The Lößnitz ( pronunciation : [ løːsnɪt͡s ]) is the landscape downstream from Dresden in the Elbe valley on the right bank of the Elbe . Today it corresponds to the Radebeuler Flur with its ten former localities (2606 hectares total size), which are often grouped together as Lößnitz localities . As a Saxon natural area , the Lößnitz belongs to the Saxon loess field and there within the Saxon hill country (No. 46, part of D19) to the Dresden Elbe valley widening (No. 460).
The name is derived from the Sorbian lěsnica (forest stream), with which the residents of the area before the Franconian settlement referred to the 6.7 kilometer long Lößnitzbach through the Lößnitzgrund mountain gorge , which flows from the Dippelsdorf pond to the Elbe .
The Lößnitz large wine-growing area is located within the Lößnitz . This consists of more than 30 percent steep slopes made of syenite rock , which is also used to make the dry vineyard walls. As part of the Meissen area, it belongs to the Saxon wine-growing region . The Lößnitz vineyards are around 85 hectares. In connection with the viticulture is also the conservation area Historic vineyard landscape Radebeul .
The Lößnitz lies downstream from Dresden on the right bank of the Elbe valley, with the Elbe forming the southwestern border. In the east it borders on the Dresdner Heide via the Junge Heide . Grossenhainer Pflege is located in the north and west . The Lößnitz lies in the conurbation of the Upper Elbe Valley .
The landscape, which is largely in the Elbe valley basin, is divided into the Elbe, the low and middle terrace as well as the steep ascent of the Elbe slope, part of the Lusatian Fault , and the plateau that belongs to the Lusatian plate . The lowest point in the Elbaue is and the highest on the Wahnsdorfer Kuppe at .
The area is cut up by several notch valleys, from which the Lößnitzgrund with the Lößnitzbach permanently carries water. The other valleys, the Fiedlergrund , the Kroatengrund and the Rietzschkegrund are formed by so-called lost water , which seeps away after reaching the water-permeable sandy soil of the Elbe terraces and returns to the groundwater.
Due to the climatic conditions on the northern slope of the Elbe Valley, fine fruit and wine can be grown in the Lößnitz. The annual average temperature is 9.2 ° C. Since there is the mildest climate in Saxony in the Elbe Valley, it is also known as the “Saxon Nice”.
The area on the plateau on which Wahnsdorf is located with the former weather station is climatically separated from the location in the Elbe Valley. The climate diagram of the former Wahnsdorf weather station on the 246-meter-high Wahnsdorfer Kuppe shows the average temperatures and precipitation there for the period 1961–1990. The warmest months are July and August with an average of 18.1 and 17.8 ° C and the coldest January and February with an average of −1.2 and −0.7 ° C. The mean annual precipitation is 648 millimeters, slightly below the German average of 800 millimeters. Most of the precipitation falls in July with an average of 109 millimeters, the lowest in February with an average of 36 millimeters. The annual mean temperature is 8.6 ° C below that in the Elbe Valley. The average annual sunshine duration is 1634 hours, slightly above the German average of 1541 hours, the sun shines the longest in July with 217 hours and least in December with 51 hours.
Within the Lößnitz landscape lies the former Lößnitz landscape protection area (d33, identifier has now been removed), which, with its size of around 586 hectares, has primarily protected the areas of the steep slopes of the Lusatian Fault since 1974. This is followed in the northwest by the former Friedewald and Moritzburger Teichgebiet (d 17) protected area ; In 2015, both are combined to form the Friedewald nature reserve, Moritzburger Teichgebiet and Lößnitz (d 17, size 6779 hectares). In the east of Radebeul it goes to the Dresdner Heide (d 16, protected area size 6133 hectares).
Directly on the Elbe the Radebeuler extends part of the urban border and a total of 5387 hectares protected landscape Elbtal between Dresden and Meissen with left bank valleys and Spaargebirge (d 83) . The area was decided in November 2007 by the district of Meißen. It consists of the Elbe meadows from Serkowitz including the Seewiesen to Kötzschenbroda to the festival meadow on Radebeul . Further to the west are the Elbe meadows south of the Vierruthenweg. A large part of these LSG areas also represent the Radebeul part of the Elbe Valley bird sanctuary between Schöna and Mühlberg .
In the Lößnitz there is also the 115 hectare fauna-flora-habitat area Lößnitzgrund and Lößnitz slopes ( Natura 2000 area, EU registration number: DE4847304, internal state number: 159), which mainly consists of forest areas on both sides of the Lößnitzbach consists of the slopes with the springs on the Straken and the wooded slopes in the Fiedlergrund . Worthy of protection are “more or less steep areas with (mixed) grove-beech forests and oak-hornbeam forests with transitions to acidic mixed oak forests, silicate grasslands, numerous dry stone walls, occurrence of endangered plant species”. In addition, there are habitats of, for example, “ pug bat , great mouse-eared mouse , Spanish flag [and] otter ”.
The Lößnitz was settled late after archaeological finds. There are first traces of settlement in the Radebeuler and Niederlößnitz area from the period of the Cord Ceramics (late Neolithic , around 2200 BC – 2000 BC). A cremation cemetery from the Early Bronze Age (2000 BC – 1600 BC) was found in Serkowitz .
Urn fields from the Middle Bronze Age (Lusatian type, 1600 BC – 1300 BC) and from the Late Bronze Age (1300 BC – 800 BC) can also be found in the Serkowitz area as well as in Weinböhla and Coswig . ) archaeological remains can be found in Kötzschenbroda and Naundorf. Further finds from this period indicate a fairly dense settlement below the heather sand terraces on the flood-free hilltops.
Finds of Germanic settlement from the migration period are rare. However, around the year 600 Sorbs came to the region. Other sites of discovery testify to a relatively dense Slavic settlement, of which the grave field cut near Kötzschenbroda in 1925 shows early Christian influences.
Viticulture down to the lowlands
The chronicle of Bishop Thiedmar von Merseburg reports that vines were found in the Elbe valley when Heinrich I's troops penetrated the Gau Nisan around 929. The Franconian and Saxon settlers partly took over Sorbian villages, and partly they founded new ones. The eight village centers on Radebeul also have Sorbian features as round villages or Franconian features as anger villages. In the course of the following centuries some villages belonged to secular rule, some were under the Bishop of Meissen, some parts belonged to one lord and other parts of the church.
The corridor north of the Angers von Kötzschenbroda , the largest of all Lößnitzdörfer since the Middle Ages, and belonging to Kötzschenbroda was mentioned as Kötzschbergisches Weingebirge as early as 1271 , when Dietrich von Zlauschwitz delivered 12 loads of wine to the Sitzenroda monastery . For centuries Kötzschber was the name for wine from this region, which was mentioned by Martin Luther , who praised him for his goodness in a letter to the Meißner bishop in 1520 . In 1273 the church of Kötzschenbroda was mentioned as the first church building in the region .
Already at this time there were, in addition to the village communities with their corridors and the peasant mountains (vineyards in the hands of the free farmers who represented the old community), the manor or owner mountains, which were separately subordinate to the Dresden office .
The first written mention of Lezenitzberg can be found in 1286 in a deed of the Meißner bishop, when he rejected this vineyard above Haus Reinhardtsberg together with the Aldenberg from the Dresden Maternihospital. The name lisnica (Waldbach, Lößnitzbach ) was transferred to a vineyard.
In 1401, during the Dohna feud, the Margrave of Meissen Wilhelm I the One-Eyed took over the press house and the surrounding area of the later Hoflößnitz from the Burgraves of Dohna . The Wettins concentrated the viticulture of the area on this farm for almost five centuries. After the Reformation , the Wettins took over other extensive vineyards from the church and the monasteries. Before 1401, Kötzschenbroda also partly belonged to the Margrave of Meißen, and partly to the Küchenmeister family , who ceded their rights to the Margrave in 1401. From 15 vineyards in 1547, by 1630 in Lößnitz alone, 23 vineyards were owned by the Wettins.
So then in 1607 the surveyor called Matthias Oeder in the first Saxon land survey the area around the Lezenitzberg "The vineyards in the Lösnitz". In 1650, Elector Johann Georg I built Hoflößnitz Palace next to his press house. This led Christian Gerber to name Hoflößnitz in 1717 : “The Lößnitz is a certain line, because there are all high mountains that carry delicious wine, and because the electoral mountains are also there, this area is called the Hoffe-Lößnitz. And this loessnitz wine is also the best in the whole of the country, which is preferable to Franconian wine in good wine years, but is to be respected immediately to Rhine wine. "
Since viticulture was carried out all the way down to the lowlands of the Elbe and had even displaced food production there, Elector Johann Georg III decreed in 1684 . the prohibition of further viticulture in the lowlands by his edict "Where the plow can go, no vine should be". The grain of the rural fields had to be ground in the surrounding official mills .
Manor houses become summer and resting places
See also: List of castles and mansions in Radebeul .
Due to the good climate, so -called manor or owner mountains were created on the vineyard or upper fields of the Lößnitzdörfer next to the farmers' mountains , which were not subordinate to the villages, but independently to the Dresden office . During the Renaissance in 1574, the Bennoschlösschen was built by Chamberlain Hans Harrer . This was followed by manor houses as summer houses or retirement homes on the wineries in the Baroque period , for example the Grundhof in 1652 and the Minckwitz House in 1713 , from 1727 Wackerbarth Castle (Wackerbarths Ruh ') , Altfriedstein in 1743 and Neufriedstein with its mountain house (Mätressenschlösschen) in 1771 . The trouble-free house was built in the 1780s , the last remaining building of the Dresden plait style between Rococo and early Classicism. The mansions on the Paulsberg and the Zechstein and Hohenhaus were built on the Zitzschewiger corridor . Hohenhaus, in particular, was mentioned as a vineyard as early as the 13th century, and in the 15th century the summer residence of the Meißner bishops was built on the property known as the Bischofsberg .
Numerous wealthy, often aristocratic personalities, settled in the Lößnitz over the decades by founding their own wineries or taking over existing ones. The Chancellor Wolff Siegfried of Lüttichau on Zschorna and Baßlitz put to the winery, which for later Fiedler house should be, Curt Robert Welck built a Gutsanlage and a member of Uradelsgeschlechts Senfft of Pilsach built the mansion Liborius . Court marshal Johann Georg von Rechenberg and later field marshal Heino Heinrich von Flemming were the later owners of the Hohenhaus , winery and summer residence of the Meissen bishops. Christoph Vitzthum von Eckstädt acquired the Krapenburg and members of the Dresden council family Kynast, including the magistrate Andreas Kynast, built up the Kynast winery . The banker Baron Christian Friedrich von Gregory , owner of the neighboring house Sorgenfrei , was also the owner of the Villa Wach property for a while and had the largest contiguous vineyard property in Oberlößnitz with around 10 hectares for a long time.
In 1839 the two Lößnitz communities Oberlößnitz and Niederlößnitz were founded . Both emerged from vineyard associations that had to take on social and administrative obligations on the owner's property, for which the existing rural communities did not feel responsible. Oberlößnitz arose around the Hoflößnitz, Niederlößnitz on the corridor, which was originally called the Kötzbergisches Weingebirge . With these two new rural communities, the name Lößnitz was transferred to two localities, which, however, still had to do with wine.
With the opening of the Radebeul-Weintraube stop on July 19, 1838 on the long-distance railway connection Leipzig – Dresden , followed by the stop in Kötzschenbroda (today Radebeul West station ) in 1840 , the region was connected to the railroad. In 1860 a breakpoint (today Radebeul Ost train station ) was inaugurated in the rural community of Radebeul . The good fruit harvests of the villages, especially strawberries, due to the climate, could be transported by train and sold to Berlin. To the south of Meißner Straße, industrial areas were created in Radebeul, Kötzschenbroda and Naundorf, the products of which could be transported away by rail. At the same time, houses and apartments were needed for the workers and employees.
Two Lößnitz communities become "Pensionopolis"
North of Meißner Straße, Oberlößnitz developed into a health resort. Friedrich Eduard Bilz with his Bilz sanatorium and later the Bilzbad attracted spa guests, the home for improvement enabled, guests who need lung disease ( Fiedler house ) of the Dresden physician Carl Ludwig Alfred Fiedler was not far from it. Niederlößnitz forbade this type of business, but lured house builders with early development of the corridors through streets, sewers and connections to the gas and electricity supply. The first town hall with full-time administration and community police was also built here in 1895 , the Radebeuler and Oberlößnitz town halls did not follow until five years later.
Between 1860 and 1914 there was a construction boom in the Lößnitz, also caused by a saying by the Saxon King Johann around 1860, who called the Lößnitz “Saxon Nice”. This building boom intensified after 1886, when phylloxera destroyed large parts of the vineyards, freeing them up for parceling for emerging villa quarters, as planned by the Ziller brothers or Schilling & Graebner . Since many Saxon pensioners, pensioners and former politicians moved to the emerging country house and villa quarters, in addition to Dresden court officials, aspiring industrial employees and many artists such as painters, writers and opera singers, the area was temporarily nicknamed " Pensionopolis ". The boom came to a standstill with the First World War .
After Serkowitz was first incorporated into the rural community of Radebeul in 1905 , Kötzschenbroda incorporated Lindenau in 1920 and Zitzschewig, Naundorf and Niederlößnitz in 1923 and received town charter on May 5, 1924 . With effect from April 1, 1924 Radebeul had received city rights. Radebeul expanded in 1934 through Oberlößnitz and Wahnsdorf and then joined forces on January 1, 1935 under the common name Stadt Radebeul with Kötzschenbroda, with the common goal of both cities to avoid a threatened incorporation into Dresden. With that all Lößnitz communities were united in one city.
Today Lößnitz refers not only to the Oberlößnitz and Niederlößnitz , but also to the entire Radebeul area. Accordingly, Saxon viticulture is also represented here by the large Lößnitz site . The Loessnitz and its viticulture are immortalized by Herbert Schweiniger's Loessnitz song .
The name for Lößnitz-Pils , Lößnitz-Bock and Lößnitz-Quell of the Coswiger Adler brewery refers to the origin of the water tap.
- Lössnitz and Moritzburg pond landscape (= values of our homeland . Volume 22). 1st edition. Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1973.
- Dresden History Association (ed.): Lößnitz − Radebeul cultural landscape. (= Dresdner Hefte Nr. 54), Verlag Dresdner Geschichtsverein, Dresden 1998, ISBN 3-910055-44-3 ( table of contents booklet 54 ).
- Frank Andert (Red.): Radebeul City Lexicon . Historical manual for the Loessnitz . Published by the Radebeul City Archives. 2nd, slightly changed edition. City archive, Radebeul 2006, ISBN 3-938460-05-9 .
- Hans Beschorner : Manors of the Loessnitz. In: Messages from the Saxon Homeland Security Association. No. 13, Dresden 1924, pp. 171-188.
- Christian Gerber: The unrecognized benefits of GOD in the Electorate of Saxony and in the same most distinguished cities. 1717.
- Paul Goldhardt: Vineyard houses in the Loessnitz and in the Meißner mountains . In: Communications of the Saxon Heritage Protection Association , No. 13, 1924, pp. 145–170.
- Dieter Hoffmann : The Loessnitz and their artists. In: Dresdner Geschichtsverein (ed.): Lößnitz − Radebeul cultural landscape. (= Dresdner Hefte Nr. 54), Verlag Dresdner Geschichtsverein, Dresden 1998, ISBN 3-910055-44-3 , pp. 69-76.
- Matthias Oeder: The first land survey of the Electorate of Saxony. Executed by Matthias Oeder (1586–1607) by order of Elector Christian I. For the 800th anniversary of the reign of the House of Wettin. Stengel & Markert, Dresden 1889. ( online version )
- Liselotte Schlosser : Stately mansions in the Lößnitz . Munich, Berlin 1996.
- Ingrid Zeidler: The development of viticulture in the area of today's town of Radebeul in the 19th century . Radebeul 1985.
- Literature about the Loessnitz in the Saxon Bibliography
- Herbert Schweiniger's Lößnitzlied
- The steep slope winemakers of the Lößnitz introduce themselves
- Statutes for the monument protection area "Historical Vineyard Landscape Radebeul" (PDF; 101 kB), accessed on June 14, 2012
- sunshine, mean values for the period 1961 to 1990 ( memento of the original from September 23, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ( ZIP ; 42 kB)
- protected areas of the Free State of Saxony (as of January 1, 2012) ( Memento from April 7, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) ( MS Excel ; 57 kB), accessed on June 12, 2012.
- List of Protected Areas of the Free State of Saxony (as of January 1, 2015) ( Memento of the original from November 20, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ( MS Excel ), accessed December 29, 2015.
- "VO of the LRA Meißen from November 5th, 2007 (SächsGVBl. P. 523); amended on 07/17/2006 (OJ from 07/28/2006) ". According to the protected area directory of the Free State of Saxony (as of January 1, 2012) ( Memento from April 7, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) ( MS Excel ; 57 kB), accessed on June 12, 2012.
- Saxon protected areas at the SMUL , accessed on June 12, 2012.
- Map service for protected areas in Germany.
- out of force:
- Radebeuler Official Journal 07/2009
- Protected areas according to the Nature Conservation Act (PDF; 155 kB)
- Radebeuler Official Gazette 10/2010
- Liselotte Closer: A Brief History of the City of Radebeul. In: Dresdner Hefte. No. 54, 1998, p. 11, quoted from: Justification in accordance with Section 21, Paragraph 3 of the Saxon Monument Protection Act for the statutes for the monument protection area "Historical Radebeul Vineyard Landscape" (PDF)
- Radebeul City Archives (ed.): Radebeul City Lexicon. Historical Manual for the Lößnitz. 2nd Edition. City archive, Radelbeul 2005.
- Stadtarchiv Radebeul (ed.): Stadtlexikon Radebeul. Historical Manual for the Lößnitz. 2nd Edition. City archive, Radebeul 2005, p. 107.
- Matthias Oeder: The first land survey of the Electorate of Saxony on the orders of Elector Christian I carried out by Matthias Oeder (1586–1607). Plate 9.
- Stadtarchiv Radebeul (ed.): Stadtlexikon Radebeul. Historical Manual for the Lößnitz. 2nd Edition. Stadtarchiv, Radebeul 2005, p. 146.
- Stadtarchiv Radebeul (ed.): Stadtlexikon Radebeul. Historical Manual for the Lößnitz. 2nd Edition. City archive, Radebeul 2005, p. 18.