|General information about the mine|
|Mining technology||Underground mining|
|Funding / year||Max. = 1,977,200 t|
|Information about the mining company|
|Employees||up to 6653|
|Start of operation||1854|
|End of operation||1983|
|Funded raw materials|
|Degradation of||Hard coal|
|country||State of North Rhine-Westphalia|
The Anna pit was a hard coal mine of the Eschweiler Bergwerk-Verein (EBV) in Alsdorf in the North Rhine-Westphalian city region of Aachen in the Aachen district . For many years the mine was the largest mine in the Aachen district.
Pit field and geology
The pit field of the Anna pit was in the worm trough. The mine field had a size of 14.9 km 2 . The worm trough was created in the course of the Variscan mountain formation through folds . The carbon here reaches a thickness of 1500 to 2100 meters. The share of the seam thickness is about four percent. The number of seams over 0.15 meters is about 40 to 50 pieces.
The pit Anna and the heaps of Anna-I, -II and -Noppenberg are a known location with a large variety of minerals or their varieties , either as accompanying minerals in the coal seams or mineral formations by heap fires developed. So far (as of 2013) around 60 minerals from all mineral classes have been discovered here. Well-known minerals from this site include:
- Elements sulfur , selenium
- Sulphides chalcopyrite , galena , marcasite , millerite , pyrite , siegenite , sphalerite
- Halides Barberiit , Kremersit , Kryptohalit , Rosenbergit , ammonium chloride , Thermessait
- Oxides or hydroxides hematite , lithargite , quartz
- Carbonates Calcite , Dolomite , Siderite
- Borate Sassolin
- Sulfate Adranosit- (Fe) , alum , Aluminopyracmonit , Alunogen , Ammoniojarosit , Ammonioalunit , anhydrite , barite , Bassanite , Boussingaultite , Clairit , Copiapit , gypsum , Godovikovit , Görgeyit , Halotrichit , hexahydrite , Khademit , Lannonit , Letovicite , Mascagnin , Melanterite , Metavoltin , Millosevichit , Pickeringit , Pyracmonite , Rostit , Sabieit , sericite , Sideronatrite , Tamarugit , Tschermigite , Voltait
- Phosphates, arsenates or vanadates Annabergit
- Silicates Dickit
- Organic compounds ravatite
As early as the middle of the 19th century, due to the increased demand for hard coal in the eastern worm hollow, northeast of the so-called Feldbite disorder, the first prospecting was carried out . Three drilling companies competed against each other. The two young Steiger Wilhelm Sassenberg and Eduard Honigmann carried out the first drillings east of the Feldbite in the early 1840s. In addition, the Vereinigungsgesellschaft and the Eschweiler Mining Association appeared as competitors to Honigmann and his partner. The owner of the association, the government councilor Theodor Jacob Brendt, managed to poach the partner from Honigmann. Honigmann looked for new partners and together with them founded the company Bölling, Honigmann and Schoeller. However, these first wells failed and only the further wells brought the desired success. At a depth of 43 meters, the first seam worthy of construction was encountered in Hoengen and near Alsdorf at 85 meters . In 1848 the mining authority granted the concessions for the Anna and Maria mine fields . The Maria field with a size of 1.74 km 2 was given to Honigmann and his partners, the Anna field with a size of 14.9 km 2 was given to the association. Only a few days later, on July 12 of the same year, the company was granted the right to operate a hard coal mine. The shareholders gave the new mine to be built the name "Anna".
The construction of the mine
In 1850, the sinking work for the first shaft began on Anna . The shaft was named Hermannschacht, the sinking work was carried out under the direction of Obersteigers Wilhelm Sassenberg. Due to the geologically problematic overburden , the shaft was created using the blind drilling method. For the shaft lining came tubbing used. During the sinking work, floating sand ingress occurred several times , so that a second and later a third tubbing column had to be installed. As a result of these measures, the shaft diameter was reduced from 3.1 meters to 2.4 meters. In order to raise the resulting mine water, a 40 was PS strong steam engine installed. The machine was a combined drainage and haulage machine . The carrier became the rope supporting a conveyor drum . The steam to operate the machine was generated in a boiler house by means of three boilers.
The first years of operation
The first fatty coal was mined there in 1854. The coals were first brought to the surface by means of conveyor buckets on conveyor frames . In this way, between two and 2.25 tons of raw coal could be extracted per bucket. In its concession, the mining authority had made a double shaft system a condition for operating the mine. However, due to the narrowing of the shaft cross-section, this was no longer possible with the Hermann shaft. For this reason they were forced to dig a second shaft. Josef shaft on the site of Anna I has now been recognized . The distance to the Hermannschacht was around 65 meters. Due to the problematic overburden, shaft 2 was also expanded with segments. The diameter of the shaft was 2.06 meters. To the resulting mine water to lift a 250 was PS strong dewatering machine installed and put into operation in 1855. After only six months, shaft 2 was penetrated at a depth of 150 meters with the first level . In 1862 a coking plant was put into operation at the mine . On October 10, 1863, the EBV took over the mine and expanded it in the following years. Due to the increasing sales of fatty coal, the EBV decided to build a second production site. This production site was named Anna II. In 1865, the construction of a second production site began. For this purpose, the daytime facilities were built and the first machines installed. In 1868 a new dewatering machine with an 18 inch pump was put into operation. In addition, a breakthrough was created above the 73 Lachter level between the Wilhelmschacht and the mine workings of the old shaft.
The further expansion of the mine
In 1869, the sinking work for the Franzschacht began on the Anna I site. The shaft was set up at a distance of 40 laughs north of the Annaschacht. The shaft was sunk 70 feet in floating mountains. In the following year, the Anna mine regularly delivered a significant amount of coal to the factories in Stolberg and Eschweiler. The reason for this was that the mines in the Inde district could not extract sufficient quantities to meet the needs of the factories. The EBV had the Anna mine further expanded from 1870 onwards. The aim of these expansion measures was that the mine could take over the entire funding of the EBV. In 1871 the mine was connected to the Rhenish Railway to Stolberg station. From 1872 this railway not only transported coal, but also people. In 1875 the mine was connected to the Aachen industrial railway, which enabled the mine to have a direct and cheaper connection with Aachen's industrial companies. In 1878 a coal washing plant was built on Anna I. In 1881 the Wilhelmschacht reached a depth of 251 meters. In 1885 the Franzschacht was opened for rope travel . During the year, further alignment work and installation work were carried out underground on the 153, 192, 245 and 252 meter level. Starting from the Franzschacht, the main conveying route in seam A 1 was connected via a 147 meter long cross passage. On the 245 meter level, the main cross passage to the north reached a drive length of 2560 meters this year. The suspension railway for transporting the coal dust to the coking coal towers was completed above ground.
In 1901 a delivery contract was signed with the Röchling works in Saarland. The contract was limited to ten years and guaranteed the mine sales of 250,000 tons of coke per year. In 1903 the first battery of the new Anna coking plant was put into operation. Due to further contracts with the iron industry in Saarland, Lorraine and Luxembourg, coke production had to be increased. In 1904, the sinking work for the Eduardschacht began on the Anna II construction site. The shaft was named after the chairman of the supervisory board, Eduard von Oppenheim. The shaft was initially sunk to the 225 meter level. In 1907, the first electrically powered hoisting machine was put into operation on the Eduardschacht . In 1911 a second coking plant was completed. The two coking plants were close to one another, but were operated separately from one another. A total of 402 ovens were operated in seven batteries, as well as auxiliary production facilities for benzene and ammonia . The coke oven gas produced during the coking process was converted into electricity by means of generators in nine gas turbines in its own gas machine center. The generators generated nine megawatts of electricity. The coking plant was one of the largest in Europe at the time. In the same year, the second electric hoisting machine was put into operation at the Eduardschacht. On November 29, 1917, a benzene-powered mine locomotive caught fire underground. As a result, 800 m of wooden track extension were set on fire. The fire was further fanned by the draft from the ventilation. 58 miners, including 17 Russian prisoners of war, died immediately in this mining accident. The number of pals who later died of their injuries and burns is estimated at 60. In 1921, the sinking work for the main shaft began on Anna I. The shaft was created using the freezing process . In 1922 the hoisting machine house for the main Anna I shaft was built. In 1923 the main shaft reached the main floor at a depth of 360 meters. In 1925 work began on building a truck entrance on Anna I in the area of what is now Bahnhofstrasse. From 1927, work began on building a gas transmission system at the Anna coking plant. The surplus coke oven gas should be delivered to the cities in the vicinity. In 1930 the lorry entrance to Anna I was completed. In the middle of the construction phase of the mine, one of the most serious mining accidents in the coal industry occurred in 1930 .
The mining accident and the consequences
On October 21, 1930 at 7:29 a.m. on the Anna II shaft, the worst mining accident in the mining history of the Aachen district occurred. 271 miners were killed immediately, another 28 later died of their injuries. A total of 299 miners were killed, including one woman .; 304 people were injured, some of whom were seriously injured. Many miners were not killed immediately in the explosion, but rather from the plumes of fire . According to official reports, 34 to 35 people were also missing. The firedamp explosion occurred in the area of the Eduardschachtes (Anna II). At 7:29 am, beating weather ignited on the 360 meter level . The subsequent firedamp explosion was so powerful that it caused the earth to shake and the tremors could be felt for days . A little later, a flame several meters high shot out of the Edward shaft. The effect of the explosion was so violent that the winding tower was torn from the concrete foundations and overturned. When it fell, the headframe fell on the chew and administration building and smashed it. Residential buildings in the surrounding miners' settlement were damaged by the pressure of the detonation. Underground were on the soles of the main weather roads damaged. At the Füllörtern also extensive damage caused by the explosion. Fractures up to 300 meters long had occurred on the 360 meter floor in particular. The exact cause of this mining accident could never be clarified. The investigation showed that no accumulations of firedamp had been noticed at the site of the accident.
About 150,000 people attended the funeral and memorial service on October 25th. In memory of the dead, the Alsdorf miner's cross was erected in the Eifel .
The further operation
The gas transmission system was completed in 1931. In the same year, the winding machine on Anna II received a mechanically driven depth indicator and the work station was retrofitted with a seat for the winding machine operator . In 1935 the eastern carrier building was erected on Anna I. During the Second World War, the mine was largely spared from bomber attacks. However, the mine was hit by several shell impacts. The boiler house was damaged by a hit, which led to an interruption in power generation. In addition, the dewatering was interrupted. This ultimately led to the 610 meter level being about 15 meters under water . However, the operation was continued with an emergency workforce. In 1944 the Nazi regime issued an order to destroy all industrial plants so that they could not fall into enemy hands. In August of the same year the mine directors of the Aachen district passed the resolution at a meeting to keep the mines under all circumstances. The mine director of the Anna mine, Günther Venn, was arrested by a command from the armaments inspection of the NSDAP, but released shortly afterwards due to an advocacy of the district leadership. In order not to come back into custody, he then shut down two insignificant turbines. On October 7th of the same year, the Anna mine was occupied by American troops. On January 21, 1945 Anna suffered another accident. 21 miners lost their lives in an explosion of obsolete explosives . After the end of the Second World War, the mine soon resumed operations. In 1951, the two facilities Anna I and Anna II began to be merged to form a composite mine.
In 1952, a 70 meter high concrete headframe was erected over the Franzschacht. The association of Anna I and Anna II had already been completed in 1953, making the Anna mine the largest mine in the worm area. After the Verbund, from 1954 onwards, all coal was extracted via the Franzschacht as a central extraction shaft. The coal extracted was processed in the coal washing facility at the Anna I site. Anna II's coal washing plant was used by the Emil Mayrisch mine. From this point on, the Eduardschacht was only used for the cable car. Besides the Carl Alexander mine, Anna was also the only mine in the Aachen district where coke was still produced after the end of the Second World War. The Carolus Magnus coking plants and the Reserve mine were not rebuilt after being destroyed during the war. In the following years the coking plant on Anna was modernized. First, the coking plant was equipped with 38 new coke ovens in 1954 and then in 1957 with a further 94 new ovens. In 1957, the crisis in the German coal industry also made itself felt at the Anna mine. Already towards the end of the 1950s, production stagnated at the Anna mine. In 1961 the truck entrance on Bahnhofstrasse was rebuilt. The old perforated stone of the mine was found during the construction work . The Anna mine received an extensive network of tracks for transport above ground. Over the years, several steam locomotives and later diesel locomotives were put into operation for shunting and haulage activities. Beginning in 1963, work began on the main, Eduard and Franz shafts to the new main excavation level. The bottom was at a depth of 860 meters, the sinking work was finished in 1968. In 1972 the Adolf mine was consolidated with the Anna mine . To the degraded in the building field Adolf coals by Adolf by Anna promote was ascended on the 860 m level a distance between the two mines.
The last few years until the shutdown
In the middle of the 1970s, the stockpiles of coal and coke on the factory premises of the Anna mine increased significantly. The reason for this increase was the sales crisis in the German hard coal mining industry. For this reason, the board of the EBV decided to take further rationalization measures. The two remaining mines Anna and Emil Mayrisch were to be merged into a composite mine. In 1979 work began on driving a connecting route between the two mines. This stretch was almost six kilometers long and was driven on the 860 meter level. In order to transport the coal from the Anna construction site to Emil Mayrisch, a conveyor belt was installed for coal mining. The mine has now been combined with the Emil Mayrisch mine. On December 31, 1983, the independent coal production on Anna was stopped. The coal mined in the Anna construction site was then extracted underground to Emil Mayrisch's production site. There the coals were brought to the surface and processed in Emil Mayrisch's coal washing plant. Anna's processing plants were then torn down. Anna only served as a driving and weather shaft . In the winter of 1985, large parts of the coal loading facility were demolished. At the beginning of 1987, a report was published which showed that expanding the mine in a northerly direction would be uneconomical. The reason for this was the small thickness of the seams there, as well as the massive geological faults . These geological difficulties made it impossible for the mine to operate competitively , despite considerable subsidies . On October 30, 1992, when the Emil Mayrisch composite mine was closed, operations on the Anna field were also ended. The day facilities on Anna II were demolished in the following years, with the exception of the administration building, the mooring, the hoisting machine building and the forge building.
Promotion and workforce
The first known production figures come from the year 1855, in that year 26,000 tons of hard coal were produced . In 1860 the production rose to 61,000 tons of hard coal. In 1863 there were 531 employees in the mine, the production in that year was 499,062 Prussian tons of hard coal. In 1865, 132,000 tons of hard coal were extracted. In 1870, the production was 149,000 tons of hard coal. In 1877, 160,000 tons of hard coal were extracted and the workforce was 670. In 1880 the production rose to 238,000 tons of hard coal. In 1890, the production was already 380,000 tons of hard coal. In 1895 451,000 tons of hard coal were mined. In 1900 the production was 632,000 tons of hard coal. In 1910, 953,200 tons of hard coal were extracted. After production had fallen to 751,600 tons in 1915 and to 648,000 tons in 1920, it rose again in 1925 to 915,000 tons. In 1945, the last year of the war, production fell to 234,700 tons of hard coal.
After the Second World War, the production rose again very soon and in 1953 reached a value of 6500 tons of hard coal per day. This performance was achieved with 6653 employees. In 1955 the production was 1,738,700 tons of hard coal. In 1960, 1,882,600 tons of hard coal were extracted. In 1965, production fell slightly to 1,749,500 tons of hard coal. In 1970, production fell again to 1,673,000 tonnes of hard coal. The maximum production of the mine was achieved in 1975, 1,977,200 tons of hard coal were produced. In 1980 production fell to 1,629,900 tons of hard coal. The last figures are from 1982, when 1,642,800 tons of hard coal were mined that year.
Successor use and current state
After the final closure of the Anna mine and the demolition of almost 130 buildings, the question of reuse of the mine area was faced. In 1994, the city of Alsdorf approved the urban development master plan Anna. In 1995, the state of North Rhine-Westphalia took over the site as the new owner. After the renovation of the site, Anna Park was set up on the site. The Anna Grube mining museum was to be set up on part of the Anna II site. The shunting locomotives were partly transported to the still existing EBV mines and used there. The former Anna 4 locomotive has been in operation at the Delmenhorst-Harpstedter-Eisenbahnfreunde (DHEF) near Bremen since 2001. There it transports the museum trains on the route between Harpstedt and Delmenhorst.
In the following years, the colliery site was converted into the new Annapark city quarter with new business, residential and commercial areas. Only the mining dumps , a headframe that was left standing as a monument and some of the factory buildings, some of which are listed, are reminiscent of Alsdorf's mining history . A large part of the former mine site is now home to leisure facilities (such as the central Annapark), residential areas as well as an industrial park and a shopping center. Social facilities such as a day-care center, a primary school and a facility at the Vinzenz-Heim, Aachen, were also established.
Alsdorf-Annapark train station
Alsdorf-Annapark was the final stop of the Euregiobahn from the direction of Herzogenrath from December 2005 to December 10, 2011 . The station on the Stolberg – Herzogenrath railway line was initially a single-track stop. It is barrier-free and equipped with glass shelters, ticket machines, guidance system for the blind and sanitary facilities. All Alsdorf bus lines that served the previous rendezvous point Alsdorf Denkmalplatz come together at the train station . A second track was completed by March 30, 2008. On December 11, 2011, Alsdorf-Annapark became a double-track station with the extension of the Euregiobahn to Alsdorf-Poststraße. The complete reconstruction of the line to Stolberg was realized in June 2016. Besides Alsdorf-Busch , it is the second station that was operational in Alsdorf. See also the list of train stations in the Aachen region .
As part of the Euregionale 2008, the buildings, the Eduardschacht hoisting machine house, the forge and the Kaue were converted. An event house was built in the historic hoisting machine building. The adventure museum opened on September 8, 2014.
- Michael Schumacher: Alsdorf and Anna . In: Bergbaumuseum Grube Anna eV (Ed.): Anna Glückauf reports-messages-messages. No. 26, Druck Holländer (Herzogenrath), Alsdorf May 2007, , pp. 4-20.
- Walter Buschmann : collieries and coking plants in the Rhenish coal industry, Aachen district and western Ruhr area. Gebr. Mann, Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-7861-1963-5 .
- Matthias Kaever: The social conditions in the coal mining of the Aachen and South Limburg districts . LIT Verlag Berlin, Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-8258-9310-3 , pp. 26-27.
- Mineralienatlas : Bergehalden Anna 1, Anna 2 and Anna-Noppenberg in Alsdorf and Mindat - Locality Anna Mine, Alsdorf, Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany (description of the location and list of minerals)
- Matthias Kaever: Non-renewable energy sources between Maas and Rur . 1st edition, LIT Münster, Münster 2004, ISBN 3-8258-7424-9 .
- Friedrich Ebbert: The hoisting machine house - Eduard shaft of the Anna II mine . In: Bergbaumuseum Grube Anna eV (Ed.): Anna Glückauf reports-messages-messages . No. 32, Alsdorf June 2010, , pp. 19-25.
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- R. Hocker: The big industry in Germany, its geography, history, production and statistics. First volume: The large-scale industry of Rhineland and Westphalia , Quandt & Handel, Leipzig 1867.
- Ministry of Commerce and Industry (ed.): Journal for the mountain, huts and saltworks in the Prussian state. Seventeenth volume, Ernst & Korn, Berlin 1871.
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- Ulrich Simons: The Forgotten Catastrophe , in the Aachener Nachrichten, November 25, 2017, S. ABCDE magazine.
- Friedrich Ebbert: The conveyor nacelle main shaft Anna I . In: Bergbaumuseum Grube Anna eV (Ed.): Anna Glückauf reports-messages-messages. No. 33, Druck Holländer (Herzogenrath), Alsdorf December 2010, , pp. 19-25.
- Karl-Peter Schröder: Lochstein Grube Anna . In: Bergbaumuseum Grube Anna eV (Ed.): Anna Glückauf reports-messages-messages. No. 33, Druck Holländer (Herzogenrath), Alsdorf December 2010, , pp. 28-29.
- Guido Block-Künzler: To Aachen and back - by bike around North Rhine-Westphalia. 2nd edition, Books on Demand GmbH, Norderstedt 2011, ISBN 978-3-8391-8933-7 .
- Philipp van Biesbrock: On the Alsdorfer mine accident of 1930: A correction of the list of fatal accidents . In: Bergbaumuseum Grube Anna eV (Ed.): Anna Glückauf reports-messages-messages . No. 25, Alsdorf November 2006, , pp. 37-39.
- Veronika Leisten: The fatally injured miners of the Alsdorf mines Anna and Maria . Ed .: Bergbaumuseum Grube Anna eV (= Glückauf . Special issue No. 4). June 2012, ISSN 1864-5526 , p. 12, 20 ( PDF [accessed October 27, 2017]).
- The mining accident of October 21, 1930 . In: Bergbaumuseum Grube Anna eV (Ed.): Anna Glückauf reports-messages-messages . Special issue 3, Alsdorf October 2010, , pp. 3–10.
- Pictures of the funeral procession ( Memento of the original from March 23, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. on Pauly-Alsdorf.de
- Klaus-Dietmar Henke: The American occupation of Germany. 2nd edition, R. Oldenbourg Verlag GmbH, Munich 1996, ISBN 3-486-56175-8 , pp. 422-424.
- Dieter Spillner: Only until next year. The end of the EBV steam locomotive is certain. In: Eisenbahn Journal, November 1991, , pp. 6-9.
- Ministry of Commerce and Industry (ed.): Journal for the mountain, huts and saltworks in the Prussian state. Twelfth volume, published by the royal and secret Ober-Hofdruckerei (R. Decker), Berlin 1864.
- Lots of tricks and loud music: Skate facility inaugurated in Annapark. , Article in AZ-Web from September 9, 2013.
- Delay on the Euregiobahn: Ring closure only in 2014 , Aachener Zeitung from December 16, 2012.
- ENERGETICON opening , Aachener Zeitung from September 6, 2014.
- nrw-urban.de: Anna-Park, Alsdorf (last accessed on November 5, 2013)
- Grube Anna, Alsdorf (last accessed on November 5, 2013)
- Anna Grube Bergbauinformationszentrum Alsdorf (last accessed on November 5, 2013)
- Historical photographs of the Anna mine and the Anna coking plant (last accessed on November 5, 2013)
- Veronika Leisten: In memory of the fatally injured miners of the Anna mine (accessed on November 7, 2013; PDF; 780 kB)