Langenstein (Upper Austria)
|coat of arms||Austria map|
|State :||Upper Austria|
|Political District :||Perg|
|License plate :||PE|
|Main town :||Gusen|
|Residents :||2,502 (January 1, 2020)|
|Postcodes :||4222, 4310, 4312|
|Area code :||07237|
|Community code :||4 11 09|
|Address of the
4222, 4310, 4312 Langenstein
|Mayor :||Christian Aufreiter ( SPÖ )|
Municipal Council : (2015)
|Location of Langenstein in the Perg district|
|Source: Municipal data from Statistics Austria|
Langenstein was right on the left bank of the Danube until the Danube was regulated in the middle of the 19th century . A large part of the villages of Langenstein and Gusen is still frequently hit by floods from the Danube.
Langenstein lies at an altitude of 250 m in the Mühlviertel. The extension is from north to south 4.3 km, from west to east 4.8 km. The total area is 12.5 km², 26.5% of the area is forested, 51.3% of the area is used for agriculture.
|St. Georgen an der Gusen||Ried in the Riedmark|
|Luftenberg on the Danube||Mauthausen|
|Enns ( district Linz-Land )|
Districts of the municipality
The municipality includes the following localities (population in brackets as of January 1, 2020):
- Frankenberg (173) (also part of the Gem. Ried ) including Hart and Kirchberg
- Gusen (798), main town
- Langenstein (1325) including Wienergraben
- Stacherlsiedlung (206), grown together with St. Georgen
The municipality of Langenstein is closely connected to the Danube river and is located at the intersection of important former north-south connections with the Danube region and the former Hauderer-Straße , which for centuries ran through the districts of Gusen or Frankenberg directly through the village of Langenstein. The municipal area is also in the heart of the heartland on the northern edge of the Danube, which has been shaped for thousands of years by the estuaries of the Traun , Enns and Gusen rivers with their ancient traffic routes from south to north.
More important than this separating element at the time of the Bavarian-Franconian conquest in the 8th and 9th centuries AD, however, is the prehistory and early history on the soil of today's municipality of Langenstein.
Prehistoric and Roman times
The municipality extends today from the banks of the Danube over extensive plains and alluvial forests into the first larger hills of the Bohemian Massif with their significant granite deposits , which penetrate into the lowlands of the Danube plain in several places, especially in the municipality of Langenstein. This special geology and location is expressed in the history of the municipality of Langenstein through prehistoric find horizons of supraregional importance and also a former granite industry of pan-European importance.
With the Berglitzl , one of the most important prehistoric sanctuaries of the entire Danube region is located on the soil of the municipality of Langenstein. The traces of human cult activities found there on a granite rock protruding far into the Danube landscape at that time encompass a period from the Stone Age to the Bronze Age to the early Middle Ages like hardly anywhere else . This extraordinary importance of the municipality of Langenstein for the civilizations of earlier millennia is underlined northwest of the village of Gusen by a grave field uncovered between 1941 and 1943 with about 200 Urnfield burials from the late Bronze Age .
According to the current state of research, it is assumed that the area around Langenstein and Gusen in prehistoric times formed the bridgehead for the former salt trade along the Traun to Northern Europe, which was particularly underpinned by the finds in Hallstatt , and that these cultures also have a connection with the There are excavations in Mitterkirchen about 15 km downstream and in the Latène-era fortifications on the nearby Luftenberg . So z. B. the ancient salt route from the north bank of the Danube to Bohemia from Gusen started in prehistoric times.
At the height of the formerly flood-proof slopes between Gusen and Langenstein, individual smaller groups of burials from the period between the Bronze Age and the early Middle Ages have been found time and again. Also on the ridge of the extensive Franconian mountain , plowed-out Hallstatt and Latène pottery shards give evidence of a distinct early settlement culture in the area of today's municipality of Langenstein.
The immediate vicinity of the municipality to the former Roman legionary camp Lauriacum and the associated Danube port of the Roman Danube fleet Classis Lauriacensis near Enghagen is remarkable. A final boundary adjustment between the Mühlviertel and Traunviertel took place in the municipality of Langenstein until 1 January 1997 after the municipality of Langenstein, after decades of efforts with the help of the Upper Austrian provincial government Schlossau with the ruin Spielberg by the municipality Enns incorporated could be. In return, properties belonging to the municipality of Langenstein in the Traunviertel were also assigned to the municipality of Enns. With this border adjustment, after more than 100 years, the border situation that had already been created by the regulation of the Danube in the middle of the 19th century was also implemented administratively and geographically.
Early middle ages
Not only the Spielberg ruins are reminiscent of the former border location of the municipality between east and west. Significant grave finds from early Carolingian times underscore that the area around Langenstein was a transition or border zone between Franconian-Bavarian and Slavic-Avar settlement zones as early as the early Middle Ages . The latter is probably also underlined by the curiosity that the hallway and courtyard shapes of the village of Langenstein still correspond to the type of the Waldviertel three-sided courtyard , while the Traunviertel quadrangular courtyard predominates in the districts of Gusen and Frankenberg further to the west . The name Frankenberg for the ridge dominating the northern part of the community with a former church building for St. Johannes Babtistae , which probably dates back to the 8th century , which was once built in the middle of a Celtic fortification, underlines this former settlement border, which is south the Danube found its continuation in the Enns River . Around 1353 a toll station on the Danube (the Maut zu Stein ) has been handed down at Langenstein , the income from which under Duke Albrecht II (the Lame , 1330–1358) also served to maintain the fortifications of the Spielberg Fortress.
Originally located in the eastern part of the Duchy of Bavaria in the Riedmark , Langenstein belonged to the Duchy of Austria from the 12th century and to the Principality of Austria ob der Enns from 1490 .
Langenstein was first mentioned in a document in 1192 as a stone . Another early mention can be found in that of Duke Leopold VI between 1220 and 1230 . Urbar laid out by Austria and Styria as De urbor Stein et Gusen . Early mentions were also Villa Stayn (1270) or Stain (1475). The name Langenstein appears for the first time as Langenstain 1559. The current spelling Langenstein was not used until 1626. The name Stain bei Spilberg was also handed down from 1565 . Much earlier than Langenstein, Spielberg ( Spileberch ) and 1171 Frankenberg (Franchenberg) were mentioned in a document as early as 1159 . The village of Langenstein used to belong to the Spielberg dominion. The districts of Frankenberg and Gusen belonged to different manors.
Rapids, tolls and Spielberg rule
Until the regulation of the Danube in the middle of the 19th century, the districts of Langenstein and Gusen were located directly on the northern main channel of the Danube, which had rapids similar to those of the Strudengau near the current Spielberg ruins . These rapids were in former times as hunger stones , quarry , fallow ground , Saurüssel or Great case known and represented a dreaded section of the sailors on the Danube. In case of unfavorable water level, the ships had at that time the village Abwinden sometimes discharged and at Mauthausen be reloaded again . Due to this geological peculiarity, the Spielberg rulership also asserted the right of the Grund-Ur and declared ships forfeited, which crashed through the rapids north of the castle and could not buy themselves out. In 1619, a toll was also set up on the Danube at Spielberg Castle .
The history of Langenstein is closely interwoven with the history of the former Bavarian border fortress of Spielberg, which was located on these rapids and which owned the village of Langenstein until the middle of the 19th century. The first stone quarries in the area of the municipality of Langenstein also seem to have arisen in the 12th century with the construction of this once mighty moated castle in the middle of the Danube. The oldest written evidence for the operation of quarries is from the year 1687, when the Langenstein master stonemason Hans Wolfinger gave the baroque master builder doorways, staves for the altars and paving stones for the expansion of the St. Florian monastery and the Marbach castle belonging to St. Florian Carlo Antonio Carlone delivered.
Danube trade and old relations with Hungary
The former fishermen, boatmen and ferrymen (Förgen) in both districts also refer to the former close proximity of the villages of Langenstein and Gusen to the former northern main channel of the Danube . In the age of ship trains on the Danube, both districts played an important role as storage areas for the teams and as stations for changing horses. The former importance of fishing on the once broadly diversified Danube is underlined by the formerly 20 Fischlehen in Langenstein and 15 Fischlehen in Gusen. Also noteworthy in this context is the fish order handed down by the Spielberg rule from 1608.
In the course of the Napoleonic Wars , on May 30, 1809, a ship battle between Austrians and Bavaria broke out on the Danube near Spielberg and Enghagen, in which 21 ships caught fire and then drove down the Danube without a driver.
This former proximity to the Danube also established close trade relations between these two districts with Hungary . These were probably also decisive for the development of a nationally important quarry industry in Gusen. A key decision is the fact that a quarry in Gusen was selected by an English company in 1841 to extract the stone for the monumental architecture of the chain bridge in Budapest , which was built by Count Stefan Szechenyi and the Clark brothers in Gusen with around 130 employees between the two districts Buda and Pest of the Hungarian capital was built between 1840 and 1848 . In keeping with the importance of this project, this first nationally significant quarry in Gusen, then known as the “Engländerbruch”, was also visited by the legendary Archduke Johann in May 1844 .
Granite industry and concentration camp
The special quality of Gusen granite for monumental buildings made Gusen an important base for Granitwerke Anton Poschacher (corporation for road and bridge construction) from 1878, which ran the quarry in Gusen after the collapse of the Danube monarchy until the final crisis year of 1930/31 the granite industry in the region came to a complete standstill and the municipality of Langenstein was also faced with an army of unemployed and ostracized people and misery that is hard to imagine today after an employment program by the Austrian government had failed.
What is remarkable is the occupation of all mountain ranges around Langenstein in the course of the February revolt in 1934 by 8 trucks with home guard soldiers . In the course of this mission on February 16, 1934, the Langenstein municipal council was officially dissolved. A complete dissolution of the community of Langenstein intended in October 1942 could also be prevented.
A new upswing in the granite industry began in Gusen with the annexation of Austria to the German Reich in 1938. Just two months after the Anschluss, the SS in Gusen, on the initiative of Oswald Pohl, acquired the appropriate land and mining rights in order to build up the center of the largest and most modern granite industry in the Greater German Empire in Gusen by around 1943 , and at the same time founded the SS company Deutsche Erd- and stone works . From 1940 to 1945 was in the concentration camps Gusen I and II Gusen the largest and most terrible concentration camp complex in Austria in the municipality of Langenstein.
In Gusen, the Memorial Crematorium Gusen concentration camp and a visitor center built in 2004 invite you to commemorate the more than 40,000 victims of the Gusen concentration camp. A Gusen audio trail opened in 2007 leads to the now largely built-up areas of the Gusen concentration camps and over the preserved dam of a railway built by the German Reich from 1941 to 1943 to the gates of the then top-secret B8 Bergkristall aircraft factory in nearby St. Georgen the Gusen . In contrast to the nearby Mauthausen, the quarries and the concentration camp structures in Gusen were not designated as memorial sites by the Soviet Union in the years after the war , but continued as a USIA company until 1955 under the title Granitwerke Gusen to produce paving stones for Moscow . After 1955, the former German property was also privatized in Langenstein, which led to large-scale overbuilding of the former concentration camp areas in the first three post-war decades and extensive economic re-use of the quarry infrastructure created at that time. A granite industry built on the former warehouse infrastructure from 1963 onwards was still the largest and technically leading company of its kind in Austria in 1994.
Compared to the humanitarian catastrophes of the 20th century in Gusen, the annihilation of around 300 religiously motivated rebellious farmers under their leader Martin Aichinger in the church on Frankenberg, only a few hundred meters north of the former camp, appears to be almost insignificant in 1636. After all, it was the secondary school student Adolf Hitler from nearby Linz who tried for several days on his own in 1903 to trace the tradition of this tragedy from the time of the Thirty Years' War in the rural population of the region.
Independence and neighboring communities
As much as the population of Langenstein before the Second World War was mainly characterized by agriculture and the workforce employed in the quarries, the structure of the population changed after the war with the construction of larger housing estates for people who mainly commute to work in the nearby state capital Linz . The municipality of Langenstein is now connected to the state capital Linz by an efficient expressway and a bus line. The Linz- Budweis railway line can also be reached quickly via the nearby St. Georgen. Although efforts were made between 1908 and 1911 to close the existing railway gap between St. Georgen / Gusen and Mauthausen via the municipality of Langenstein, this missing rail connection has not yet been implemented.
The Langenstein community is still closely connected to the neighboring community of St. Georgen / Gusen in terms of infrastructure. The municipality of Langenstein has always belonged to the Roman Catholic parish of St. Georgen an der Gusen . Since 1901 it has belonged to the delivery area of the local post office (post code 4222). Until 1966, the St. Georgen registry office was also responsible for the municipality of Langenstein. The role of community doctor in Langenstein was also performed for a long time by a doctor resident there. Only the area of responsibility of the gendarmerie commandos and the school district for secondary school students are divided between St. Georgen / Gusen and Mauthausen. Nevertheless, Langenstein is also an important school community. From 1965 to 1968 an independent elementary school was founded in Langenstein . In 1979 a general special school followed with classes for the severely handicapped, which is of supraregional importance and has been a special education center since 1994. In the sense of a progressive detachment from St. Georgen, a dislocated parish center and a dislocated Parish Caritas kindergarten were built in Langenstein in 1993 . In 1997, a Kingdom Hall of Jehovah's Witnesses was built in Langenstein . The current municipal coat of arms was awarded on May 20, 1974.
In 1991 the community had 2,411 inhabitants according to the census, in 2001 it had 2,650 inhabitants.
Allocation of seats since the municipal council election 2009:
- 13 seats in the Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPÖ)
- Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) 4 mandates of the
- citizen list PRO Langenstein 6 mandates
- Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ) 2 mandates for the
Mayor is Christian Aufreiter from the SPÖ.
coat of arms
- "In red on a blue, corrugated shield base, a golden stone dragged with silver stone blocks , above it a silver hammer (Feustel) lying to the left with a golden handle, underlaid with a silver, downwardly open compass ."
The municipality colors are blue-white-red
The municipal coat of arms was awarded on May 20, 1974.
January 1, 1997: Schlossau with the Spielberg ruins (from the municipality of Enns an Langenstein, since today north of the Danube)
Economy and Infrastructure
Since 2010 Langenstein has been supplied with district heating from biomass by B3 Energie . Customers in residential buildings, single-family houses and commercial operations use this option of heat supply.
- Bus route Linz – Grein
- Hentschläger & Stross, construction company
- Nails with fancy, nail salon
- Sports buffet time out, guest house
- Karl Tours, travel and bus company
- Neundlinger-Konopitzky, gas and water installations
- Ortner Franz, car dealership and garage
- Poschacher Naturstein GmbH
- Zentraplast Danner, plastics recycling
- Parish Caritas Kindergarten
- Elementary school
- Special education center and special school with severely disabled class
Culture and sights
- Peasant war memorial with church ruins on the Frankenberg
- Buildings of the former Gusen concentration camp (e.g. Jourhaus, SS guard blocks, prisoner brothel, accommodation building, stone crusher, sewage treatment plant, apprentice hall, "cellar construction" tunnel)
- Memorial Gusen
- Spielberg ruins
- Shell stone of the prehistoric sanctuary Berglitzl in Gusen-Dorf
- Heimathaus: Museum
- Local-international commemoration at Memorial Gusen
- ATSV Langenstein
- Dancing Club Langenstein
- Langenstein volunteer fire brigade (since 1898)
- Heimatverein Langenstein
- Langenstein riding club
- Gusen Settlers Association
- Langenstein tennis club
- Model flying
- Stick shooting
- horse riding
- Osamu Nakajima , sculptor
- Ingrid Steininger (1940–1998), ceramicist, sculptor, graphic artist
- Anton Werkgartner (1890–1970), physician at the chair for forensic medicine in Graz
- Robert Hofstadler , longtime Vice Mayor, winner of the Golden Medal for services to the Republic of Austria
- Johann and Maria Schatz , Righteous Among the Nations
- Rupert Neundlinger, Mayor from 1961 to 1983
- Ernst Hutsteiner, Mayor from 1997 to 2009, holder of the Golden Medal of Merit of the Republic of Austria
- Sonja Neundlinger, Johann Klinger: Langenstein - resort on the Danube . In: Our home - The Perg district . Association for the publication of a district homeland book Perg - communities of the district Perg. Perg, 1995. pp. 239–245.
- Johann Prinz: Langensteiner Heimatbuch. 757 years Langenstein 1230–1997. Langenstein community. Langenstein, 1997.
- Johann Prinz: The meager life - 80 years of social democracy in Langenstein . SPÖ local organization Langenstein. Langenstein, 1999.
- Community website
- 41109 - Langenstein (Upper Austria). Community data, Statistics Austria .
- Further information about the municipality of Langenstein (Upper Austria) can be found on the geographic information system of the federal state of Upper Austria .
- Map in the Digital Upper Austrian Room Information System ( DORIS )
- Entry on Langenstein (Upper Austria) in the Austria Forum (in the AEIOU Austria Lexicon )
- Statistics Austria: Population on January 1st, 2020 by locality (area status on January 1st, 2020) , ( CSV )
- Gerhard Trnka and Herta Ladenbauer-Orel: The urnfield time burial ground of Gusen in Upper Austria . In: Archaeologia Austriaca. Volume 76, Franz Deuticke Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Vienna 1992, pp. 47–112, ISBN 3-7005-4639-4 .
- Vlasta Tovornik: cemeteries at Gusen and Auhof bei Perg in Upper Austrian. Part I. Gusen. In: Archaeologia Austriaca 69, 1985 (1986), pp. 165-250.
- Alfred Höllhuber : Alt-Hagenberg, the former castle on the ancient salt path from Gusen on the Danube via Wartberg to Bohemia. Reichenstein 2005, pp. 78-105.
- Vlasta Tovornik: The early medieval cemeteries at Gusen and Auhof bei Perg in Upper Austria. Part 2: Auhof near Perg. In: Archaeologia Austriaca . Volume 70. Franz Deuticke Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. Vienna, 1986. pp. 413-483. ISBN 3-7005-4580-0
- Erik Szameit: On early medieval finds from Gusen and Langenstein, Upper Austria. With excursions on the dating of the Slavic burial ground of Gusen and on the early medieval graphite clay technique . In: Archaeologia Austriaca . Volume 76. Franz Deuticke Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. Vienna, 1992. pp. 113-196. ISBN 3-7005-4639-4
- Michael Premstaller: The Frankenberg Church . In: Mühlviertler Heimatblätter . Issue 1/2. Mühlviertel artists' guild. Linz, 1965. pp. 25–29, online (PDF) in the forum OoeGeschichte.at
- Volkmar Premstaller: The Frankenberg Church . In: Mühlviertler Heimatblätter . Issue 1. Linz, 1981. p. 23.
- Ernst Burgstaller: Work on the Frankenberg . In: Peasants' War Memorial Frankenberg . Festschrift for the service project of the Round Table 2. Linz, 1978, p. 23.
- Constitution of Duke Leopold of Austria and Styria of July 9, 1192 for the citizens of the city of Regensburg who trade to Austria. Cf. Andreas von Meiller : Austrian city rights and statutes from the time of the Babenbergs. In: Archive for customer Austrian historical sources of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, tenth volume. Vienna 1853. p. 95
- Rudolf A. Haunschmied : To commemorate 1938–1945 . In: 300 years of extended market rights St. Georgen ad Gusen . Market town of St. Georgen an der Gusen. St. Georgen an der Gusen, 1989. pp. 73–112.
- Stanislaw Dobosiewicz. Gusen extermination camp . Mauthausen studies. Volume 5. Series of publications by the Mauthausen Memorial, published by the Federal Ministry of the Interior. Vienna, 2007. ISBN 3-9502183-5-1 .
- Rudolf A. Haunschmied, Jan-Ruth Mills, Siegi Witzany-Durda: St. Georgen-Gusen-Mauthausen - Concentration Camp Mauthausen Reconsidered . BoD, Norderstedt 2008, ISBN 978-3-8334-7440-8
- August Kubizek: Adolf Hitler, My childhood friend . Leopold Stocker Verlag , Graz, 2002. p. 35. ISBN 3-7020-0971-X
- Report on the biomass heating plant. ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) zek Zukunftsenergie und Kommunaltechnik (PDF; 1.9 MB; zek.at, query from September 11, 2010).
- Technical data of the Langenstein district heating network ( memento from March 4, 2013 in the Internet Archive ), b3energie.at, query from March 3, 2011.
- Gusen visitor center
- Natural monuments in Langenstein (Upper Austria)