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Common wormwood (Artemisia absinthium), illustration

Common wormwood ( Artemisia absinthium ), illustration

Subfamily : Asteroideae
Tribe : Anthemideae
Sub tribus : Artemisiinae
Genre : Artemisia
Subgenus : Absinthium
Type : Wormwood
Scientific name
Artemisia absinthium

(Common) wormwood , real-wormwood or wormwood ( Artemisia absinthium L. ), also old woman or Alsem is a species in the genus Artemisia from the family of Compositae (Asteraceae).


Artemisia absinthium , inflorescence
Foliage leaf (top and bottom)
Vermouth in the Caucasus
Foliage cross-section with T-hair on the epidermis
Wormwood ( Artemisia absinthium ), habitus
Foliage leaf cross-section with sunken oil gland on the epidermis

The wormwood is a perennial , mostly herbaceous plant with heights of 40 to 60, occasionally up to 150 centimeters. Above ground, the plant appears greyish-green and has a strong aromatic scent.

The upright, densely leafed shoots emerge from a horizontally growing rhizome , sometimes lignified at the base and branching out several times in the upper area.

The shoot axes are slightly striped, have very small point-shaped oil glands and are closely hairy or almost hairless.

The deeper leaves have petioles up to 10 centimeters long and a leaf blade 8 to 15 centimeters long and 4 to 8 centimeters wide, split into 2 to 3 lobes per side . The upper leaves are shorter stalked to almost sessile and have fewer and more lanceolate lobes. The leaves in the area of ​​the inflorescence are small, sessile and three-lobed or undivided. The leaf tops are densely hairy.

The flowers sit in short-stalked, drooping heads , which are grouped in up to 30 centimeters long, pyramidal, panicle-like groups. The bracts are two to three times three to five millimeters in size and broadly ovate. The sepals are densely hairy silky on the outside. The individual flowers are yellow with one to two millimeters long corolla tubes, which have two tips on the outer, 9 to 20 purely female flowers and five tips on the inside of the 30 to 50 hermaphrodite flowers.

The fruits are egg-shaped to cylindrical, about half a millimeter long achenes .

The number of chromosomes is 2n = 18.


Vermouth occurs naturally in temperate Eurasia , India , Morocco, and Algeria . It grows preferentially on dry or sandy-clay soils near watercourses at heights of up to 3500 meters. In Central Europe it is a character species of the order Onopordetalia, but also occurs in societies of the class Agropyretea. Wormwood was introduced in North America and is found in self-sustaining populations .

The naturalized occurrences in all federal states of Austria are stated as frequent to rare.


With 0.15 to 0.4% wormwood contains a high concentration of bitter substances from the group of sesquiterpene lactones , including absinthin with 0.2 to 0.28% as the main component. Additional possible Artabsin , matricin , Anabsinthin and other substances before.

Essential oils make up 0.2 to 0.8% and contain (-) - thujone , (+) - isothujone , thujyl alcohol and its esters , chamazulene and other mono- and sesquiterpenes . Furthermore, various flavonoids were detected; smaller amounts of polyacetylenes are suspected.


Wormwood has been used as a medicinal plant since ancient times . Numerous effects have been attributed to it, including promoting appetite, digestion, and menstruation, as well as helping with headaches, jaundice, and inflammation. Wormwood is also known as an abortifacient . In ancient Greece the plant was consecrated to the virgin goddess of hunting Artemis , in Egypt, where it was also used as a love spell, to the fertility goddess Bastet . In the Middle Ages , its use as a medicinal plant was described in detail by Hildegard von Bingen, among others , who emphasized above all its external uses. In addition, wormwood was used to ward off mouse damage on books in writing ink and hung in wardrobes to protect against moths. It was also considered an effective repellent against witchcraft and demonic influences and was used in various rituals and in herbal hats against insomnia.

Even today, it is believed to be effective for stimulating appetite, for complaints of the digestive tract, such as gastritis or flatulence , for stimulating liver function and for spasmodic disorders of the intestinal and biliary tract area. The digestive effect is attributed to the bitter substances it contains. Fragments of the branch tips of flowering plants (Absinthii herba or Herba Absinthii) are used. These are processed in various commercially available phytopharmaceuticals as aqueous or aqueous-alcoholic extracts or can be prepared as tea.

Side effects can occur with severe overdose or the use of alcoholic extracts and are due to the toxic effects of thujone . They can include drowsiness, vomiting, abdominal pain, and in severe cases, kidney damage and central nervous system disorders. In contrast to alcoholic extracts, aqueous extracts contain relatively small amounts of thujone. The pure essential oil is not used medicinally due to the thujone content of up to 40%.

In addition to its use as a medicinal drug , wormwood can also be used as a digestive spice for fatty dishes.

Wormwood is a component of absinthe , an alcoholic drink with extracts of wormwood, fennel , anise and lemon balm , which became a fashion drug especially in the 19th century and was temporarily banned in various European countries due to its thujone content and its suspected health effects. Wormwood extracts are also used to make the drink wormwood , a wine flavored and fortified with spices and herbs .

In homeopathy , wormwood is also used against agitation and convulsive disorders. This application, however, involves homeopathic potentiations in which wormwood only plays a role during production, but is hardly or not at all in the finished preparation.



Wormwood, about Mittelhochdeitsch wërmuot from Old High German wër (i) muota ("mugwort, wormwood, Artemisia absinthium"), is a West Germanic word of unknown origin. It could be based on (as in "werewolf") Old High German wër ("man, human") with the suffix -ōti ("provided with") and an alignment with Old High German muot ("courage, disposition").

The English name wormwood (literally 'worm wood') is a folk etymological reinterpretation of the Old English name wermod and indicates that wormwood was ascribed anti- parasitic properties as a “worming agent”. Other forms of the name are (probably also folk etymological) based on warm because of the "warming" property of the vermouth decoction.

Figurative meaning

In symbolic or poetic language, wormwood also stands for bitterness and sadness. The term " drop of bitterness " describes something painful or unpleasant that adds a hint of bitterness to an experience that is beautiful in itself, just as a drop of wormwood adds a hint of bitterness to a sweet drink.

Wormwood is mentioned several times in the Old Testament , always in figurative use. A dramatic example of the meaning “source of bitterness” can be found in the New Testament , in Rev 8 : 10-11  EU .

Scientific name

The Latin name Artemisia absinthium indicates the namesake of the ancient goddess Artemis (Greek name of Diana ). Pseudo-Apuleius , author of a 5th century herb book , writes: “One of the herbs we call Artemisia, which Diana is said to have found and given to the centaur Chiron , who in turn named it in her honor “( De virtutibus herbarum 10). The addition absinthium is the Latin name for wormwood.

Common names

In German-speaking countries, the following trivial names are or were used for this plant species, sometimes only regionally : Alahsan ( Old High German ), Als ( Middle High German ), Bittrer Aelz ( Eifel , Altenahr ), Alsa ( Hesse on the lower Schwalm near Wabern ) , Alsam (Eifel), Alse (Middle High German), Alsem ( Rhine , Eifel, Middle High German), Alsen (Middle High German), Alsey (Middle High German), Alssem, Berzwurz, Biermersch ( Transylvania ), Birmet ( Wetterau ), Bitterals (Eifel), Els (Middle High German), Else ( Upper Hesse ), Elsene, Eltz (Middle High German), Fremata, Grabekraut ( Silesia ), Hilligbitter ( Bremen ), Märmöi ( Altmark ), Marmude ( Low German ), Pardehan ( Rendsburg pharmacy), Vermoth, Wärmeden ( Ruhla ) , Warmken, Wärmod (Altmark), Weige, Weramote (Old High German), Werbmut (Middle High German), Werenmut (Middle High German), Werimuota, Wermede (Hesse), Wermet ( Switzerland ), Wermide, Wermoet (Middle High German), Wermörte (Middle High German), Werm oite ( Middle Low German ), Wermot (Middle Low German), Wermpten ( Saxony ), Wermuda, Wermude, Wermuot, Weronmuth, Wermut, Wiegenkraut, Wiermerth (Transylvania), Wiermuta (Middle High German), Wörm ( Holstein ), Wörmd (Holstein), Wörmete ( Hamburg ), Wörmide, Wörmken (Hamburg, Holstein), Wörmö (Altmark), Wörmt ( Mecklenburg ), Wormiota (Old High German), Wormken, ( Unterweser , Göttingen ), Wräömt (southern Altmark), Wrämbk ( Schleswig-Holstein ), Wrämp (Schleswig -Holstein), Wrämt (Schleswig-Holstein), Wremp (Schleswig-Holstein) and Wurmet (Switzerland).



Historical illustrations


  • Werner Dressendörfer: flowers, herbs and essences . Ostfildern 2003, ISBN 3-7995-3509-8 .
  • HR Bode: About the role of gaseous excretions in the creation of the allelopathic effect of wormwood (Artimisia absinthim L.) on its neighboring plants . In: Natural Sciences . tape 51 , no. 5 . Berlin and Heidelberg 1964.
  • Jörg Swadzba: On the history of wormwood. Pharmaceutical historical study on the identification, preparation and use of Arthemisia absinthium L. Marburg an der Lahn 1965 (math.-nat. Dissertation).
  • Avril Rodway: Herbs and Spices . Tessloff, Hamburg 1980, ISBN 3-7886-9910-8 .

Individual evidence

  1. ^ A b Manfred A. Fischer, Karl Oswald, Wolfgang Adler: Excursion flora for Austria, Liechtenstein and South Tyrol . 3rd, improved edition. Province of Upper Austria, Biology Center of the Upper Austrian State Museums, Linz 2008, ISBN 978-3-85474-187-9 , p. 923 .
  2. a b Artemisia absinthium in the Flora of Pakistan
  3. ^ Artemisia absinthium in the Flora of North America
  4. a b Erich Oberdorfer : Plant-sociological excursion flora for Germany and neighboring areas . With the collaboration of Angelika Schwabe and Theo Müller. 8th, heavily revised and expanded edition. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart (Hohenheim) 2001, ISBN 3-8001-3131-5 , pp.  944 .
  5. ^ Artemisia in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  6. a b Max Wichtl (Ed.): Tea drugs . A handbook for pharmacists and doctors. Scientific contract company, Stuttgart 1984, ISBN 3-8047-0792-0 , p. 363-365 .
  7. André Patoir include: Étude expérimentale compartive de quelques abortifs (Apiol, Rue, Sabine, Armoise). In: Gynéc. et Obstétr. Volume 39, 1939, pp. 201-209.
  8. ^ A b Johannes Gottfried Mayer , Bernhard Uelkhe, Kilian Saum: Handbuch der Klosterheilkunde . 8th edition. Zabert Sandmann, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-89883-016-0 , p.  192-193 .
  9. Hartwig Abraham, Inge Thinnes: witch's herb and magic potion . 3. Edition. Urs Freund, Greifenberg 1997, ISBN 3-924733-02-3 , p. 229-233 .
  10. Burkhard Bohne, Peter Dietze: Pocket Atlas of Medicinal Plants . Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 978-3-8001-4759-5 , pp. 30 .
  11. ^ Friedrich Kluge , Alfred Götze : Etymological dictionary of the German language . 20th edition. ed. by Walther Mitzka . De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1967; Reprint (“21st unchanged edition”) ibid 1975, ISBN 3-11-005709-3 , p. 854.
  12. ^ Bible lexicon: wormwood bibelkommentare.de
  13. ^ Georg August Pritzel , Carl Jessen : The German folk names of plants. New contribution to the German linguistic treasure. Philipp Cohen, Hannover 1882, p. 41, online.
  14. Pedanios Dioscurides . 1st century De Medicinali Materia libri quinque. Translation. Julius Berendes . Pedanius Dioscurides' medicine theory in 5 books. Enke, Stuttgart 1902, pp. 278–279 (Book III, Chapter 23): Absinthion (digitized version )
  15. Pliny the Elder , 1st century. Naturalis historia Book XXVII, Chapter 28 (§ 45–53): Absinthion (digitized version ) ; Translation Külb 1855 (digitized version )
  16. Galen , 2nd century. De simplicium medicamentorum temperamentis ac facultatibus , Book VI, Chapter I / 1 (based on the Kühn 1826 edition, Volume XI, pp. 798-807): De abrotono et absinthio (digitized version )
  17. Pseudo-Apuleius 4th century, first printing: Rome 1481, chapter 103: Herba Absinthium (digitized version )
  18. Avicenna , 11th century, Canon of Medicine . Translation and adaptation by Gerhard von Cremona , Arnaldus de Villanova and Andrea Alpago (1450–1521). Basel 1556, Volume II, Chapter 2: Absinthium (digital copy )
  19. Constantine the African , 11th century Liber de gradibus simplicium . Pressure. Opera . Basel 1536, pp. 344–345: Absinthium (digital copy )
  20. Circa instans 12th century print. Venice 1497, sheet 188v – 189r: Absinthium (digitized)
  21. ^ Pseudo-Serapion 13th century, print. Venice 1497, sheet 100v – 101r (No 14): Absinthium erifon et scandonicon [(digitized)]
  22. Abu Muhammad ibn al-Baitar , 13th century, Kitāb al-jāmiʿ li-mufradāt al-adwiya wa al-aghdhiya. Translation. Joseph Sontheimer under the title Large compilation on the powers of the well-known simple healing and food. Hallberger, Stuttgart Volume I 1840, pp. 59–63 (digitized version )
  23. Walahfrid Strabo 9th century Liber de cultura hortorum . Edition: Ludwig Choulant . Macer floridus des virtutibus herbarum una cum Walafridi Strabonis… Carminibus… Leipzig 1832. No. 3: Absinthium (digitized version )
  24. Pseudo-Macer Chapter 3: Absinthium . Printed in Basel 1527 (digitized version)
  25. ^ German Macer . After: Bernhard Schnell, William Crossgrove: The German Macer. Vulgate version. Niemeyer, Tübingen 2003, p. 328 (Chapter 3). Cpg 226 , Alsace, 1459–1469, sheet 180v – 181r: Absintheum (digitized) . Transcription: (iij.Absintheum is called wermüt which is in the first degree the hicz and in the other the drocken (How you nuczet so you stercket the stomach ye but so the best is boiled in pure water / so she distributes all that / that is in the future (and also brings the wip seeks and the earth brings the dauon comet that heals them (so it also distributes the spindle worms and gives way to the book // (who nimet nardus gallica in the apotecken vnd wormut vnd ​​collide and the mulsam is made of eight parts of water and the nünde part of honey and you dut the dru ding together and the mulsam / the drink is very good the wiben when jre is looking for cleans (Siler is a crude and is like the kummel who nymet / nardum vnd wermüt vnd ​​that with essich sudet / vnd trincket / es distribute all vnlust (whoever there nympt wermüt / ruten bletter salcz vnd pepper vnd pushes that with win it patters the stomach the rough humores that is bad fuchtickeit (worm poke with s Wertel roots vnd uses the breast helps (whoever pokes worms with a strong win and smears himself with it yme enmag no itchy harm and who is burned, it will help too. (Wormwood with epffe was like vil pounded raw and the juice squeezed that grinds swer edmen. (It also helps to the livers who drink to irem juice nardum gallica and the nuczet (it is also good for milk seeks with it squeezed (it so dries pressed down, the search is called swam / that is a vnrein flesh and is shaped as a swam vnd wechset vmb of the person behind the window vnd the frawen elsewhere. // (Who wütscherling uses the thrust wermüt with win and press that it is grievous (she is Also well so used before all sorts of things (pushed wormwood and the juice mixed with honey and brushed it on the eyes makes it clear and lighter (the boiled wormwood helps the constipated oren (It is also good for the fresh winnings / the smelted ones) (So Is it also good for the heüpt (wormwood is good before there itch from serer hüt komet whether you sudet and contemplate it (whoever you boil it with win nuczet increases the bulging and tasting (wormwood juice mixed with ox galls and left in the ore the knocking in the oren (who gets lost on the slaff rumors he will slaffen (jr juices with honey spoil the bumps from the tongues //. (It also helps the dull eyes (wormwood in Baumoley and smeared it on the book helps the stomachs) (wormwood is also good and the clothes are good for the milwen /
  26. ^ Charles Victor Daremberg and Friedrich Anton Reuss (1810–1868). S. Hildegardis Abbatissae Subtilitatum Diversarum Naturarum Creaturarum Libri Novem. Physica , Book I, Chapter 109: Wermuda . Migne, Paris 1855. Sp. 1172–1173 (digitized version ) - translation. Marie-Louise Portmann, Basel 1991, pp. 125–127: Wermuda is warm and strong and is the excellent master of all relaxation. Pour enough of their juice into warm wine and use it to moisten the whole sore head down to the eyes, ears and neck. Do this at night when he goes to sleep and cover his head with a woolen hat all the way until morning. It depresses the pain of the swollen head and the pain that bulges in the head from the gout, and also dispels the internal headache. Also pour the juice into olive oil so that there is twice as much oil as juice, warm it in a glass vessel in the sun and keep it all year round. If someone has chest or chest pain that causes them to cough a lot, put it on their chest. Anoint those who have side pain with it, and they will heal internally and externally. But crush vermouth in a mortar to juice and add bad deer tallow and deer pulp, so that the vermouth juice is twice as much as the tallow, and of the tallow twice as much as the deer pulp, and make such an ointment. And a person who is plagued by very severe gout, so that his limbs even threaten to break, put it on the anoint near the fire where it hurts, and he will be healed. When wormwood is young, crush it, squeeze its juice through a cloth and boil wine with a moderate amount of honey on it, pour the juice in so that the taste of the juice is better than that of the wine and honey, and drink from May to October every third day sober. It soothes the leeks and melancholy in you, clears your eyes, strengthens the heart, protects the lungs from illness, warms the stomach, cleanses the bowels and prepares a good digestion.
  27. ^ Pseudo-Arnaldus de Villanova . 13-14 Century. The treatise… of the care and counseling of the wine… pressure. Esslingen (?) After 1478: vermouth wine (digitized version)
  28. Gabriel von Lebenstein 14th - 15th century. Distilled waters . Manuscript M Clm 5905 , Bavarian, 2nd half of the 15th century, sheet 55r (digital copy )
  29. Konrad von Megenberg , 14th century book of nature. Output. Franz Pfeiffer . Aue, Stuttgart 1861, pp. 380–381 (digitized version )
  30. Galangal spice treatise 13th / 14th century. Latin: Clm 13 076 , no place, 1356, sheet 22r (digitized version ) - Alemannic: Cpg 620 recipe collection, Northern Bavaria, around 1450, sheet 86v – 87v (digitized version )
  31. Michael Puff . Little book about the burnt-out waters . 15th century print Augsburg (Johannes Bämler) 1478 (digitized)
  32. Nikolaus Frauenlob 15th century Cpg 583 , Süd-West-Deutschland, 1453–1483, sheets 30v – 31r (digitized version ) . Transcription: Wermuet has xiiij virtue A special art from Wermuet Who airs in front of posem wil hats Man sal wermuet often in the hand wearing and for your noses has that help for all posh air and is good whoever comes in front of hats well Man welcomes with strong wine vein with it zeststoss and use that helps for all gifft or also flee from the business the worms that damage the garment aliud remedium you have to boil with nardo in ezzich and drink it that helps against the poisoned and helps the liver and helps him milcz vnd helps people who have been laid off by a poisonous animal at which place they are Whom dÿ oren seÿsen ader we thuent Man sal wermuet with ox gall and so warm too the oren nuczen helps whale Qui non potest dormire etc. Man sal wermuet in water boil vnd so sal man hawbt twahen vnntter sal wermuet ze bump vnd vmb put hawpp that helps wal ver man sal then wermuet vnntter put hauwpp who who like grawst vein is funny Man sal wermuet in wine and drink from it that helps against the grawsen who has a sick stomach Man sal wermuet in al sÿeden and the sal one use the help against the grawsen who ainen sick stomach have Man sal wormuet in Boil oil and drink from it the sal you nuczen that helps wol zuo dewen Item who have ainen raÿnen amplick wil Man sal wermuett with honey zest and with it sal you dÿ spreckl ader mal smear vnder the antlicz vein vnder the eye vein on the amplick vein elsewhere etc . Who stomach krancken ain has vein worm jm Pauch Man sal wermuet jn rain water boil vnd sal the czwen will leave day cold vnd sal divertising darab hilfft who has stomach krancken ainen sells vnd Dy wüerm jm Pauch vnd is guet who the we Pauch tuet vnd help him who throws water hard and raynigt dÿ frawen an jr haimlichait who is thin and vnd vnstät in the body Man sal then we have to and epheich bump into each other, but sit with each other en and drink from it that helps against the vnstät jm body who wounds ader geswer haÿlen wil man sal worm must pound and put on the wounds with the juice the same rainigts also it helps the goods on the hawbt so one has to hawbt with the water there jn soten Ain is especially noticeable ler from wermuet Man sal nemmen wermuet vnd ​​rawten pleter vnd pepper allsambt same vnd sol dÿ with wine whale pods and sal darab or one sal dÿ dreÿerlaÿ jn wine whale simmered and drinczne that helps the stomach var andersla that verczert the speÿss and is good . ....... Cpg 666 , Kurpfalz, 1478–1480, sheet 96r – 97v (digitized version ) Transcription: W encouraged has xiiij tugent Vnd a wonderful Erczney vnd kuntschetzt von wermut plinius der meinster / der eroet daz kraut wormut with big vnd strong virtue vnd thinks that worminess tewr vnd nücz be then the schacz of all the world know one daz herb is used so jst it is helpful to speak of all sorts Vnd says vns wÿ dÿ romers to some zeytten a habit would have when you got to four zeytten of the jars have sy jrem in front of gener daz is jrem senator / ader jrem potestat wÿ sy jne genent the do uf the palacio jrs court has ader also icz and do himself siczt dÿ weyl he ampt jnne has daz heyst capitolium who have dy romans worm Juice tasted and give to drink dor vmb daz sy jren enemies whether lay vnd there vestlich daz sy jren enemies whether lay vnd sy do with overturns and the good master praises this herb for all krewter a Who wil be wary of air in front of pose man sal worminess vil wear in your hands and for you noses you have hylfft for all pose airs b Whoever is wary of gyfft wil Man sal worminess with good wine to poke vein with strong vinegar and to use it helps for all gyfft and also flee from the taste Dy warmth dy the guise harm thon c a besunder Erczney of vermouth It sal vermouth with Nardo jn vinegar syeden vnd dor abe divertising daz hilfft resist dy gyfft vnd hilfft the liver vnd the milcz vnd hilfft which the do a gÿfftig tyer gebyssen hatt d Who DY We do eyes and duffle Man sal worminess with pure honey to poke vnd do with sal man dy anoint the eyes e Or one sal worminess with honey to poke together syden vncz that it may get messed up and if it would be cold So good your eyes do with ointments f Whom dÿoren Sewsen ader we do Man sal vermouth with ox gall vnd so warm to the oren nüczen daz hylfft wol g who doesnit like relaxed adder who there at all we do man sal vermouth jn water syden vnd do with sal man in addition haubt tzwahen h Or one sal sy to poke vnd vmb daz haubt lay daz helps wol j vore man sal worminess vnder daz haubt lay k Who is there funny man sal worminess jn put wine vnd thor jnne syden and thrown from there drink l Who has a sick stomach Man has sal vermouth with oil syden vnd sal daz nüczen daz hilfft the stomach to Dewen vnd makes jne fresh m If you want a neat Amplick wölle have one of spreckeln vermouth sal with vnd honey to push do with sal to DY sprinckel sprinkle vnder the eyes n a besunder gutt Erczneÿ Man sal worminess jn rainwater syden vnd sal add it to be left cold over ij day vnd sal then dor but drink that helps those who have a sick stomach Vnd expels the warmth from the pauch and is good who the pauch we do and helps him the daz throws water hard Vnd reynigt also dÿ frawen at jrer heimlikeytt o whoever thin vein sustains in the body is man salvation and epich to bump together or together south and dor but drink daz helps there for p Who the man Heylen heilffen vein wil Man sal vermouth to push vnd uff Dy sore place sambt with the Safft daz reÿnicht vnd heals q Also daz Selbig hilfft the gesweren auff the haubt whether daz do haubt with tzwecht gesoten with the water-dor jnne vermouth is r Also besunder mercklich erczney Man sal wermut vnd ​​rauten pleter vnd pepper as sambt equal vnd salt daz with wine wanted to toss vnd sal dor from drinking s Ader man sal dÿ dreyerley jn wine wol syden vnd dor abe drunk daz helps the stomach of Anderley erczney daz distorted dÿ speyss and cleanses the stomach of all vnreynikeytt
  33. Herbarius Moguntinus , Mainz 1484, Part I, Chapter 1: Absintheum (digitized version
  34. Gart der Gesundheit . Mainz 1485, Chapter 3: Absinthium (digitized version )
  35. Hortus sanitatis 1491, Mainz 1491, Part I, Chapter 3: Absinthium (digitized version )
  36. Hieronymus Brunschwig : Small distilling book . Strasbourg 1500, sheet 111v – 112v (digital copy )
  37. Paracelsus - Oporinus . Scholia & Observationes quaedam perutiles in Macri Poemata de Virtutibus Herbarum, & c. quas Ioh. Oporinus (dum per triennium aut ultra Theophrasti esset Amanuensis) ex ore dictantis studiose exceperat. (Useful comments and observations on the Macer poems about the powers of medicinal plants, which Johannes Oporinus - three years or more scribe of Paracelsus - has eagerly selected from the heard.) Huser edition of the works of Paracelsus, Basel 1590, part 7, p . 237–238: Artemisia (digitized version )
  38. Otto Brunfels . Another part of the Teütschen Contrafayten Kreüterbůchs . Johann Schott, Strasbourg 1537, p. 10: Vermouth (digitized version)
  39. Hieronymus Bock . New Kreütter Bůch . Wendel Rihel, Strasbourg 1539, Part I, Chapter 110: Weronmůt reader.digitale-sammlungen.de
  40. Leonhart Fuchs . New Kreütterbuch… Michael Isingrin, Basel 1543, Chapter 1: Wermůt (digitized version )
  41. ^ Pietro Andrea Mattioli . Commentarii, in libros sex Pedacii Dioscoridis Anazarbei, de medica materia. Translation by Georg Handsch, edited by Joachim Camerarius the Younger , Johan Feyerabend, Franckfurt am Mayn 1586, sheet 232r – 235r (digitized)
  42. Tabernaemontanus . Neuw Kreuterbuch. Nicolaus Basseus, Franckfurt am Mayn 1588, pp. 1–20: Wermuth (digitized version)
  43. Nicolas Lémery . Dictionnaire universel des drogues simples. , Paris 1699, pp. 2-3: Absinthium (digitized version ) ; Translation. Complete material lexicon. Initially drafted in French, but now after the third edition, which has been enlarged by a large [...] edition, translated into high German / By Christoph Friedrich Richtern, [...] Leipzig: Johann Friedrich Braun, 1721, Sp. 3–4 : Absinthium (digitized version )
  44. Albrecht von Haller (Ed.): Onomatologia medica completa or Medicinisches Lexicon which clearly and completely explains all names and artificial words which are peculiar to the science of medicine and pharmacy [...] Gaumische Handlung, Ulm / Frankfurt am Main / Leipzig 1755, Sp. 6: Absinthium vulgare (digitized version )
  45. ^ William Cullen, A treatise of the materia medica. Charles Elliot, Edinburgh 1789. Volume II, pp. 80-82: Absynthium (digitized version ) . German. Samuel Hahnemann . Schwickert, Leipzig 1790. Volume II, pp. 95–97: Wermuth (digitized version)
  46. ^ Jean-Louis Alibert . Nouveaux éléments de thérapeutique et de matière médicale. Crapart, Paris Volume I 1803, pp. 146–149: Absynthe (digitized version )
  47. August Friedrich Hecker 's practical medicine theory. Revised and enriched with the latest discoveries by a practicing doctor . Camesius, Vienna, Volume I 1814, pp. 278–280: Herba et summitates Absynthii vulgaris, Wermuth (digitized version )
  48. Jonathan Pereira’s Handbook of Medicines Doctrine. From the point of view of the German Medicin edited by Rudolf Buchheim . Leopold Voß, Leipzig 1846-48, Volume II 1848, pp. 413-415: Artemisia absinthium, Wermuth (digitized version)
  49. August Husemann , Theodor Husemann : The plant substances in chemical, physiological, pharmacological and toxicological terms. For doctors, pharmacists, chemists and pharmacologists. Springer, Berlin 1871, pp. 938–939: Absynthiin (digitized version )
  50. ^ Robert Bentley , Henry Trimen : Medicinal plants. J. & A. Churchill, London 1880, Volume III (No 156): Artemisia absinthium ' (digitized version)
  51. Handbook of the Entire Pharmaceutical Science. Springer, Berlin 2nd ed. 1883, pp. 659–662: Herba Absinthii (digitized version )
  52. ^ Carl Wilhelm Juch: Pharmacopoea Borussica or Prussian Pharmacopoeia. Translated from Latin and accompanied by comments and additions by Dr. Carl Wilhelm Juch. Stein, Nürnberg 1805, p. 59 ( Herba Absinthii. Wermuth (digitized) ), p. 147 ( Acetum aromaticum. Gewürzessig (digitized) ), p. 210 ( Elixir Aurantiorum compositum (digitized) ), p. 218 ( Extractum Absinthii. Wormwood extract (digitalisat) ), p. 285 ( Oleum Absinthii aethereum. Aetherisches Wermutoel (digitalisat) ), p. 306 ( Species resolventes externae. Dissolving species for external use (digitalisat) ), p. 333 ( Tinctura Absinthii. Wormwood tincture ( Digitized) ).
  53. ^ Friedrich Mohr : Commentary on the Prussian Pharmacopoeia: along with a translation of the text ... Friedrich Vieweg, Braunschweig. After the seventh edition of the Pharmakcopoea borussica. Third edition in one volume. Friedrich Vieweg, Braunschweig 1865, p. 206: Elixir Aurantiorum compositum. Composite Pomeranzenelixier (digitized) , p 236: Extractum Absinthii. Wormwood extract (digitalisat) , p. 318: Herba Absinthii. Wormwood (digitized version ) , p. 476: Oleum Absinthii. Wermuthöl (digitized version ) , p. 628: Tinctura absinthii. Vermouth tincture (digitized version )
  54. ^ Hermann Hager : Commentary on the Pharmacopoeia Germanica. Julius Springer, Berlin, Volume 1 (1873), p. 573: Elixir Aurantii compositum. Bitter orange elixir (digitized version) , p. 628: Extractum Absinthii. Wormwood extract (digitized) . Volume 2 (1874), p. 122: Herba Absinthii. Wormwood (digitized version ) , p. 788: Tinctura Absinthii. Vermouth tincture (digitized version )
  55. ^ Translation of the text by Franz Unterkircher: Tacuinum sanitatis in medicina. Graz 2004, p. 75: Wormwood: Complexion: warm at the end of the first, after another in the 2nd degree, dry in the 2nd degree. Preferable: the Pontic or Roman is best. Benefits: good for a cold stomach, stimulates appetite, is beneficial for a clogged liver, kills worms. Damage: its substance contracts the abdomen. Prevention of harm: with sugar and a little vinegar and with fragrant substances and almond oil. What it produces: warm and heavy blood. Beneficial for old people, people with cold complexion, in winter and at the beginning of spring and in cold areas.

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