Eugene Spiro

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Eugene Spiro , born as Eugen Spiro , (born April 18, 1874 in Breslau , Silesia ; died September 26, 1972 in New York City ) was a German-American painter and graphic artist . He is known as a landscape and portrait painter, brother of Baladine Klossowska .


Childhood and study time

Eugen Spiro was born on April 18, 1874 in Breslau as one of nine children of the synagogue cantor and composer Abraham Baer Spiro (1833–1903) and Fanny Spiro, nee. Form (1837-1901), born. The Jewish German-speaking population was the bearer of a lively intellectual and artistic life in Breslau at this time. Spiro attended the St. Elisabeth High School in his hometown, where his artistic and mathematical talent was particularly noticeable. After a short apprenticeship in a Wroclaw company for women's clothing, he studied painting from 1892 to 1894 at the Academy of Arts and Crafts in Wroclaw under Albrecht Bräuer (1830–1897). As a teacher valued by numerous students, Bräuer was the model for the title character in the drama Michael Kramer by Gerhart Hauptmann , who studied sculpture at the Breslau Academy from 1880 to 1882.

In 1894 Spiro moved to the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich , which was one of the leading artistic training centers in German-speaking countries. Initially a student of the history painter Wilhelm von Lindenschmit the Younger (1829–1895), Spiro and Richard Pietzsch became one of Franz von Stuck's first students in 1895 , whom he personally selected after his appointment as an academy professor. In 1897 Franz von Stuck appointed Eugen Spiro as his master student and assigned him his own studio in the Villa Stuck . In the same year Spiro received a scholarship from a private art patron, which enabled him to spend one year in Italy in 1897/98. Spiro used this year mainly to train his technical skills through copies of old masters in Italian museums.

Travels and first stay in Paris

After returning to Germany, Spiro first settled in Munich as a painter, became a member of the Munich Secession in 1900 (until 1933) and sent its exhibitions in the Munich Glass Palace . He participated in numerous other exhibitions. The portraits shown there in particular have been recognized by the specialist press since the turn of the century at the latest. Between 1898 and 1921 Spiro also published in the magazine Jugend .

After a stay in Breslau and trips to Venice and Paris , Spiro moved to Berlin in 1904 because he was new to the cosmopolitan climate of the capital and the contact with the Berlin Secession and French Impressionism , whose works were regularly shown in Berlin exhibitions Promised inspiration for his art. In 1903 he married the actress Tilla Durieux ; The marriage was divorced by mutual consent in 1905 after Durieux fell in love with the Berlin art dealer Paul Cassirer . Spiro has portrayed his first wife several times. In 1906 he became a member of the Berlin Secession (until 1933).

In the same year he moved to Paris, but without neglecting his exhibition activities in Germany. He continued to have a studio in Berlin and took portraits. In France, Spiro found a connection to the circle of painters at the “ Café du Dôme ”. The friendship established in Paris with Hans Purrmann would last for many years. Spiro taught at the "Académie Moderne", a training facility associated with the artist group Nabis , and exhibited several times in the Salon d'Automne, founded in 1903 . In 1911 he was appointed "Officier de l'Académie des Beaux-Arts".


Memorial plaque , Reichsstrasse 106, in Berlin-Westend

The outbreak of war in 1914 and the associated hostility towards Germans prompted Spiro to return to Berlin. From 1915 to 1917 he worked as a draftsman in the "Cartographic Department of the General Staff of the Army", where Hans Meid and Joseph Oppenheimer , among others, were his colleagues. At the same time he continued his work as a painter, especially as a portraitist. After the war he also worked as a teacher in his own studio and at the Lewin-Funcke School. Egbert Lammers and the French Marcelle Cahn (1895–1981), later protagonist of cubist and constructivist art, who attended the Berlin painting classes of Eugen Spiro and Lovis Corinth from 1915 to 1918, were among his students .

In 1915 Spiro was elected to the board of directors of the Berlin Secession, initially as treasurer and in the following years until 1933 as a full board member. He continued his regular participation in the "Great Berlin Art Exhibitions", which had already begun in 1907, until 1931. In 1924 he became a member of the purchasing committee of the Nationalgalerie Berlin . In the same year he was appointed professor at the State Art School in Berlin. In 1917 Spiro married Elisabeth Saenger-Sethe for the second time. The marriage resulted in a son, Peter Spiro, born in Berlin in 1918. In the years between 1918 and 1935, the couple traveled a lot, to Northern Italy ( Lake Maggiore ), Paris, southern France ( Cassis ), Corsica , Spain (Tossa del Mar), Portugal , Morocco and Dalmatia . There were also trips to Lake Constance to the family of his painter friend Hans Purrmann, and frequent summer stays at Hiddensee , where Spiro had a summer house built by the family-related architect Otto Firle (1889–1966). There the Spiros also maintained contact with Gerhart Hauptmann. In 1921, at the suggestion of the art critic Julius Meier-Graefe, who was friends with Spiro, the Marées Society financed a trip to Italy so that Spiro could create true-to-original copies of the Roman frescoes in the Vatican and Naples for a portfolio . Much sought-after portraitist of the social, economic and artistic elite, himself a cosmopolitan bon vivant, Spiro found himself at the height of his career in material terms in Berlin in the “golden twenties”.

At the beginning of the thirties, the rise of National Socialism began to cast its first shadow over Spiro's life. Although he was re-elected to the board of directors of the Berlin Secession in 1933, Spiro resigned all offices on the advice of his wife so as not to offer a target for possible anti-Semitic attacks. Until 1935, he was able to circumvent the exhibition ban that hit him as a Jewish artist and not a member of the Reich Chamber of Culture through exhibitions abroad.


In October 1935, Spiro decided to emigrate to Paris. The generous support of the politician and later High Commissioner André François-Poncet and the Baroness Maria-Anna von Goldschmidt-Rothschild helped him to overcome legal and material hurdles . In Paris, Spiro tried to build on his earlier relationships and establish himself as a portrait painter for social and intellectual celebrities. In 1936 he spent a happy summer in Sanary-sur-Mer , from 1933 to 1939 the meeting place for intellectuals who had emigrated from Germany. However, the Parisian years remained a precarious time, marked by political uncertainty and cramped economic conditions.

In 1936 Spiro took part in the founding of the "union des artistes libres", an association of emigrated German-speaking artists that emerged from the "Association of Free German Artists". In 1938/1939 he took over their chairmanship. Members were u. a. Max Beckmann , George Grosz , Wassily Kandinsky , Paul Klee , Oskar Kokoschka (Honorary Chair), Bruno Krauskopf, Anton Räderscheidt , Gert Heinrich Wollheim , Wols u. a. The aim was to present the German art expelled from Germany in its stylistic diversity and to provide a presentation forum for the artists who had been silenced by the National Socialists abroad.

Spiro also organized, together with Paul Westheim, in Paris in 1938 a large show of artists ostracized in Germany as a direct response to the 1938 propaganda exhibition “ Degenerate Art ” shown by the National Socialists . In Paris Spiro became a member of the "Ligue International contre l'Antisemitisme" founded in 1928.

The German invasion of 1940 forced the Spiro couple to flee again. The Gestapo had put Eugen Spiro on the list of exiles to be arrested after the invasion of Paris because of his humanitarian and liberal commitment. Eugen Spiro fled with his wife, his new partner Lilly Jacob and their parents-in-law Samuel Saenger and Irmgard Saenger-Sethe via Biarritz to Marseille, where together with André Breton , Hans Bellmer and Tristan Tzara he received material support and protection from internment in Varian Fry's villa Bel-Air found. It was also thanks to the efforts of the Emergency Rescue Committee around Varian Fry and the advocacy of patrons, including Thomas Mann , with President Franklin D. Roosevelt that Spiro, Lilly Jacoby, Elisabeth Spiro and their parents received exit visas via Lisbon for the USA , although the admission quota for German refugees had long been exhausted. In 1940 Spiro received financial support and a guarantee from the master builder Ernst Moritz Schlesinger, who also emigrated from Germany. Schlesinger himself built the Mann family's house in Pacific Palisades in 1941/42 .

new York

In the spring of 1941 the Spiro family arrived in New York , where Spiro took up residence for the rest of his life. In the following years he created numerous portraits, especially of prominent European emigrants, as he kept in close contact with the German-speaking exile circles and supported immigrants in need. In 1941, the marriage between Eugen and Elisabeth Spiro was divorced, which had come to an end in 1937, as Elisabeth Spiro had found a new partner in Joseph (José) Chapiro, a Jewish publicist, theater man, politician and long-time confidante of Gerhart Hauptmann . Eugen Spiro married Lilly Jacobi (d. 1989) for the third time in 1941, whom he met in 1937 in exile in Paris and who accompanied him to America. The relationship between Eugen Spiro, Elisabeth Spiro (Chapiro, who had been married since 1944) and Lilly Jacoby remained friendly until the artist's life.

The St. Etienne Gallery in New York has organized seven solo exhibitions for Eugen Spiro since 1943, and he also exhibited regularly at the Salmagundi Art Club in New York. From 1949 Spiro held a teaching position at the Wayman Adams Summer School "The Mill" in Elizabethtown, New York State, and in 1954 he took over its management. In the 1950s he also taught portraiture at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire .

In the fifties Eugen Spiro was gradually rediscovered in his former home country Germany. Important steps towards this were a portrait commission given by Theodor Heuss in 1954, the award of the Federal Cross of Merit in 1964 and the large retrospective exhibition in Berlin from 1969. From 1954 to 1967, Spiro continued the tradition of summer painting trips, which was interrupted by the war, which included Northern Italy and Denmark and Switzerland as their destination and visited friends and relatives in France , England and Germany . His last oil painting is dated 1967. Eugen Spiro died on September 26, 1972 in a New York hospital.


1892–1906 Breslau, Munich, Berlin

In the early years, Spiro first made a name for himself as a portraitist. The pictures before the turn of the century still show a subdued coloring in black-brown-gray tones. The fin-de-siècle influence on the stucco pupil is palpable in the two-dimensional layout, the careful application of paint and the slightly melancholy, worldly mood. Favorite subjects were elegant society ladies; Spiro was to remain an admirer of woman's beauty until the end of his life. One of the main works of these years is the painting "Serpentine" or "The Dancer", a portrait of his sister Baladine Klossowski from 1901 (CR A-01-02); published as the title page of “Jugend”, shown at the world exhibition in St. Louis in 1904, today owned by the Berlinische Galerie . The painting can be ascribed to an almost iconic character for the aestheticism of the turn of the century. This also applies to his contribution to the first exhibition of the German Association of Artists in Munich in the same year: the oil painting The Sisters . Some portraits of Spiro's first wife, Tilla Durieux , also date from this period, capturing her capricious, austere beauty.

1906–1914 Paris, Berlin

In Paris Spiro frequented the circle of painters of the “ Café du Dôme ” and taught at the “Académie Matisse” founded by Henri Matisse . Under the influence of French Impressionism and Fauvism , his painting style changed. Eugen Spiro himself described this change under the impression of a Manet exhibition: “In Paris, studying the great artists of the 19th century - Manet , Monet , Cézanne, Renoir - refreshed and cleansed my eyes.” (Eugen Spiro: Looking at myself. Words on the occasion of the exhibition at the St. Etienne Gallery, New York, 1960). The color palette became richer and brighter, the brushstroke more impulsive and dynamic, the application of paint flaky. Again, the focus was on portraits, especially of women in high society. In addition, portraits were created from the family circle, such as his nephews Pierre Klossowski and Balthasar Klossowski (WVZ A-11-1), his sister Baladine (A-09-04) and of Madeleine (WZV A-13-4), an unknown Parisian, who was probably his partner for some time. The graceful portraits of children of their own relatives or friends (including the later actor Walter Slezak ) formed a new group of motifs .

1914–1935 Berlin

The return to Berlin meant more of a biographical than a stylistic turning point. Spiro continued his work as a portraitist for society, who appreciated the delicate elegance of his color palette and his psychological finesse. Those portrayed included: the actor Albert Bassermann , Lovis Corinth , the zeppelin manufacturer Hugo Eckener , the chemist and Nobel Prize winner Fritz Haber (like Spiro Breslauer Jude), the actor Ludwig Hardt , the church historian Adolf von Harnack , Gerhart Hauptmann , the publisher Georg Hirth , Erich Kleiber , Max Planck , Leni Riefenstahl , the actress Dagny Servaes and the writers Ernst Toller and Jakob Wassermann . Under the influence of his numerous travels since the 1920s, Spiro turned to landscape painting. His motifs almost always come from southern Europe and show places he has traveled. He was fascinated by the bright colors and the clarity of the south, which he reproduces with flaky paint.

Finally, there are the intimate family portraits in which he captured his second wife Elisabeth and his adolescent son Peter. Perhaps inspired by his work as a draftsman in the "Cartographic Institute", Spiro found graphics in the early 1920s. The first was the commissioned portfolio “Antique Fresken” from 1922 based on watercolors by Eugen Spiro. The impressions of a trip to Spain were reflected in the “Spanish Trip”, a series of twelve etchings. The creation of 37 lithographs dates back to 1916 , in which Spiro portrayed famous musicians during their concert appearance. In 1922 an expanded version was published under the title "In Concert" with a text by the music writer Oscar Bie (1866-1923).

As a curiosity, it should be noted that, thanks to its growing popularity, Spiro was also commissioned to design advertising posters in the 1920s. A poster design for Henkell-Trocken from 1925 (WVZ A-25-2), commissioned by Joachim von Ribbentrop , former sales director at Henkell-Trocken and son-in-law Otto Henkell , a poster design for Siemens vacuum cleaners (WZV A- 27-12) as well as a graphic cycle in connection with the ceremony in 1928 for the centenary of the Reclam publishing house . The lithograph “Thomas Mann at the lectern”, signed by Spiro and Thomas Mann , served as the title page and insert for the later book editions of the speech (supplemented by the article “Lübeck as a spiritual way of life”), which significantly increased Thomas Mann's popularity as a representative of national culture.

1936–1972 Paris, New York, New Hampshire

In Paris he created sophisticated portraits of women in society, as well as still lifes, landscapes and cityscapes. In his new American homeland, Spiro again took on portraits, including portraits of Leo Baeck , the exiled politician and former Chancellor Heinrich Brüning . Martin Buber , Albert Einstein , Georg Friedländer, Thomas Mann , the art writer Max Osborn , the pianist Artur Schnabel , the North Pole traveler Vilhjálmur Stefánsson . Impressed by the idyllic, light-flooded landscapes of New Hampshire , Spiro continued his landscape painting. Spiro always looked for the ideal viewer position for his landscapes. The oil paintings, in later years also carefully worked out watercolors and red chalk drawings as study sheets or independent works, were created directly on site.

On his trips to Europe, which he resumed in 1954, Spiro also created landscape paintings, mostly in small formats. They mainly show landscapes from northern Italy, Switzerland and southern Germany. In 1958 a fifteen-part cycle of paintings was commissioned by the Baptist Millmead Center in Guildford, England, depicting the prophets of the Old Testament (according to Jewish counts). The second cycle of musicians' lithographs dates from 1946 to 1952 , this time mainly showing European artists who had fled Central Europe or wanted to start their international careers with performances in the USA, such as Ezio Pinza , Friedrich Gulda and Dietrich Fischer- Dieskau .

Family, friends, patrons

The Spiro family

Through relatives and acquaintances, Eugen Spiro had contact with a striking number of representatives of the intellectual and political prominence of his time. The musical atmosphere in his father's house certainly contributed to the fact that three of his siblings later distinguished themselves in musical and literary life. Spiro's older brother Samuel Spiro embarked on a career as an opera singer, which ended abruptly in 1914 with his untimely death. The brother Hermann Spiro emigrated to Copenhagen , where he was engaged as a tenor at the opera and also worked as a singing teacher and actor. Hermann's son, Björn Spiro (1909–1999) became a film actor. Eugen Spiros older sister Bertha, married to Adolf Schor, became mother-in-law of the Austro-English rabbi and reform theologian Ignaz Maybaum (1897–1976) through the marriage of her daughter Frances .

Spiro's younger sister, Elisabeth Dorothea Spiro (1889–1969), moved to Paris after she married the painter and art historian Erich Klossowski (1875–1949). The couple's firstborn son, Pierre Klossowski , made a name for himself in France as an essayist, philosopher and art theorist. The second son, Balthasar Klossowski, later achieved world fame as a painter under the name Balthus . Separated from her husband in 1917, Elisabeth Spiro began her own career as a painter under the name Baladine Klossowska. She became known to posterity through her friendship with Rainer Maria Rilke , whom she had met in 1919. An exchange of letters between Rilke and “Merline”, as he called Klossowska at their suggestion, and the loving encouragement he gave to their two children, testify to the intensity of the poet's last love affair. From 1921 to 1924 Elisabeth Dorothea lived with her two sons in Berlin , where the two Spiro families frequented each other. Eugen Spiro painted Pierre and Balthasar several times as children and when they were young. During Eugen Spiro's second stay in Paris, the Klossowski brothers introduced the painter to the surrealist circles around André Breton , André Masson and Georges Bataille . Eugen Spiro's only child, Peter Spiro (1918–2018) went to London via Switzerland in 1933 , where he worked as an engineer. Eugen Spiro's granddaughter Elizabeth is a freelance painter and graphic artist with regular exhibitions.

The Saenger-Sethe family

Thanks to his marriage to Elisabeth Saenger-Sethe (1898–1990), Spiro had married into a "family of the upper ten thousand". The extroverted artist and his urbane wife ran a hospitable house in Berlin and took an active part in the social life of the Roaring Twenties. The lawyer Christian Sethe (1798–1857), a close childhood friend of Heinrich Heine, was one of the members of the established Rhineland-Belgian family Sethe . The “Fresco Sonnets to Christian S.” in the Book of Songs (1819) are dedicated to him. The Sethe family was connected to the biologist Ernst Haeckel and the Art Nouveau artist Henry van de Velde through the marriages of their daughters . Elisabeth's mother, Irmgard Saenger-Sethe, student of Eugène Isaye, was a celebrated violinist in the years before the First World War ; her portrait by Théo van Rysselberghe hangs in the “Petit Palais” in Geneva .

Elisabeth's father was the Jewish scholar Samuel Saenger (1864–1944), born in Saagar near Riga , an "outstanding journalist", high school teacher, employee of various Berlin magazines, together with Oskar Bie and Robert Musil editor of the Neue Rundschau of S. Fischer Verlag , since 1920 German ambassador in the newly founded Czechoslovakia .

Elisabeth's younger sister Magdalena (1907–1991), concert pianist, was first married to the architect Otto Firle (1889–1966). After emigrating to the USA in 1934 and her second marriage, she was responsible for the musical equipment of numerous films under the name Lela Sorell as music director at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (including An American in Paris , Singin 'in the Rain , Show Boat , The Wizard of Oz ).

Painting colleagues, musician friends

Spiro had already maintained contact with numerous artists during his student days. In Paris he moved around Oskar Moll , Albert Weisgerber , Hans Purrmann , Rudolf Levy and Jules Pascin as well as Wilhelm Uhde , the Parisian gallery owner, art writer and supporter of Picasso and Henri Rousseau . A close collaboration or friendship linked him in Berlin with his secession colleagues Lovis Corinth , Leo von König , Franz Heckendorf and Joszef Báto. His work in the "union des artistes libres" during his exile in Paris brought Spiro into contact with emigrated German-speaking artists such as Oskar Kokoschka , whom he helped out of financial embarrassment.

The intellectually open-minded Spiro was also interested in literature and drama. During his time in Munich he frequented the Schwabinger Salons, where he met Fanny zu Reventlow , Josef Ruederer and Frank Wedekind . The friendship with Gerhart Hauptmann was mediated thanks to the acquaintance of Irmgard Saenger-Setes with Margarete Hauptmann, the writer's second wife and former violinist. Eugen Spiro met the poet Rainer Maria Rilke through his sister Baladine Klossowska. Although Spiro created a posthumous drawing of the poet, the relationship remained superficial as Spiro distanced himself from Rilke, whom he suspected of anti-Semitism. Spiro was in correspondence with Thomas Mann and Fritz von Unruh.

Spiro had an even closer relationship with artists of classical music, as he himself had a not insignificant musical talent. With the couple Artur and Therese Schnabel, the violinist Carl Flesch , the violinist Adolf Busch , the conductors Fritz Busch and Fritz Stiedry, he was friends for decades. Spiro found a lifelong patron and sponsor in the Berlin steel industrialist, art patron and philanthropist Hermann C. Starck.

Solo exhibitions (selection)

Works owned by museums and public institutions

Museums (selection)

Collections and public institutions (selection)


  • Abercron, Wilko by: Eugen Spiro. Mirror of his century. Monograph and catalog raisonné, Alsbach 1990.
  • Buhrs, Michael (Ed.): The Secession is a worldview! The Munich Secession 1892–1914. Catalog for the exhibition in the Vienna Belvedere and in the Villa Stuck Munich 2009, Munich 2008.
  • Gautherie-Kampka, Annette: Café du Dôme. German painters in Paris, 1903–1914, Bremen 1996.
  • Gautherie-Kampka, Annette: Eugen Spiro. A painter apart from isms, in: Weltkunst May 2003, issue No. 5.
  • Heilmann, Angela: The Munich Academy around 1900. Franz von Stuck and his students. Catalog for the exhibition at Museum Langenargen, Langenargen 2014
  • Hengstenberg, Thomas (ed.): Before the war, on the run, after the peace: German artists in exile. Works from the "Memoria Thomas B. Schumann" collection, catalog for the exhibition in Cappenberg Castle (Unna district), 2012
  • Hupka, Herbert: Eugen Spiro returned to Breslau, in: Schlesische Nachrichten, 22/2002, pp. 13-14.
  • Jaffa, Alisa: Eugen Spiro. A Retrospective, London 2004.
  • Łagiewski, Maciej : Eugen Spiro (Wrocław 1874 - Nowy Jork 1972), catalog for the exhibition in the * Historical Museum and in the City Hall of Breslau, Wrocław 2002.
  • Liebrecht, Vera: Eugen Spiro. Life and work, dissertation at the TH Aachen 1987.
  • Ludwig, Horst: Franz von Stuck and his students, Munich 1989.
  • Richter, Klaus: Eugen Spiro: Portraits of Musicians (1915–1953), in: Great actors around Max Reinhardt. Exhibition at the Kunstamt am Tiergarten, Berlin 1979.
  • Scheyer, Ernst: Eugen Spiro and Clara Sachs. Contributions to modern Silesian art history, Munich 1977.
  • Spiro, Eugen: Retrospective. Paintings, watercolors, drawings, prints. On the occasion of an exhibition at the Galerie von Abercron 1978, Cologne / Munich 1978.
  • Spiro, Peter: Only we are not back. Memories of my father Eugen Spiro, my cousins Balthus and Pierre Klossowski , the twenties and exile. With autobiographical texts by Eugen Spiro and an afterword by Hartmut Zelinsky, EditionMemoria, Hürth 2010, ISBN 978-3-930353-29-3 .
  • Unger, Thorsten: Ernst Toller by Eugen Spiro, in: Dichterbilder, Stuttgart 2003.
  • Before the war, on the run, after the peace. German artists in exile. Works from the "Memoria Thomas B. Schumann" collection, Cappenberg Castle , May 20 - September 16, 2012, exhibition catalog, Bönen 2012.
  • Wirth, Irmgard: Eugen Spiro. A cross-section through the painterly and graphic work, Berlin 1969.

Web links

Commons : Eugene Spiro  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. according to other sources already died in 1900, see Till van Rahden: Juden und other Breslauer (= critical studies on historical science . Volume 139). Göttingen 2000, p. 162
  2. Hermann Barnstorff: Gerhart Hauptmann, Ein Lebensabriss. Monthly notebooks for German teaching, 1937
  3. See the descriptions in: Tilla Durieux. My first ninety years, Munich / Berlin, 1979, 5th edition, pp. 67 f., 80 ff.
  4. on the stays on Hiddensee cf. Peter Spiro: Only we are not back, Cologne 2010, pp. Ff.
  5. Marie-Anna, called Baby, Goldschmidt-Rothschild (1892-1973), née Friedländer-Fuld, first married to John Mitford, second to the diplomat Richard von Kühlmann and third to Baron Rudolph von Goldschmidt-Rothschild
  6. ^ Jean-Michel Palmier: Weimar in Exile. The antifascist emigration in Europe and America, London / New York, 2006, p. 217
  7. Martin Schieder: In the view of the other: the Franco-German art relations 1945–1959, Berlin 2005, p. 167.
  8. ^ Sheila Eisenberg: A hero of Our Own. The Story of Varian Fry, New York, 2001, p. 130
  9. ^ Francis Nenik / Sebastian Stumpf: Seven Palms. The Thomas Mann House in Pacific Palisades, Los Angeles . Spector Books, Leipzig 2018, ISBN 978-3-95905-180-4 , pp. 103-104, 150-151 .
  10. Berlinische Galerie ( Memento of September 17, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 328 kB),, accessed on July 21, 2011
  11. ^ Exhibition catalog X. Exhibition of the Munich Secession: The German Association of Artists (in connection with an exhibition of exquisite products of the arts in the craft) , Verlaganstalt F. Bruckmann, Munich 1904 (p. 30: Spiro, Eugen, Breslau. Fig. 7: The sisters . )
  12. s. also the monthly magazine Die Kunst , ninth volume (p. 475) on Eugen Spiro: Die Schwestern (digitized version; accessed on March 13, 2016)
  13. so Peter Spiro: in: Eugen Spiro, German Impressionist Painter, published in Sheffield Art Review 1998
  14. Friedrich Lotter: Rabbi Ignaz Maybaum, Life and Teaching. The Basics of Jewish Diaspora Existence, Volume 15 of From Religion and Law, 2010
  15. published as: Rainer Maria Rilke, Baladine Klossowska, Correspondence 1920–1926, Zurich, 1954
  16. Peter Spiro obituary - Der Tagesspiegel Berlin, February 25, 2018
  17. ^ Obituaries - Der Tagesspiegel Berlin, March 3, 2018
  18. ^ Wilko von Abercron: Eugen Spiro. Mirror of his century, Alsbach 1990, p. 39
  19. A biography and appreciation of the violinist Saenger-Sethe can be found under Archived Copy ( Memento of the original from December 17, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  20. ^ Karl Kraus in: 'Der Weltspiegel, February 1918
  21. cf. a conversation between Peter Spiro and the Starck Foundation 2004 at: