|View from the Lunapark (west bank) to the center of Buckow on the east bank|
|Geographical location||Märkische Schweiz , Brandenburg , Germany|
|Tributaries||Stobber , Werderfließ (from ← Schermützelsee ← Sophienfließ )|
|Drain||Stobber → Friedländer Strom → Alte Oder → Hohensaaten-Friedrichsthaler Wasserstraße → Oder|
|Places on the shore||Buckow|
|Altitude above sea level|
|Maximum depth||12.0 m|
|Map of the Buckow terrain health resort network with the lake|
The Buckowsee (formerly also occasionally: Haussee ) is a 14 hectare lake in the Brandenburg district of Märkisch-Oderland . It borders on the old town of the Kneipp health resort Buckow and is traversed by the Stobber . The maximum depth of twelve meters is located in Märkische Schweiz in the center of the nature park of the same name, around 50 kilometers east of Berlin . The name Buckowsee , like the name of the city, goes back to the Slavic settlement period (from Slavic buk = 'beech').
Environment, circular route and buildings
The east and north-east banks of the roughly circular lake are largely inaccessible due to buildings or private properties that approach the lake. The Buckowseepromenade (part of the Lunaparkweg) runs along the south-western bank and leads through a black alder quarry below the Buckow spa park .
The Buckowsee is located a few meters southwest of the market square, the historical center of Buckow. The district road 6413 (in this section under the designation "Hauptstraße") leads past the east bank, which connects Buckow to the north between Bollersdorf and Pritzhagen to the state road 34 and to the south-west to the federal road 168 near Waldsieversdorf . To the northeast of the castle park follows the Griepensee , which is also flowed through by the Stobber . Separated by an almost four hundred meter wide strip of land, the Schermützelsee connects to the west , with 137 hectares the largest body of water in Märkische Schweiz .
North-east bank and Waldfrieden Clinic
The north-eastern part of the bank was described by a contemporary witness who grew up partly in her parents' house directly on Buckowsee, in 1935 as a swampy wildlife park . The garden of this play paradise with its own bathing jetty fell steeply to the lake. The banks, largely taken up by private properties, are accessible to the public, among other things, immediately north of the Stobber runoff. A park-like strip begins roughly opposite the market square, at the end of which a wooden platform with benches has been built into the lake. Another access is at Wriezener Straße 55 to one of the seven Buckower Kneipp water treading points . In this area, the lake can only be circumnavigated on roads at a certain distance. This includes Werderstrasse, which, after it branches off from Wriezener Strasse, runs on the high bank of the lake. The bank here rises by around 15 meters to around 50 meters.
At the height of the central north shore which is rehabilitation - clinic Waldfrieden for mother and child , a distinctive castle-like Gründerzeit with private beach. Previously operated by Adolf Orthey as a private sanatorium under the name Waldfrieden, the house was bought by the Berliner Ortskrankenkasse in 1918 and continued to be used as a sanatorium . The so-called Fuhrmann-Chronik judged the house in 1928: Its idyllic location on Buckow Lake and the exemplary furnishings should make it one of the first recreational areas in the Mark. The National Socialists renamed the sanatorium "Agnes-Miegel-Heim". The namesake Agnes Miegel was included in the final phase of the Second World War by Hitler in the special list of the " Gottbegnadetenliste " with the six most important German writers - according to Nazi ideology. During the last years of the war, the house was used as a so-called war maternity home with pregnant women from Berlin. Under its historical name Waldfrieden, today's (as of 2012) mother-child clinic offers comfortable rooms for 40 mothers and 60 children and is equipped with a large exercise and therapy pool as well as Kneipp physiotherapy .
In the further course to the southwest the Werderstraße encircles a marshy forest area on the west bank of the Buckowsee and approaches the Schermützelsee, on the high bank of which the circular route turns into the Bertolt-Brecht-Straße. The area of the Brecht-Weigel-Haus , which has served as a museum and memorial for the artist couple since 1977, borders on the Schermützelsee .
Buckowseepromenade, spa gardens, erratic boulders
Shortly after the Brecht-Weigel-Haus the circular route crosses the Werderfließ ( see below ), bends to the southeast as the “Buckowseepromenade” and approaches the Buckowsee again. The barrier-free promenade runs below the Buckower Kurpark , which is often confused with the Schlosspark at Griepensee; However, with concerts and other events, the palace park has now taken on the role of a spa park, but the historical names of the two parks have been retained. The spa park was laid out in 1923 around the Ferdinandshöhe (47 m above sea level ) and stretches up from the lake and path to the southwest. In 2010 there were considerations to build a wooden observation tower on the highest point of the area, also known as the "Luna Park", as the historical panoramic view over the Buckow lake landscape is no longer possible due to the heights that have grown over in the meantime.
The promenade is also part of the 1640 meter long Terinkurweg 11 (TK 11; "Lunaparkweg"), which, with a walking time of 27 minutes and a load of 50 watts, is characterized as an easy, short path suitable for advanced training (normal walking) . The promenade is not laid out as a riverside path and runs on average around 40 meters from the quarry forest-lined shore. Directly below the Ferdinandshöhe there is a direct access to the lake, which is designed like a park ("Lunapark") and is equipped with a lawn and seating. 2006 was created by the Luna Park by a bridge at Werder flow back to Werderstraße a way ( "rubber path") that serves as part of locust piles is laid out corduroy road crosses the swaying, marshy ground of black alder break directly on the lakeshore. Information boards explain the Alder Quarry with its plants and animals.
In the further course to the southeast, the Buckowsee promenade passes the “Stone Kingdom of Märkische Schweiz” with Rapakiwi granite from the Åland Islands , Baltic porphyry or Jotnian sandstone from central Sweden . The Ice Age Garden provides information on numerous display boards about the landscape of Märkische Schweiz, which was shaped by the Ice Age. In the Erlenbruch at the southern tip of the lake, the circular route leaves the Buckowseepromenade and bends to the east over the wooden bridge of the Stobber flowing here. On the main street it then leads past guest houses, restaurants or historic hotel buildings such as the currently closed (as of 2012) "Bellevue" back to the center of the spa town. The main road (district road 6413) is part of the European cycle route R1 , section European route (D3) .
Geology, geography and hydrology
Natural location and development
The Buckowsee lies in the Buckower Kessel, a basin-like extension of the Stobbertal. The valley is part of a glacial meltwater channel that formed in the last two phases of the Vistula Ice Age between the dead ice- filled Oderbruch and the Berlin glacial valley (today's Spreetal) and separates the Barnimplatte from the Lebuser Platte . This approximately 30 kilometers long and two to six kilometers wide Buckower Rinne (also: Löcknitz-Stobber-Rinne ) drains from the low moor and headwaters area Rotes Luch via the Stobber to the northeast to the Oder and via Stobberbach / Löcknitz to the southwest to the Spree . The Schermützelsee is located almost four hundred meters to the west . According to current accounts, the strains and tensions of the last glaciation and the thawing glaciers in the subsurface of the Buckower Kessel left numerous smaller incursions. The lower basins were filled with gradually rising groundwater and formed several lakes, including the Buckowsee, Schermützelsee and Griepensee. Friedrich Solger , professor of geology at Berlin's Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität in the 1920s, described the remaining lakes in the Stobberlauf, such as the Griepensee , as the undoed remnants of a chain of lakes in the Stobbertal.
Data and inflows
The Buckowsee has roughly the shape of an ellipse , which extends from northwest to southeast. Its area is 14 hectares and its maximum depth reaches 12 meters. The water through which the Stobber flows has a further inflow with the Werder river. The Werder river feeds the water from the Schermützelsee, which in turn is fed by the Sophien river . The total inflow from the Werder River averaged 6.0 million m³ annually from 1977 to 1984. Of this, 3.5 million m³ came from the Sophienfließ (inflow into the Schermützelsee), so that around 2.5 million m³ come from an additional groundwater feed of the Schermützelsee . At a height of 25.5 meters, the water level of Buckowsee is one meter below that of Schermützelsee and 1.3 meters above that of Griepensee, which joins the chain of lakes in the Stobbertal north in the direction of flow.
Floor cleaning 2012
In 2012, the city of Buckow asked the water and soil association "Stöbber-Erpe", as the person liable for maintenance, to obtain an exemption under nature conservation law for cleaning the bottom of the inlets and outlets of Buckowsee and Griepensee. Natural sediments such as sand and stones carried along by the stobber had increasingly deposited at the inlet of the lakes and led to an upland. The resulting rising water level caused, especially in the case of heavy rainfall, flood conditions and increasing moisture penetration of the adjacent properties. The nature park regulations only permit work on the Stobber, which is classified as a second order body of water, in exceptional cases, so that an individual decision under nature conservation law has to be made.
Flora and fauna
The lake is surrounded by a belt of reeds, interrupted on some parts of the bank .
Black Alder Quarry
In the quarries on the west bank, black alder trees dominate , which can easily cope with the high humidity and, thanks to their adventitious roots, also fluctuating water levels. Occasionally, bog birch trees are interspersed with the trees. In less developed shrubby undergrowth beside heavily overgrown alder stems are black currant and buckthorn represented - the altpolabische / altsorbische name čremucha for buckthorn was the neighboring Schermützelsee the name. In the abundantly developed ground plants, large sedge such as sour grasses and water lizards predominate. In addition, there are occasional nightshades , swamp irises and shield ferns . While mosses are seldom found, there are over 70 species of large mushrooms in the wetland - the most persistent are the alder schillerporlinge , a saprobiontic or parasitic wood dweller like all schillerporlinge , which attacks deciduous trees and causes white rot in the infected wood .
Insects, birds and fish fauna
The breaks provide habitat for around 150 species of insects, including 75 species of butterflies. From the family of weevils falls due to its distinctive snout ( rostrum of) Erlenrüssler (alders shrikes, Cryptorrhynchus lapathi on). The larvae of the insect pest overwinter in the bark and drill up to 10 centimeters long tunnels in the wood. The young beetles feed on the young shoots. Typical symptoms of the infestation are withered shoots, distended parts of the bark, entrance holes and wood chips. The shiny blue alder leaf beetle also uses the alder as food. The females lay clutches of 60 to 70 eggs on the underside of the leaves. The leaf beetles can eat the alder up to three times a year. The fruits of the winter black alder remain on the tree throughout the winter. In the cold season, the woody cones of the female flowers, which form three brown, flattened, solitary nut fruits per scale , serve as the most important source of food for many bird species. These include siskins and goldfinches .
Ducks , including mute swans , and railings swim on the lake . The fish fauna determine perch , bream , silver bream , roach , tench and rudd . Also represented are the eels , pikeperch and, rarely, catfish , which are declining according to the Brandenburg Red List . At the top of the food chain of the lake rob some pike . The lake is angling waters and is used by the Märkisch-Oderland e. V. (Strausberg area).
Buckow was originally a Slavic foundation; Until about the middle of the 13th century there was a Slavic settlement directly on the east bank of the Buckowsess . After the German East Settlement , the place, first mentioned in writing in 1249, developed slightly offset to the north between Buckowsee and Griepensee.
First mentions and etymology
The lake is mentioned for the first time under the name Bucow in a document from the Friedland nunnery . In the document of November 19, 1300, the abbot Johannes of the Lehnin monastery and brother Wilhelm, prior of the Dominican monastery Cölln , testified to a document in which the Ascanian margrave Albrecht III. ( Co-regent ) certified the possession of the Cistercian women. Adolph Friedrich Riedel signed the document in the Codex diplomaticus Brandenburgensis : Margrave Albrecht confirms the town of Friedland and all its possessions to the nunnery in Friedland. The passage to Buckowsee reads:
- Item stagnum Bucow dictum.
In 1751 the chronicler Johann Christoph Bekmann mentioned him in his historical description of the Chur and Mark Brandenburg according to their origin, inhabitants, natural condition, waters, landscapes, cities, clergy donors [...] as the Bukkow . In 1936 it was recorded on a map, which is contained in the Brandenburg Field Name Collection in the Secret State Archive of Prussian Cultural Heritage , under the current name Buckowsee and the addition older Haussee . As for the etymology , the Brandenburg name book gives the old Polish basic form Bukov- to buk = red beech, as for Buckow . The name is very common in the West Slavonic language area as a place, field and water body name.
Sale at Buckow and Buckower Rosentage
In 1522, around 20 years before the secularization of Friedland Monastery, half the lake was supposedly still owned by the nuns. At some point in the following centuries, the entire lake must have come into the possession of the Buckow rule, which was only exercised by the Pfuels and after Heino Heinrich von Flemmings' marriage to Dorothea Elisabeth von Pfuel in 1674 at the latest from 1706 by the von Flemming . The last Flemming on Buckow, the lawyer Hans von Flemming, sold Buckowsee to the city on May 22, 1902 for 15,000 marks . The land south and partly west of Buckowsee, however, like the White Lake and the southern part of the Schermützelsee, belonged to the rule Hasenholz , which was temporarily separated from the rule Buckow. The Hasenholzer Land included, among other things, today's spa gardens around Ferdinandshöhe and the Karowsche Mühle (later VEB Mühlenwerk Buckow ) on the Stobber south of the lake. These parts of the area were incorporated into Buckow in 1928; In 1959 the rest of Hasenholz came to the spa town as a district.
The lake plays an important role in the traditional annual Buckow Rose Days , which are reminiscent of the time of rose cultivation - after the time of hop growing and before the tourist orientation, one of the economic focal points of the city. The highlights of the festival include a boat parade and fireworks over the Buckowsee.
- Brandenburg name book. Part 10: The names of the waters of Brandenburg. Founded by Gerhard Schlimpert , edited by Reinhard E. Fischer . Edited by K. Gutschmidt, H. Schmidt, T. Witkowski. Berlin contributions to name research on behalf of the Humanities Center for the History and Culture of East Central Europe. Verlag Hermann Böhlaus successor, Weimar 1996, ISBN 3-7400-1001-0 .
- "Fuhrmann Chronicle" = E. Fuhrmann: Walks through Märkische Schweiz in words and pictures . E. Fuhrmann's Verlag, Buckow Märkische Schweiz 1928. (Reprint with supplementary parts in: Buckow. Märkische Schweiz. Reprint of the Fuhrmann chronicle from 1928. Ed .: City of Buckow with the Kneipp and Heimatverein Märkische Schweiz eV, Buckow 1997.)
- Walk through the centuries. Insights into 750 years of Buckower history. Brochure accompanying the exhibition, the history of the city and the renovation of the old town. Ed .: Tourist Office Märkische Schweiz u. a., Buckow 2003.
- Max Krügel: Buckow in prehistory and early history. In: Yearbook for Brandenburg State History (PDF; 14.7 MB) . Published on behalf of the Landesgeschichtliche Vereinigung für die Mark Brandenburg e. V. by Martin Henning and Heinz Gebhardt. Volume 2, Berlin 1951, pp. 39-47.
- Information on the register of waters. (PDF; 952 kB) In: Der Märkische Angler, 2/2008. P. 10.
- Bathing lakes in Germany: Buckowsee
- Anglermap. Buckowsee profile.
- Brandenburg viewer, digital topographic maps 1: 10,000 (click on the menu; switch on “Automated property map” for the boundary.)
- Rosemarie Bender-Rasmuss: Buckow my love. Childhood and adolescence 1924–1945. Collection of Contemporary Witnesses, Volume 30. Zeitgut Verlag, Berlin 2010 ISBN 978-3-933336-79-8 pp. 36, 39.
- Buckow - Pearl of Märkische Schweiz: water treading points. ( Memento of the original from May 31, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Fuhrmann Chronicle, p. 102.
- walk through the centuries , p. 22.
- Ernst Klee : The culture lexicon for the Third Reich. Who was what before and after 1945. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2007, ISBN 978-3-10-039326-5 , p. 409.
- Märkische Schweiz: Mother and Child Clinic Waldfrieden.
- Association of German Nature Parks V. (VDN). Märkische Schweiz. Barrier-free offers.
- Christoph Janecke: The town of Buckow in the "Märkische Schweiz", in the state of Brandenburg, notes on the local history.
- Buckower News. Information sheet from the city of Buckow. Edition 09/2010, October 9, 2010. p. 1. ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 1.2 MB)
- Buckow - Pearl of Märkische Schweiz: Terrain spa trails. TK 11 - "Lunaparkweg". ( Memento of the original from May 31, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Märkische Schweiz: The rubber path. (PDF; 404 kB) Flyer, no date.
- Buckower News. Information sheet from the city of Buckow. Edition 05/2006, June 3, 2006. p. 1. ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 1.3 MB)
- "Jotnisch" refers to the age of a geological epoch.
- Destination Brandenburg: Discover the Märkische Schweiz !.
- Claus Dalchow, Joachim Kiesel: The Oder reaches into the Elbe area - tension and predetermined breaking points between two river areas . (PDF; 2.9 MB) In: Brandenburg Geoscientific Contributions , Ed .: State Office for Mining, Geology and Raw Materials Brandenburg, Kleinmachnow Issue 1/2 2005, p. 81, .
- Natural area Märkische Schweiz . LAG Märkische Schweiz e. V.
- walk through the centuries , p. 5.
- Humboldt University Berlin: biography, Friedrich Solger .
- Friedrich Solger: The emergence of the Buckower landscape . In: Yearbook for Brandenburg State History (PDF; 18.3 MB) . Published on behalf of the Landesgeschichtliche Vereinigung für die Mark Brandenburg e. V. by Martin Henning and Heinz Gebhardt. Volume 5 ( Hoppe yearbook ), Berlin 1954, p. 83.
- Brigitte Nixdorf, Mike Hemm u. a .: Documentation of the condition and development of the most important lakes in Germany, part 5, Brandenburg , environmental research plan of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety , final report R&D project FKZ 299 24 274, on behalf of the Federal Environment Agency at the Chair of Water Protection at the Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus , 2004 Chapter 1.26 Schermützelsee p. 112f ( PDF ; 1.91).
- Official Journal for the Office of Märkische Schweiz. Volume 18, edition 05/2012, April 26, 2012. p. 1. ( Memento of the original from May 8, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 1.4 MB)
- Gabriele Rataj: Working on the river bed. ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In: Märkische Oderzeitung (MOZ), April 13, 2012.
- Information board on site: The Black Alder Break . No copyright information, no date; as of 2012.
- species list and red list of fish and lampreys (Pisces et Cyclostomata) from Berlin: p. 87 – p. 91 in Fish in Berlin - Balance of Species Diversity ", published by the Fisheries Office Berlin
- walk through the centuries , p. 9., see map.
- Brandenburg name book. Part 10. The names of the waters of Brandenburg , p. 45. Note: The name book quotes - slightly misleading - from the Codex: stagnum apud Bucow . The entire relevant passage on the lakes near Buckow, however, reads in the Codex: Item stagnum apud Bucow, quod dicitur Gryben; Item stagnum Bucow dictum; Item stagnum apud Bucow, quod dicitur schermitzel; Item album stagnum; [...]. (Source: the following individual reference.)
- Adolph Friedrich Riedel : Codex diplomaticus Brandenburgensis, first main part, Volume XII, Berlin 1857, p. 413
- Brandenburg name book. Part 10. The names of the waters of Brandenburg , pp. 45f, 105.
- Märkische Schweiz: Chronicle Buckow .
- walk through the centuries , p. 14.
- Max Krügel: Buckow. Fight for self-management. In: Yearbook for Brandenburg State History (PDF; 12.8 MB) . Published on behalf of the Landesgeschichtliche Vereinigung für die Mark Brandenburg e. V. by Martin Henning and Heinz Gebhardt. Volume 4, Berlin 1953, p. 62.
- Max Krügel: Buckow in the country of Lebus. Verlag Karl Salomon, Berlin-Neukölln 1957. Note: The font was printed in 1957 with an edition of only 800 copies. Parts of the script appeared in the Buckower Nachrichten in the 2000s . Information sheet from the city of Buckow. Here in: Buckower Nachrichten. Information sheet from the city of Buckow. Edition 09/2006, September 30, 2006. p. 6. ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 641 kB)