Jeffrey Edward Epstein ( January 20, 1953 – August 10, 2019 ) was an American investment banker and convicted sex offender . In 2019, he was charged with running a child sexual exploitation ring . He died in custody while preparing for the trial; according to the autopsy report by suicide . The circumstances of death triggered a judicial scandal, followed by speculation about possible third-party negligence (" Epstein didn't kill himself ").
Born on January 20, 1953 in New York City, Jeffrey Epstein grew up in Sea Gate, a gated community on the western edge of Coney Island in Brooklyn , to a Jewish family . He attended Lafayette High School in Brooklyn. Like his brother Mark, Epstein had an early interest in mathematics . From 1969 to 1971, he took courses in physics at Cooper Union College in Manhattan , but did not earn a degree. In 1971 Epstein was enrolled in the Courant Institute for Mathematics at New York University , where he took courses in "Mathematical Physiology of the Heart"; he also did not obtain a degree there.
From 1973 to 1975, Epstein taught mathematics and physics at the Dalton School, an exclusive private school on Manhattan 's Upper East Side . Donald Barr , the director, hired Epstein at age 20, despite his patchy academic record. A Wall Street student father was so impressed with him that he referred him to "Ace" Greenberg (1927-2014), who was then a chief executive at investment banking and brokerage agency Bear Stearns , one of Wall Street's largest banks.
Wall Street debut
In 1976, Epstein joined Bear Stearns as a junior assistant floor trader at the American Stock Exchange and rose rapidly under his tutors Greenberg and James E. Cayne. Greenberg was looking at this time for Bear Stearns preferred employees, which he called PSDs: Poor (Poor) - Smart (Smart) - Desire to become rich (Desire to become rich), and who lacked the degrees to do so. This is when options trading began . To trade options, you had to value them. This required mastering mathematical concepts such as the Black-Scholes model . Bear Stearns' Jimmy Cayne said of Epstein: "Because of his background in mathematics, we placed him in our specialty products division where he would advise our wealthier clients on the tax implications of their portfolios. He should recommend certain tax-advantageous transactions. He's a very smart guy and has also become a very important customer for the company.” He was a Limited Partner at Bear Stearns in 1980 but left the firm a year later in unclear circumstances. That same year, Epstein formed his own company, Intercontinental Assets Group Inc. , incorporated in New York, to assist clients in pursuing recovery claims against fraudulent brokers and attorneys.
Tower Financial Corp
In 1993, Towers Financial Corporation imploded as one of the largest Ponzi schemes in US history, with investors losing over $450 million.
According to Hoffenberg, Epstein was closely involved in the system. However, he was never charged with involvement in the massive fraud and had left the company before the collapse. Whether he siphoned off funds from the Towers Ponzi scheme is unknown.
In 1982, Epstein founded a New York-based wealth management company, J. Epstein & Co. , which it says specializes in investing for billionaires .
The terms of J. Epstein & Co. were high: he demanded comprehensive power of attorney and thus assumed complete control of client assets. According to his own statements, as an "architect" he combined the roles of a real estate agent, accountant, lawyer, money manager, trustee and confidant in order to redesign the restructuring of the chaotically grown wealth structures of his individual or family customers. He charged an annual flat fee for this. Based on the conservative assumption that Epstein charged a 0.5% fee, he would have earned a $75 million annual management fee on the alleged $15 billion in client funds under management.
In 1986, Epstein met billionaire Leslie Wexner of Columbus , Ohio. Both were introduced to each other by risk manager Robert Meister, vice chairman of Aon . Wexner's group includes L Brands (formerly The Limited, Inc.) and several apparel companies, including lingerie brand Victoria's Secret .
In 1987 he converted J. Epstein & Co. incorporated into the Financial Trust Co. organized under the laws of the United States Virgin Islands (USVI) and moved its headquarters there.
In 1991 and for the next 16 years, Wexner gave Epstein extensive powers over his finances, philanthropy and personal life. Wexner authorized him to borrow money, sign his tax returns, hire employees, and make acquisitions on his behalf.
In 1992, Epstein was appointed to the board of directors of the Wexner Foundation.
In 1996, Wexner gave him his $77 million townhouse—a seven-story, 5,000-square-foot building—for free. So far, Wexner has been Epstein's only verifiable client.
In 2004, Epstein's Financial Trust Co. reported net worth of $563 million with net income of $108 million.
In 2006, Epstein's Trust generated $66 million in fee income. The same year he was indicted in Florida, he transferred $117 million from Finanz Trust Co. to a subsidiary.
In 2007, the year Wexner says he stopped using Epstein's services, Epstein's trust generated $4 million in fee income.
From 2008 to 2011, the trust's annual fee income dropped to $100,000.
In 2012, the trust no longer reported any income. He filed a declaratory judgment with the US Virgin Islands Economic Development Agency that the Financial Trust Co. no longer manages money, although it still maintains a "financial arm." As a result of this move, the trust was no longer subject to the Dodd-Frank Act passed under Obama in 2010 , according to which asset managers of "investment funds not approved for public sale in the USA" are placed under the supervision of the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) .
In 2004, Epstein founded the model agency MC2 with Jean-Luc Brunel with an investment of one million US dollars and provided Brunel and agency models with apartments in Manhattan. Maritza Vasquez, the former accountant for MC2 management, told the Miami Herald that the agency would place women in Miami and New York who weren't actually models, but instead taken to parties at Epstein's mansions in Palm Beach and New York became.
In 2012, Epstein founded Southern Trust Co. in the US Virgin Islands. The company consisted of a handful of employees tasked with developing a DNA data-mining service to measure potential customers' predisposition to cancer using mathematical algorithms. As a result, the company also benefited from an effective tax rate of 3.9% granted to companies that agree to invest in an industry that enhances the "welfare" of the Virgin Islands.
In 2013, Southern Trust Co. reported revenues of $51 million. In the same year, the Trust became the owner of the subsidiary that received a $117 million cash transfer in 2006 from Epstein's Finance Trust & Co. had received.
In 2015, Epstein formed a multi-million dollar partnership with former Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and invested in the startup Reporty Homeland Security (renamed Carbyne in 2018). The Wexner Foundation , a philanthropic organization run by Epstein , had previously given Barak $2.3 million in 2004. The company is linked to Israel 's defense industry and is headed by Barak, who was Minister of Defense and Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). Epstein and Barak were close, and Epstein frequently gave him lodgings in one of his Manhattan apartments.
In 2017, Epstein's Southern Trust Co. reported $391 million in assets and $175 million in retained earnings available for reinvestment. As of 2019, six years after its inception, Southern Trust Co. has reported earnings of approximately $300 million.
In 2013, Epstein, through his longtime US Virgin Islands (USVI) tax attorney Erika A. Keller, filed a banking license application for Southern Country International (not to be confused with Epstein's Southern Trust Co.) . This year, the USVI, based on decades of practice in Puerto Rico, passed a law on banking companies in order to attract overseas investors with more favorable tax treatment. As a result of the legislation, Southern Country International lacked many of the prudential requirements that banks are normally subject to. Epstein cited James E. Staley, the managing director of Barclays, and Andrew Farkas, a New York real estate agent , as references in the application . Both men denied knowing about it.
In 2014 he was licensed to operate Southern Country International as one of the first international banking companies of the USVI, a specialist bank dealing only with offshore clients. The license has been renewed for each of the next five years. Apparently, Epstein's bank did not do any marketing or hire a lot of staff.
In 2018, Epstein's tax attorney told the USVI's banking arm that Southern Country International had gone out of business. As a result, Epstein's bank did not require additional oversight either, according to the USVI regulator.
As of August 10, 2019, the anniversary of Epstein's death, Southern Country International 's net worth was $693,157, according to probate documents. In mid-December 2019, Epstein's executors erroneously transferred $15.5 million there, of which $2.6 million was transferred back. Two weeks later, Southern Country International 's assets were down to $499,759; it is unclear what happened to the remaining money. The banking license was not extended beyond 2019, according to the estate administrators.
friends in higher positions
Epstein's influential friends included Britain 's Prince Andrew , Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman al-Saud , and former US Presidents Bill Clinton and Donald Trump . The latter wants to have broken with Epstein years ago and banned him from his Mar-a-Lago resort in Florida. Before the 2016 US election , Trump was accused under oath of raping a 13-year-old girl at Epstein's New York townhouse in 1994. A corresponding lawsuit was withdrawn shortly thereafter, however, because the person concerned had been threatened. Clinton released a statement in July 2019 saying he was unaware of the sex crimes and hadn't spoken to Epstein in over a decade. According to flight logs, Clinton has been on 26 trips to international destinations aboard Epstein's Boeing 727 . Other Epstein acquaintances have included Tom Barrack , George Stephanopoulos , Katie Couric , Woody Allen , Harvey Weinstein , Rupert Murdoch , Michael Bloomberg , Richard Branson , Michael Jackson , Alec Baldwin , the Kennedys , former Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and former British Prime Minister Tony Blair . He is also said to have been in contact with Microsoft founder Bill Gates .
In the 1980s, Epstein met Eva Andersson , a Swede in New York, a trainee doctor who had worked as a model for Ford Models and had become Miss Sweden in 1980 . After eleven years together, the couple separated. Andersson married American billionaire Glenn Russell Dubin , while Epstein began dating British-French heiress Ghislaine Maxwell . However, Eva Andersson-Dubin continued to belong to Epstein's circle of friends and often attended his meetings with celebrities, including in 2011 when she and her daughter spent an evening with Bill Gates at Epstein's. Glenn Russell is also counted among Epstein's circle of acquaintances and, according to victims, is said to be involved in scandals. For a time, Epstein is said to have planned to transfer his assets to Eva and Glenn's daughter through a sham marriage.
Epstein has served on the Trilateral Commission , the Council on Foreign Relations , and the Institute of International Education. Beginning in 2000, he ran the tax-deferred Jeffrey Epstein VI Foundation , which donated millions of dollars to the private Harvard University in 2003 .
Early sex offenses
In the summer of 1996, Epstein and Ghislaine Maxwell allegedly molested sisters Maria and Annie Farmer (then aged 15 ) . Even then, the victims reported the incidents to the police and the FBI and tried to persuade them to investigate Epstein and Maxwell. The sisters were unsuccessful.
In May 1997, actress Alicia Arden reported Epstein after he posed as a Victoria's Secret recruiter and sexually approached her. She was also unsuccessful and the police did not pursue her complaint.
Charge and conviction as a sex offender
In March 2005, the parents of a 14-year-old girl in Florida filed a complaint alleging Epstein sexually abused her at his Palm Beach mansion. This led to an investigation lasting around thirteen months, during which more than 50 alleged victims contacted the police. A search of Epstein's mansion uncovered numerous photographs of underage girls. In August 2006, he had to answer before a grand jury in Palm Beach County in just one case - allegedly forcing a minor into prostitution ; he pleaded not guilty. The FBI had already been called in a month earlier and started investigating Epstein; the results were recorded in a 53-page report.
In order to avoid a federal court case for sexual violence against minors and a possible life sentence , Epstein offered the Miami prosecutor's office, led by US Attorney Alexander Acosta , an out-of-court settlement, which prosecutors agreed to. Epstein had to plead guilty to one count of forced prostitution of a minor, even though the minor was legally raped . The settlement with Acosta cleared the federal sex trafficking charges. The agreement also ended the FBI investigation, which might have uncovered more victims. Epstein received an 18-month prison sentence under mild conditions: He had up to 12 hours a day off to go to his office. After just 13 months he was released from prison for good behavior.
After his release from prison, Epstein was again targeted by the judiciary and the police for similar offenses. Unofficially, his private jet was referred to as The Lolita Express and his private island of Little Saint James in the Caribbean as Orgy Island . Some recipients of his donations, including the Palm Beach Police Department, returned the funds.
Epstein installed hidden cameras in numerous locations on his properties and homes, allegedly to record celebrity sexual activity with underage girls for blackmail and an insurance policy. When police searched his Palm Beach residence in 2006, two hidden cameras , dubbed tiny pinhole cameras , according to CBS, were discovered at his home . It was also reported that Epstein's New York mansion was extensively wired with a CCTV system. Artist Maria Farmer , who knew Epstein, described a media room with people monitoring cameras throughout the house. The media room was accessible through a hidden door.
Arrested again and died in custody
On July 6, 2019, while returning to the United States from a trip to Paris on his private jet, Epstein was arrested at Teterboro Airport and taken to the Metropolitan Correctional Center in Manhattan . The New York prosecutor's office had brought new allegations against Epstein, also based on revelations in the Miami Herald . According to the indictment, he is said to have operated a ring for the sexual exploitation of children and adolescents in New York and Florida between 2002 and 2005. According to this, together with Ghislaine Maxwell, he is said to have sexually abused hundreds of underage girls and lured them into prostitution and trafficked in human beings for sexual exploitation . The start of the process was set for early June 2020. On July 12, 2019, Secretary of Labor Acosta announced his resignation over his role in the 2007 deal .
On August 10, 2019, Epstein was found unresponsive in his cell; his death was declared in the hospital. As early as July 23, 2019, he was found unconscious in his cell with injuries to his neck, so he was under constant observation and was initially not allowed to be left alone. However, this condition was lifted at the request of his lawyers. On August 9, 2019, Epstein's cellmate was moved, leaving him alone in his cell.
Epstein's death sparked a judicial scandal. The FBI began investigating the circumstances of his death. Attorney General William Barr spoke of an "apparent suicide " and admitted "serious irregularities" in Epstein's surveillance. He initiated internal investigations in the ministry. As a result, two prison guards who slept during their watch and then falsified their reports to cover up their omissions were suspended, and the director of the detention center was temporarily transferred. After reviewing the results of the investigation, the New York coroner Barbara Sampson announced suicide by hanging as the official autopsy result . Epstein's attorneys have criticized this conclusion, and pathologist Michael Baden , the former chief medical examiner for the city of New York, hired by Epstein's brother Mark, said in a report that Epstein's injuries, such as a broken hyoid bone , suggested strangulation by others rather than suicide. Sampson sharply disagreed with Baden. It has been pointed out that fractured hyoid bones associated with suicide by hanging are not uncommon, particularly in the elderly.
The FBI searched Epstein's estate on his private island of Little Saint James on August 12, 2019 . On August 19, 2019, the New York Post reported that Epstein drafted a will two days before his death, assigning his assets to The 1953 Trust - a method of keeping the identity of the beneficiaries secret. The document put Epstein's net worth at around $578 million. The circumstances of his death prompted conspiracy theories that Epstein did not kill himself .
final resting place
After the autopsy, Epstein's body was given to a person later identified as his brother, Mark. Epstein's remains were interred in an unmarked crypt next to his parents at IJ Morris David Star Cemetery in Palm Beach , Florida. His parents' names were also removed to prevent vandalism.
On the most expensive street in Paris , Avenue Foch , he owned an 800 square meter penthouse in a Belle Époque building right by the Arc de Triomphe ; near Jean-Luc Brunel's model agency and apartment.
Own wealth statement 2008
When Epstein pleaded guilty to recruiting and procuring prostitutes in 2008, his attorneys claimed he was a billionaire worth over $1 billion. However, a number of sources have questioned the extent of Epstein's wealth and status as a billionaire.
portfolio of assets at the time of death
Immediately after Epstein's death, his $577,672,654 portfolio of assets was released in the course of the execution of his will . He was therefore a multi-millionaire , even though he was often referred to as a billionaire in the international media. However, there is speculation that there may be other fortunes that have so far remained undiscovered. In addition, his art, antiques, collectibles, valuables and other personal property have yet to be appraised.
|Type of property||Asset in US Dollars|
|Fixed Income Investments||14,304,679|
|aircraft, automobiles and boats||18,551,700|
|Works of art, antiques, collectibles, valuables and other personal belongings||Rating pending|
|Hedge funds & private equity investments||194.986.301|
|10,000 shares of Maple Inc., a US Virgin Islands company that owns ownership of its New York townhouse||55,931,000|
|10,000 shares of Cypress Inc., a US Virgin Islands corporation that owns ownership of its Zorro Ranch in New Mexico||17.246.208|
|10,000 shares of Laurel Inc., a US Virgin Islands corporation that owns ownership of his Florida mansion||12.380.209|
|999 shares in SCI JEP, a French company that owns the ownership of his apartment in France||8,672,823|
|10,000 shares of Poplar Inc., a US Virgin Islands corporation that owns ownership of Great St. James Island||22,498,600|
|10,000 shares of Nautilus Inc., a US Virgin Islands corporation that owns ownership of Little St. James Island||63.874.223|
The 1953 Trust
Epstein signed a will two days before his death. In the event of his death, his assets would be transferred to a trust fund called The 1953 Trust . Thus, they were not given to anyone personally. It is not known for what purposes the fund will use its funds and assets.
The will notes that Epstein's only potential heir is his brother, Mark Epstein. But it goes on to say that Mark only has a claim to his brother's assets if Jeffrey had left no will.
trustee of the fund
The 1953 Trust is led by attorney Darren Indyke and businessman Richard Kahn. A third man, Boris Nikolic, is listed as deputy. The trustees are paid a flat rate of US$250,000 per year for their work plus reasonable expenses associated with the completion of the task.
The trustees reported in their first quarterly report filed in Virgin Islands Superior Court that Epstein's estate has increased to approximately $635 million in value as of December 31, 2019 through account liquidations, asset sales (two luxury cars) and restitutions an increase in cash on hand of approximately 1 million US dollars was achieved.
Claims against the Fund
US Virgin Islands Attorney General Denise George says Epstein's activities have damaged the Virgin Islands' reputation. In the lawsuit, George is seeking the confiscation of the two islands and the dissolution of numerous shell companies in the Virgin Islands that are said to have served as front companies to handle Epstein's human trafficking. According to the New York Times , this is the first civil lawsuit brought by an agency against Epstein's estate. According to George's indictment, Epstein took girls to the island of Little Saint James by ship or plane and created a database of female movement and availability. The charges brought against him by the US judiciary before Epstein's death - rape and sexual violence against women and underage girls in New York and Florida - had only referred to the period 2002 to 2005. The second lawsuit thus significantly expands the dimension of the crimes accused of Epstein. Epstein and his lawyers had denied the allegations brought up until the accused's death. The new indictment said Epstein raped and held captive dozens of underage girls on his island of Little Saint James.
Numerous private claims for compensation by victims are already pending in court. The January 15, 2020 NYT article puts the number of children and young people abducted and subjected to sexual violence as “hundreds”. The youngest victims are said to have been eleven years old.
In March 2020, Ghislaine Maxwell filed a lawsuit in a U.S. Virgin Islands court seeking reimbursement of ongoing security service costs and court proceedings against the fund, alleging that Epstein had assured her in 2004 that he would always support her financially. Also subject to the lawsuit is a statement by Darren Indyke, one of the trustees of the fund, who reassured her after Epstein's death that she would get the money.
From June 2020 to March 2021, the Epstein Victims' Compensation Program (see below) is accepting claims from former Epstein victims; the financial compensation will be paid out of the trust assets.
In 2020, estate taxes reduced the trust's assets by an additional $190 million to approximately $400 million.
Suspicious financial transactions during lifetime
In mid-2020, Deutsche Bank was fined by the New York State Department of Financial Service in connection with its business relationship with Epstein. The bank, well aware of Epstein's criminal background, failed to identify and prevent "suspicious transactions" and "regular suspicious cash withdrawals" in this regard.
In October 2020, The New York Times reported that Leon Black , chairman of Apollo Global Management , wired at least $50 million to Epstein between 2012 and 2017. Some transfers were so unusual that they were checked by the financial crimes unit of Deutsche Bank, Epstein's house bank at the time. The specifics of the services provided by Epstein are unclear. While admitting to paying Epstein millions annually, Black stressed that no one, including The New York Times , alleges he engaged in any wrongdoing or improper conduct. Apollo hired the law firm Dechert to conduct an investigation into Black and Epstein's relationship.
Establishment and work of the Victim Compensation Fund
The Epstein Victims' Compensation Program was designed by recognized claims management professionals with the involvement of victims' attorneys, the Attorney General of the Virgin Islands, Epstein's estate administrators and other interested parties. As of June 25, 2020, the Epstein Victim Compensation Program has been accepting claims related to Jeffrey Epstein's sexual abuse of victims. Claims for compensation had to be registered there by February 8, 2021 and submitted in writing by March 25, 2021 at the latest. In early February 2021, the payment of claims to Epstein's victims was suspended due to a lack of funds. By then, according to the company, more than 150 applications had been received and more than $50 million had been paid out to those affected. In March 2021, Epstein's New York home sold for $51 million. The money is used to pay out claims.
The claims settlement procedure should enable an efficient and fair resolution of claims. Only if the individual is satisfied with the compensation offered will they agree to waive their right to sue the Epstein Estate and related entities, as well as individuals. The protection of the privacy of the applicant is guaranteed. Epstein's executors will pay all legitimate claims based on the decision of the Epstein Victims' Compensation Program officials .
Proceedings against potential accomplices and beneficiaries
On July 2, 2020, Ghislaine Maxwell was arrested in New Hampshire . According to prosecutors, she is accused, among other things, of inciting underage girls to travel for Epstein for illegal sexual acts and transporting them with the intention of criminal sexual acts. She was found guilty of five of six counts on December 29, 2021.
On December 16, 2020, Jean-Luc Brunel was arrested in Paris. He is accused of rape and trafficking in underage girls. According to Paris prosecutors, the arrest was part of an investigation launched on August 23, 2019, focusing on possible "sexual incidents believed to have been committed by Jeffrey Epstein and other accomplices." Brunel founded the modeling agency MC2 Model Management with financial support from Epstein.
In 2019, Prince Andrew was unsuccessfully asked by New York prosecutors to cooperate in solving the Epstein abuse scandal. He denied allegations that he had sex with an underage woman provided by Epstein, Virginia Roberts Giuffre , in 2001.
- John Connolly and Tim Malloy: Filthy Rich. Little, Brown and Company , New York 2016, ISBN 978-0-316-27405-0 .
- Julie K. Brown : Perversion of Justice: The Jeffrey Epstein Story. HarperCollins Publishers, 2021, ISBN 978-0063000582 .
- Sarah Ransome: Silenced No More: Surviving My Journey to Hell and Back. HarperOne, New York 2021, ISBN 978-0-06-321371-5 .
- 2020: Netflix : Jeffrey Epstein : Filthy Rich
- 2020: Bungalow Media + Entertainment: Surviving Jeffrey Epstein
- 2020: Epstein Island . Music video by German rapper DCVDNS criticizing the way it deals with systematic abuse
- Jeffrey Epstein at the Notable Names Database
- Julie K. Brown: How a future Trump Cabinet member gave a serial sex abuser the deal of a lifetime , The Miami Herald , November 28, 2018
- Jeffrey Epstein's Phone Book (Black Book)
- Jeffrey Epstein's will dated August 8 , 2019
- Ari Feldman: What We Know About Jeffrey Epstein's Childhood. In: The Forward . 15 July 2019, retrieved 12 August 2019 (English).
- New York Magazine: Jeffrey Epstein: International Moneyman of Mystery. October 28, 2002, accessed January 9, 2021 (English).
- Todd Neikirk: The Ties That Bind Jeffrey Epstein, William Barr & Donald Trump. In: Hill Reporters. 4 May 2019, retrieved 14 August 2019 (English).
- Vicky Ward: The Talented Mr. Epstein , Vanity Fair , June 27, 2011.
- Vicky Ward: The Talented Mr. Epstein. Retrieved July 6, 2020 (American English).
- USA Today: From private island to private jet: What is 'billionaire' Jeffrey Epstein's net worth? Retrieved January 9, 2021 (English).
- Kate Briquelet|Tracy Connor: Ponzi Scheme Victims Say Epstein Swindled Them . In: The Daily Beast . 15 July 2019 ( thedailybeast.com [accessed 6 July 2020]).
- Emily Steel, Steve Eder, Sapna Maheshwari and Matthew Goldstein: How Jeffrey Epstein Used the Billionaire Behind Victoria's Secret for Wealth and Women , The New York Times, July 25, 2019.
- New York Times: How Jeffrey Epstein Used the Billionaire Behind Victoria's Secret for Wealth and Women. 25 July 2019, accessed 9 January 2021 (English).
- Matthew Goldstein, Steve Eder: Jeffrey Epstein Raked In $200 Million After Legal and Financial Crises. In: nytimes.com. 26 November 2019, accessed 9 January 2021 (English).
- New York Post: Jeffrey Epstein easily made $200M after legal, financial woes: report. 3 October 2019, accessed 9 January 2021 (English).
- Frédéric Autran, Ismaël Halissat, Anaïs Moran: Sur les pistes françaises du système Epstein , Libération , 13 August 2019.
- Miami Herald: Jean-Luc Brunel, modeling agent suspected of recruiting girls for Jeffrey Epstein, arrested. December 17, 2020, retrieved January 9, 2021 .
- Inquisitr: Jeffrey Epstein Reportedly Made Over $200 Million Through Startup Southern Trust After Guilty Plea. 3 October 2019, accessed 9 January 2021 (English).
- Jeffrey Epstein's Mystery Bank Came Alive After His Death. In: nytimes.com. 4 February 2020, accessed 9 January 2021 (English).
- Gidi Weitz: Revealed: Jeffrey Epstein Entered Partnership Worth Millions With Ehud Barak in 2015 , Haaretz, July 11, 2019.
- Barak says he visited Epstein at home, but didn't attend sex parties. In: timesofisrael.com . 16 July 2019, retrieved 20 February 2021 (English).
- Julie K. Brown: Epstein scandal explodes in Israel as ties to former prime minister under scrutiny. In: miamiherald.com. July 14, 2019, accessed August 3, 2021 (English, registration required).
- Barak Invests $1 Million in Firm Linked to Military-Industrial Complex , Jewish Business News, April 14, 2015.
- The Ties That Bind: Ehud Barak's Business Network , CTech - Israeli Tech and Startup News, July 18, 2019.
- Gabrielle Bluestone: Inside the mysterious Manhattan apartment building on East 66th Street, where underage models, lawyers, and key players in Jeffrey Epstein's sex-trafficking circle all live. Ex-Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak is a frequent visitor. In: businessinsider.com . 5 August 2019, accessed 18 May 2021 (English).
- Ansgar Graw : Prince Andrew's sidekick and his soft spot for "girls". In: The World . January 12, 2015, retrieved August 11, 2019 .
- Jane Coaston, Anna North and Andrew Prokop: Jeffrey Epstein, the convicted sex offender who is friends with Donald Trump and Bill Clinton, explained. In: Vox . 22 February 2019, retrieved 11 August 2019 (English).
- President Trump bans Jeffery Epstein from Mar-a-Lago after assault. In: Daily Mail . 9 July 2019, retrieved 18 August 2019 .
- Case 1:16-cv-04642-RA Document 1-1 – Declaration in support of Plaintiff's request for protective order. (PDF; 56.7 kB) In: courthousenews.com. 20 June 2016, retrieved 17 July 2020 (English).
- Victor Morton: Bill Clinton issues statement on Jeffrey Epstein. In: The Washington Times . 8 July 2019, retrieved 9 July 2019 (English).
- Malia Zimmermann: Flight logs show Bill Clinton flew on sex offender's jet much more than previously known , Fox News, May 13, 2016; Frauke Steffens: Connection to sex offenders: Can Trump's Minister of Labor hold up? , FAZ, July 11, 2019
- William D. Cohan, "He Was Like Boo Radley": The Mysteries of Jeffrey Epstein's Black Book. In: vanityfair.com . 24 July 2019, retrieved 22 May 2021 (American English).
- Jeffrey Epstein's social contacts with Katie Couric, George Stephanopoulos, other celebs scrutinized. In: The Mercury News. 9 July 2019, retrieved 22 May 2021 (American English).
- Was Woody Allen a close friend of Jeffrey Epstein? What a NYT report reveals. In: aol.com. 14 August 2019, retrieved 22 May 2021 (American English).
- "Darling Girl" Harassed: When Jeffrey Epstein Kicked Out His Boyfriend Harvey Weinstein. In: stern.de. March 31, 2020, retrieved May 22, 2021 .
- Michael Bloomberg Was In Jeffrey Epstein's Little Black Book. 18 February 2020, retrieved 22 May 2021 (American English).
- Martin Robinson: Epstein had 301 Britons in his little black book including Mick Jagger. 13 August 2019, retrieved 22 May 2021 .
- Jeffrey Epstein's 'little black book': What famous people did he list in it? 13 August 2020, retrieved 22 May 2021 (British English).
- Emily Shugerman: Israeli Politician Ehud Barak Often Crashed at Epstein Apartment Building, Neighbors Say . In: The Daily Beast . 5 August 2019 ( thedailybeast.com [accessed 22 May 2021]).
- Adam K. Raymond, Matt Stieb: Jeffrey Epstein's Rolodex: A Guide to His Famous Friends and Acquaintances. 10 July 2019, retrieved 22 May 2021 (American English).
- Simon Osborne: Tony Blair in US pedophile Jeffrey Epstein's 'little black book'. 14 August 2019, accessed 22 May 2021 (English).
- Bill Gates asked Jeffrey Epstein for help with Nobel Prize. Retrieved 22 May 2021 .
- Lina Schlup: Bill Gates: Should Jeffrey Epstein give him the Nobel Prize? In: nau.ch. 19 May 2021, retrieved 22 May 2021 .
- Christiane Heil: What role should Jeffrey Epstein play in the Gates divorce. In: FAZ , May 14, 2021, retrieved on the same day.
- Lee Brown: Jeffrey Epstein wanted to marry ex-girlfriend's teenage daughter who called him 'Uncle Jeff'. In: New York Post , December 18, 2019, accessed May 15, 2021 (English).
- Nicholas M. Ciarelli: Harvard To Keep Epstein Gift. In: thecrimson.com. September 13, 2006, retrieved February 5, 2021 (English).
- Mike Baker, The Sisters Who First Tried to Take Down Jeffrey Epstein The New York Times, August 27, 2019.
- Maxwell trial: Epstein placed newspaper ads to find potential victims , Fri, November 30, 2021
- Jeffrey Epstein: The financier charged with sex trafficking. In: bbc.com. BBC News 8 July 2019, retrieved 12 July 2019 (English).
- Jeffrey Epstein. In: fbi.gov. Federal Bureau of Investigation , retrieved January 4, 2019 (English).
- Julie K. Brown, Emily Michot: Miami Herald wins December Sidney for Exposing Alex Acosta's Sweetheart Deal with Multimillionaire Sex Offender. In: hillmanfoundation.org. December 12, 2018, retrieved July 2, 2021 (English).
- Backing Prince Andrew. In: spiegel.de. Spiegel Online , January 6, 2015, retrieved August 10, 2019 .
- Hélène Mulholland and Nicholas Watt: Prince Andrew must decide whether to continue in trade role, says Vince Cable. In: theguardian.com. The Guardian 7 March 2011, accessed 10 August 2019 (English).
- Amy Goodman : How Trump's Labor Secretary Cut a Deal for Multimillionaire & Serial Sexual Abuser Jeffrey Epstein. In: www.democracynow.org . Democracy Now , January 4, 2018, retrieved August 11, 2019 (English, interview with Julie K. Brown ).
- Thomas Kielinger : The "blacklist" of a convicted pedophile. In: welt.de. Die Welt , January 4, 2015, retrieved August 10, 2019 .
- Charles Lipson, Jeffrey Epstein's Lolita Express and the Art of Unequal Justice. In: spectator.us. Spectator USA 8 July 2019, retrieved 9 July 2019 (English).
- Jeffrey Epstein accuser says his house had cameras “monitoring private moments”. In: cbsnews.com. 18 November 2019, accessed 21 May 2021 (English).
- Vanessa Grigoriadis: “They're Nothing, These Girls”: The Mystery of Ghislaine Maxwell. In: vanityfair.com. 12 August 2019, retrieved 21 May 2021 (American English).
- Katja Mitic: The "Madame" of the pedophile multimillionaire. In: welt.de . 14 August 2019, retrieved 2 January 2022 .
- Meret Baumann: Epstein's death raises many questions. In: nzz.ch. Neue Zürcher Zeitung , August 15, 2019, retrieved August 15, 2019 .
- Ali Watkins and Vivian Wang: Jeffrey Epstein Is Accused of Luring Girls to His Manhattan Mansion and Abusing Them. In: nytimes.com. The New York Times , July 7, 2019, retrieved July 8, 2019 (English).
- US Labor Secretary Alex Acosta resigns over Epstein case. In: bbc.com. BBC News 12 July 2019, retrieved 12 July 2019 (English).
- US Secretary of Labor Acosta resigns. In: srf.ch. Swiss Radio and Television , July 12, 2019, retrieved July 12, 2019 .
- Edward Helmore: Jeffrey Epstein dies in apparent suicide in New York jail. In: theguardian.com. The Guardian , 10 August 2019, retrieved 11 August 2019 (English).
- Julie K. Brown : Accused sex trafficker Jeffrey Epstein kills himself in NY jail; US inquiry launched. In: miamiherald.com. The Miami Herald , August 10, 2019, retrieved August 12, 2019 (English).
- Epstein's attorneys asked for him to be taken off suicide watch before death: Report In: washingtonexaminer.com , August 12, 2019, accessed August 18, 2019.
- Christian Heil: A mixture of looking away and failure. In: faz.net . August 13, 2019, accessed April 7, 2021.
- : Epstein took his own life. In: sueddeutsche.de. Süddeutsche Zeitung , August 16, 2019, retrieved August 17, 2019 .
- FBI investigates death of Jeffrey Epstein. In: sueddeutsche.de. Süddeutsche Zeitung , August 11, 2019, retrieved August 11, 2019 .
- Epstein's jailers reportedly asleep. In: welt.de. Die Welt , August 14, 2019, retrieved August 14, 2019 .
- Ali Watkins, Michael Gold: Jeffrey Epstein Autopsy Results Show He Hanged Himself in Suicide. In: nytimes.com . 16 August 2019, accessed 10 December 2021 (English).
- Lauren Frias: Jeffrey Epstein's lawyers blast 'medieval conditions' at federal jail where he died by suicide and say they are launching their own investigation. Retrieved December 8, 2019 .
- Azi Paybarah: Epstein's Autopsy 'Points to Homicide,' Pathologist Hired by Brother Claims . In: The New York Times . 31 October 2019, ISSN 0362-4331 ( nytimes.com [accessed 26 October 2020]).
- Judy Melinek: Jeffrey Epstein: Hanging or Strangulation? In: medpagetoday.com. 1 November 2019, retrieved 26 October 2020 (English).
- Epstein's suicide: Doctors diagnose multiple fractures in the neck Frankfurter Rundschau, August 20, 2019.
- Jeffrey Epstein signed will just two days before suicide New York Post, August 19, 2019.
- Michael R. Sisak: Feds Denounce Jeffrey Epstein Death Conspiracy Theories. (No longer available online.) In: time.com . November 23, 2019, archived from the original on November 24, 2019 ; Retrieved August 24, 2020 (English).
- Jeffrey Epstein's body claimed by unidentified 'associate'. Retrieved December 10, 2021 .
- Jeffrey Epstein's Body Claimed by His Brother. Retrieved December 10, 2021 .
- Jeffery Epstein buried in unmarked grave with family names removed. Retrieved December 10, 2021 .
- Jeffrey Epstein has been laid to rest in unmarked tomb besides his parents at a Jewish mausoleum in Florida. Retrieved December 10, 2021 .
- Oliver Stöwing: Confidant of Epstein: ex-model agent Brunel in custody. In: Morgenpost.de. 21 December 2020, retrieved 19 April 2021 .
- Matt Stieb, How Jeffrey Epstein Made His Money: Four Wild Theories. 9 July 2019, retrieved 20 May 2021 (American English).
- Annex to Epstein's will. Retrieved December 21, 2020 (English).
- tagesschau.de: The deep fall of Jeffrey Epstein. Retrieved 18 May 2021 .
- WORLD: Jeffrey Epstein: US billionaire found dead in jail cell . In: THE WORLD . August 10, 2019 ( welt.de [accessed May 18, 2021]).
- Billionaire Jeffrey Epstein due in court after sex trafficking arrest. 7 July 2019, accessed 18 May 2021 (English).
- Jeffrey Epstein's Will. 8 August 2019, accessed 22 December 2020 (English).
- Epstein estate quarterly statement. Retrieved December 22, 2020 (English).
- Girl raped - Epstein maintains database of victims. In: orf.at . January 16, 2020, accessed January 16, 2020.
- Ali Watkins: Lawsuit Claims Epstein Trafficked Girls in Caribbean Until 2018 nytimes.com, January 15, 2020, accessed January 16, 2020.
- Epstein is said to have abused young women until 2018 SZ-online, January 16, 2020, retrieved April 19, 2020.
- Ghislaine Maxwell, citing death threats and extensive legal fees, sues Jeffrey Epstein's estate. In: ABC News. March 18, 2020, accessed December 22, 2020 (English).
- More Than 100 Accusers Seek Restitution From Jeffrey Epstein's Estate. In: nytimes . 8 December 2020, accessed 19 December 2020 (English).
- Deutsche Bank fined $150 million for dealings with Epstein. In: Mirror Online . 7 July 2020, retrieved 21 July 2020 .
- The Billionaire Who Stood by Jeffrey Epstein. The New York Times, October 12, 2020, accessed December 20, 2020 (English).
- Billionaire Leon Black's relationship with Jeffrey Epstein will be reviewed by an outside law firm, following a NYT report about the pair's financial ties. Business Insider, October 21, 2020. Retrieved December 20, 2020 .
- Epstein's New York home sold for $51 million. In: Mirror Online. 12 March 2021, retrieved 12 March 2021 .
- Epstein Victims' Compensation Program. Retrieved December 19, 2020 (English).
- Epstein confidante Ghislaine Maxwell arrested. In: faz.net. 2 July 2019, retrieved 17 December 2020 .
- Ghislaine Maxwell found guilty on five counts out of six. Retrieved December 31, 2021 (German).
- Kim Willsher: France details modeling agent in Jeffrey Epstein inquiry. In: theguardian.com. December 17, 2020. Retrieved December 17, 2020 (English).
- Prosecutor complains of Prince Andrew's lack of cooperation. In: faz.net. 9 June 2020, retrieved 18 December 2020 .
- DCVDNS - Epstein Island. In: 16bars.de. 11 September 2020, retrieved 14 September 2020 .
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Epstein, Jeffrey Edward (full name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||American investment banker and convicted sex offender|
|BIRTH DATE||January 20, 1953|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Brooklyn , New York City , New York , United States|
|DATE OF DEATH||August 10, 2019|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Manhattan , New York City , New York , United States|