT% 3D ~ PUR% 3D ).
- Giacomo Meyerbeer - Gli Amori di Teolinda . Julia Varady, Jorg Fadle, RIAS Kammerchor, Radio-Symphonie-Orchester Berlin, Gerd Albrecht, published by: Orfeo, 1983 (CD).
- Monteverdi - L'Orfeo . Victor Torres, Gloria Banditelli a. a., Ensemble Elyma, Gabriel Garrido, published by: K 617 France, 1996 (2 CDs).
- Monteverdi - Quinto libro dei madrigali 1605 . The Consort of Musicke, Anthony Rooley, published by: Decca L'Oiseau-Lyre, 1984 (LP).
- Giovanni Paisiello - Nina o sia la pazza per amore . Jeanne Marie Bima, William Matteuzzi et al. a., Concentus Hungaricus, Hans Ludwig Hirsch, published by: Arts Music, 1996.
- Angelo Poliziano - La Favola di Orfeo (Anno 1494), with music by Serafino dall'Aquilano, Marchetto Cara , Tromboncino and Michele Pesenti . Huelgas Ensemble, Paul van Nevel, published by: RCA Seon, 1982 (2 LPs).
- Purcell - King Arthur , The Deller Choir, The King's Musick, Alfred Deller, published by: harmonia mundi France 1979 (2 LPs).
- Sigismondo d'India - Libro primo de Madrigali (1606) . La Venexiana, published by: glossa, 2001 (CD).
- Sigismondo d'India - Il terzo Libro de Madrigali (1615) . La Venexiana, published by: glossa, 1997 (CD).
- Agostino Steffani - Duetti da camera . Rossana Bertini, Claudio Cavina, Ensemble Arcadia, Attilio Cremonesi, published by: Glossa, 1994 (CD).
- ↑ Johann Mattheson: "A pastoral, or shepherd game - tragic, heroic, comic, country-like ..." , in: The perfect Capellmeister 1739 , ..., Kassel et al .: Bärenreiter, p. 218.
- ↑ "The Fable of Orpheus".
- ↑ See the text book and libretto for the recording: Angelo Poliziano : La Favola di Orfeo (Anno 1494), with music by Serafino dall 'Aquilano, Marchetto Cara , Tromboncino , and Michele Pesenti . Huelgas Ensemble, Paul van Nevel, published by: RCA Seon, 1982 (2 LPs), pp. 3–4 and pp. 9–12.
- ↑ In 1581 Guarini's Il pastor fido was not even published; if the information is correct, de Wert must have got the text from Guarini personally. Jacques de Wert - Il settimo libro de madrigali 1581 . The Consort of Musicke, Anthony Rooley, published by: Virgin veritas, 1989/1994 (CD).
- ↑ See the text book for: Monteverdi - Quinto libro dei madrigali 1605 . The Consort of Musicke, Anthony Rooley, published by: Decca L'Oiseau-Lyre, 1984 (LP), pp. 4-6.
- ↑ See the textbooks for the recordings: 1) Sigismondo d'India: Libro primo de Madrigali 1606 . La Venexiana, published by: glossa, 2001 (CD), p. 32. And: 2) Sigismondo d'India: Il terzo Libro de Madrigali (1615) . La Venexiana, published by: glossa, 1997 (CD), p. 32 and 40.
- ↑ See: Giulio Caccini: Le Nuove Musiche , Florence 1601. Facsimile, Studio per Edizioni Scelte (SPES), Firenze 1983, pp. 12-13 (“Amarilli”). Amarilli is a character from Guarini's Il pastor fido .
- ↑ d. H. "Dialogue and Dance".
- ↑ Jean-François Lattarico: "Entre dérision et subversion: La morte d'Orfeo de Stefano Landi", booklet text on the CD: Stefano Landi: La morte d'Orfeo - Tragicommedia pastorale , Cyril Auvity, Guillemette Laurens and others. a., Akadêmia, Françoise Lasserre, published by: ZigZag Territoires, 2006 (2 CDs).
- ↑ Giuseppe Badoaro, Silke Leopold and René Jacobs: Libretto and booklet texts for the CD: Monteverdi - Il ritorno d'Ulisse in Patria , Bernarda Fink, Christoph Prégardien, Concerto Vocale, René Jacobs, published by: harmonia mundi France 1992 (3 CDs ).
- ↑ z. B. "Ma bergère est tendre et fidelle", "Pour vos beaux yeux, Iris", "Par mes chants tristes et touchants", "Ah, qui voudra désormais s'engager", "Trouver sur l'herbette" etc. of the collection: Airs de Cours , Paris 1689. Catherine Massip (translated by Therese Wagner): Booklet text for the CD: Michel Lambert - Airs de Cours , Les Arts Florissants, William Christie, published by: harmonia mundi 1984/1992, Pp. 9-11.
- ^ "Ingrate bergère" ("Ingrateful shepherdess"; 1664, text: Octave de Périgny), "Tous les jours cent bergères" ("Every day 100 shepherdesses"; text: Perrin, music lost), "Viens, mon aimable bergère" ("Come on, my lovely shepherdess"; Text: Perrin, Musik lost).
- ↑ See the original edition of the Pomone by Christophe Ballard, Paris 1671. At: http://imslp.org/wiki/Pomone_(Cambert%2C_Robert) , viewed August 30, 2017. See also: Operone ( Memento from September 12, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), as seen on August 30, 2017.
- ↑ The scene was performed in concert on July 5, 2013 in the Opéra Royal de Versailles by the ensemble “Les Talens lyriques” under Christophe Rousset. See the following Youtube video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KrvB8bp2uc0 , seen on August 26, 2017.
- ↑ Text to: Music from Versailles, Vol. 2 (orchestral suites from Destouches' Issé and others). English Chamber Orchestra, Raymond Leppard, published by: Decca 1968 (2 LPs).
- ↑ More detailed information about the performances and the libretto on the following website (French): http://jean-claude.brenac.pagesperso-orange.fr/BOISMORTIER_DAPHNIS.htm (accessed on September 9, 2017)
- ↑ Score on IMSLP: http://imslp.org/wiki/Titon_et_l%27Aurore,_Op.7_(Mondonville,_Jean-Joseph_Cassan%C3%A9a_de) (viewed on September 9, 2017)
- ↑ The score of Mondonville's Daphnis et Alcimadure is on IMSLP: http://imslp.org/wiki/Daphnis_et_Alcimandure_(Mondonville,_Jean-Joseph_Cassan%C3%A9a_de) (accessed 9 September 2017)
- ↑ The score of Bertons Sylvie is on IMSLP: http://imslp.org/wiki/Silvie_(Berton%2C_Pierre_Montan) (last accessed 9 September 2017)
- ↑ According to the entries on Corago, this opera Grétrys is a pastoral, see: http://corago.unibo.it/opera/0000186916 , (viewed on September 13, 2017).
- ↑ Just the names "Clori and Mirtillo" as well as "Filli" and "Fileno" reveal the shepherd's milieu at first glance. B. a figure from Il pastor fido , and Filli from Aminta . See the CD: Handel & Scarlatti - Cantatas . Gérard Lesne, Sandrine Piau, Il Seminario Musicale, published by: virgin veritas, 1991 & 1996 (2 CDs).
- ↑ Bella madre de 'fiori (+ text) on the CD: "Il Lamento d'Olimpia" - Cantate Italiane, Vol. 1 (Alessandro Scarlatti & Giovanni Bononcini) , Gloria Banditelli, Ensemble Aurora, Enrico Gatti, published by: Tactus, 1988 (CD).
- ↑ z. B. the duets "Begli occhi, oh Dio" or "Sol negl'occhi del mio bene" . In both duets, the names "Clori" ( Begl'occhi ... ) and "Filli" ( Sol negl'occhi ... ) alone reveal the pastoral milieu. See the booklet for the CD: Agostino Steffani: Duetti da camera , Rossana Bertini, Claudio Cavina, Ensemble Arcadia, Attilio Cremonesi, published by: Glossa, 1994 (CD), p. 45 f & p. 55.
- ↑ z. B. the cantatas: "Soffri mio caro Alcino" , "Vicino a un rivoletto" . See the recording (and texts): Caldara - Medea ( Cantates Pour Alto Solo ), Gérard Lesne, Il Seminario Musicale, published by: virgin classics (VC 7 91479-2), 1991 (CD).
- ↑ z. B. the cantatas "Clori, Clori mia vita", "Per palesarti appieno", or "Bell'Aurora". The CD: Johann Adolf Hasse - Italian Cantatas with obbligato instruments , Éva Lax, Mária Zádori, Noémi Kiss, Affetti musicali Budapest, János Malina, published by: hungaroton, 2000 (CD).
- ↑ "The Shepherd of Corinth ".
- ↑ "The recognized loyalty"
- ↑ "The Unwelcome Persistence of Aminta's Double Love"
- ↑ "Silvio triumphing over the love of Dorinda and Clori"
- ↑ "Heroic Love Among Shepherds"
- ↑ This early version was premiered in the Palazzo Barberini in 1633 , the composer is unfortunately not known.
- ↑ Most of the examples come from a list of 271 pastoral operas on Corago . You have to enter the term “% pastoral” (with a percentage sign at the beginning!) In the “Genere” field.
- ↑ "The solved riddle"
- ↑ "The recognized loyalty"
- ↑ "Revenge for Love"
- ↑ "The recognized nymph"
- ↑ "Love through jealousy"
- ^ "The disappointed Marsyas"
- ↑ “The less one believes in it, the more it loves”. A three-act pastoral opera with the very similar title " Chi meno ama è più amata " ("Who loves less is loved more") was performed in 1686 in the Palazzo Rospigliosi in Rome; the (or the?) composer is unfortunately not known (see: http://corago.unibo.it/opera/0000774382 , seen on September 13, 2017).
- ↑ "The Nymph Apollo"
- ↑ "Jupiter in Argos"
- ↑ "Paris on Mount Ida, or Paris's love for Oinone"
- ↑ "The Wild Hero"
- ↑ "Flower Garland"
- ↑ "Cupid (= love) knows no law"
- ↑ So for 5 singers or actors with names like Nigella, Clori etc.
- ↑ "How blessed are the shepherds, how happy their loved ones ...". See the text book for the recording: Purcell - King Arthur , The Deller Choir, The King's Musick, Alfred Deller, published by: harmonia mundi France 1979 (2 LPs), p. 6.
- ↑ The model for Keiser's libretto was Il re pastore von Parisetti.
- ↑ Actually: The constant and faithful Ismene (1699). However, this is the title of the revival of the opera: Die refinden Verliebten (1695) .
- ↑ Johann Mattheson: "A pastoral, or shepherd game - tragic, heroic, comic, country-like ..." , in: The perfect Capellmeister 1739 , ed. v. Margarete Reimann, Kassel et al .: Bärenreiter, here: p. 219.
- ↑ "Persistence Conquers Deception"
- ↑ "Enduring love overcomes deception"
- ↑ "The Judgment of Paris"
- ↑ "The Son of the Forests"
- ↑ With obligatory instruments z. B. the cantatas "Clori, Clori mia vita", "Per palesarti appieno", or "Bell'Aurora". The CD: Johann Adolf Hasse - Italian Cantatas with obbligato instruments , Éva Lax, Mária Zádori, Noémi Kiss, Affetti musicali Budapest, János Malina, published by: hungaroton, 2000 (CD). With orchestra a. a. : “L'Aurora” or “La Scusa”. See: Raffaele Mellace: Johann Adolf Hasse , Palermo: L'Epos 2004 (Italian), pp. 438–441.
- ↑ "Is it you, Lidippe, or the sun?" This is actually a serenata.
- ↑ Astarte and Leucippo are referred to as "favola pastorale" . Raffaele Mellace: Johann Adolf Hasse , Palermo: L'Epos 2004 (Italian), p. 245 and p. 436–441.
- ↑ Raffaele Mellace: Johann Adolf Hasse , Palermo: L'Epos 2004 (Italian), S. 102nd
- ↑ Here, too, reveal u. a. the names of the pastoral ambience: “Tirsi” (in Delirio… ) is a famous figure from Tasso's Aminta , and “Amarilli” (in Duello amoroso ) is a figure from Guarini's Il pastor fido , and she describes Daliso as “… amico semplicetto Pastore… ”(“ simple-minded shepherd friend ”). Both cantatas (+ libretto) on: Handel - Italian Cantatas . Mária Zádori, Ralf Popken, Concerto Armonico & Capella Savaria, Pál Németh u. a., published by: Brilliant classics (originally Hungaroton 1995) (2 CDs), see libretto: p. 11 f. and p. (16-) 18.
- ↑ Anthony Hicks: "Aci , Galatea e Polifemo", booklet text for the recording: Handel - Aci, Galatea e Polifemo , Sandrine Piau, Sara Mingardo, Laurent Naouri, Le Concert d'Astrée, Emmanuelle Haim, published by: virgin veritas, 2003 (2 CDs), pp. 14-17.
- ↑ Robert King in the booklet for the CD: Handel - Acis and Galatea (+ Look down harmonious saint) , Claron Mcfadden, John Mark Ainsley u. a., The King's Consort, Robert King, published by: hyperion, 1989 (2 CDs), pp. 3–4.
- ^ Walter Siegmund Schultze: Georg Friedrich Händel , VEB Deutscher Verlag für Musik Leipzig 1980, p. 82 (also p. 98 and p. 207 f.).
- ↑ See the CDs: 1) Handel & Hasse: Arias , Vivicagenaux, Les Violons du Roy, Bernard Labadie, published by: Virgin classics, 2006 (CD). And: 2) Baldassare Galuppi: La Scusa (+ Sonatas & Concerti) , Sara Mingardo a. a., L'Opera Stravagante, Ivano Zanenghi, published by: ORF, 2002 (CD).
- ↑ Keizer composed his opera The royal shepherd or Basilius in Arkadien (1694) based on an Italian libretto Il re pastore by Parisetti as early as 1694 .
- ↑ Johanna Fürstauer: "The Re-pastore -Thematik and the formal scheme of the Opera seria", and "Libretto and performance history of Il re pastore" , booklet texts for the recording: Mozart - Il Re Pastore , Concentus Musicus Vienna, Nicolais Harnoncourt, published at: Teldec, 1995/1996 (2 CDs), pp. 25-30.
- ↑ "Endimione or the Triumph of Love"
- ↑ Which, however, was referred to as "Serenata" in most other cases.
- ↑ Jommelli's operas and most of the following by Mozart's contemporaries can be found in a list of 271 pastoral operas on Corago if you enter the term “% pastoral” (with a percentage sign at the beginning) in the “Genere” field (viewed on September 13, 2017).
- ↑ "The Shipwreck of Cyprus"
- ↑ "The rewarded loyalty"
- ↑ The German-language libretto for the Magic Flute is of course not from Da Ponte, but from Schikaneder .
- ↑ The piece takes about 35 minutes. See Heinz Becker: Booklet text on CD: Giacomo Meyerbeer - Gli Amori di Teolinda (1816). Julia Varady, Jorg Fadle, RIAS Kammerchor, Radio-Symphonie-Orchester Berlin, Gerd Albrecht, published by: Orfeo, 1983 (CD).
- ↑ See the libretto for: Giovanni Paisiello: Nina o sia la pazza per amore , Jeanne Marie Bima, William Matteuzzi u. a., Concentus Hungaricus, Hans Ludwig Hirsch, published by: Arts Music, 1996.
- ↑ Romanza and Ballata of Pierotto in Act I, 3, and Wiedersehens- duet Pierotto-Linda in Act II,. 1 See booklet and libretto for the recording: Gaetano Donizetti - Linda di Chamounix , Edita Gruberova, Monika Groop u. a., The Swedish Radio Symphony Orchestra, Friedrich Haider, published by: Nightingale Classics, 1993 (3 CDs).
- ↑ Johann Mattheson: "A pastoral, or shepherd game - tragic, heroic, comic, country-like ...", in: The perfect Capellmeister 1739, ed. v. Margarete Reimann, Kassel et al .: Bärenreiter, pp. 218–219.