|Historical region :||Transylvania|
|Coordinates :||46 ° 10 ' N , 24 ° 22' E|
|Time zone :||EET ( UTC +2)|
|Height :||330 m|
|Area :||62.62 km²|
|Residents :||47,204 (October 20, 2011)|
|Population density :||754 inhabitants per km²|
|Postal code :||551xxx|
|Telephone code :||(+40) 02 69|
|License plate :||SB|
|Structure and administration (as of 2016)|
|Community type :||Municipality|
|Structure :||Mediaș, Ighișu Nou|
|Mayor :||Gheorghe Roman ( PNL )|
|Postal address :||Piața Corneliu Coposu, no. 3
loc. Mediaș, jud. Sibiu, RO-551018
Mediaș ( German Mediasch , formerly Medwisch, Transylvanian-Saxon Medwesch or Meddesch , Hungarian Medgyes ) is a city in Transylvania in the Sibiu district in Romania . It is located on the Târnava Mare ( Great Kokel ) and is an important traffic junction in central Romania.;
The city is located in the Kokel Valley of the Subcarpathian Mountains and is surrounded by numerous mountains. In the north from the steep slopes of the Galchberg, the Burg, the Hunsrück and Keppenberg and in the south from the Busder Plateau, Hasengarten, Vogelstange, Hirschberg, Kreuzberg and Stempelwald. The total length of the city limits is 35 km, the market square is at an altitude of 305 m, the highest point is the Weberln-Berg ( 555 m ).
Mediaș is located in a mixed forest zone with holm oaks and red beeches , willows and alders grow on streams and rivers and many types of grasses and wild flowers grow on the meadows and floodplains.
- There is a moderate continental climate
- The average rainfall is 600 mm per year
- The average number of rainy days per year is 123 days
In the vicinity of Mediaș are the villages of Bazna ( Baaßen ), Blăjel ( Klein-Blasendorf ), Păucea ( Puschendorf ), Dârlos ( Durles ), Brateiu ( Pretai ), Buzd ( Bußd ), Moșna ( Meschen ), Ighișul Nou ( Eibesdorf ) and Târnava ( Groß-Probstdorf ).
Medias was settled in the middle of the 13th century by Transylvanian-Saxon settlers from the "Altland" of the Sibiu province through internal colonization. It was first mentioned in a document in 1267. The name could come from the Latin per medias via (roughly at the crossroads ). This could also mean the center of historical Transylvania , which Mediasch roughly marked. Another explanation is the adoption of the place name of a previously existing Szekler settlement called Medyes . The name is said to refer to the tree vegetation in the area and means sour cherry (New Hungarian Meggy ), from which the current name is said to have emerged over time by shifting sounds . In the first documentary mentions it says u. a. Mediesy (1267) or Terra Meddies (1289). The German name Medwisch ( Honterus card, 1532; Siebenbürgischer Würg-Engel , 1670) is also found later .
Mediasch initially emerged as a settlement on aristocratic soil , d. H. the first German settlers were subservient to the Hungarian nobility and did not enjoy the same privileges of freedom as the settlers on the so-called royal soil . Within a few generations, however, the Mediascher fought for these privileges (1315) and, together with the surrounding villages, even achieved the status of a "chair" ( two chairs , later Mediascher chair), that is, a separate jurisdiction and extensive self-administration.
From around 1523 writings by Martin Luther and Philipp Melanchton came to the city. The Reformation was introduced around 1550 because the estates had given each other a free choice of faith. The changing history of Transylvania is reflected in the history of the city of Medias. Again and again various armies moved through the country, there were Ottoman incursions, Austrian and Hungarian counter-attacks and often enough local princes and counter-princes who fought bloodily for supremacy. Mediasch was besieged and plundered several times, with 1605 going down in history as a "year of horror". Medias was also hit several times by the second scourge of the Middle Ages , the plague . The citizens of Medias managed to make life in the city bloom again and again. Perhaps the often unfavorable external conditions contributed to strengthening the inner cohesion. However, this related almost exclusively to the German population, Hungarians or even Romanians were almost completely excluded.
The dominance of the Transylvanian Saxons of German descent lasted into the 19th century. In Medias the growing influence of the Hungarian state power and its endeavors to “ Magyarize ” Transylvania became particularly evident. In 1849 the city of Hungarian military was occupied and the Media shear Stephan Ludwig Roth arrested, eminent spokeswoman of the Transylvanian pastor teacher and writer, in Cluj convicted in a show trial to death and summarily executed. Hundreds of other people, most of them Romanians, were shot dead. Nevertheless, thanks to traditionally good contacts to Germany and Austria, the German population managed to expand their dominance in Medias economically during the period of industrialization .
After the First World War and the unification of Transylvania with Romania, the influence of the German population in Mediaș also increasingly waned. Although they still made up the majority of the population, the Germans felt increasingly sidelined, mainly because of corresponding laws by the central government. This is how Nazi propaganda found its supporters in Mediaș: many residents of the city moved to the German side in the Second World War . On the other hand, no organized pogroms were carried out against the Jewish population and their institutions. Until after the Second World War, the population of German descent (mostly Transylvanian Saxons ) in Mediaș had a relative majority. The town, at that time still part of the Târnava-Mare district , had 15,505 inhabitants in 1930, of which 5,974 Germans (38.52%), 4,366 Romanians (28.15%), 3,876 Magyars (24.99%), 702 Jews ( 4.52%) and 345 Roma (2.22%).
In 1996 there were 62,750 inhabitants, of which 50,200 Romanians, 8,900 Magyars , 2,500 Roma and 1,150 Germans were counted.
Daniel Thellmann was mayor of the city from 2004 until his death in 2009 , initially elected as a member of the DFDR (Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania). In the 2004–2008 electoral period, the DFDR led city politics in a coalition with the PD , renamed PD-L in 2007 . On April 18, 2008 the incumbent mayor switched to PD-L, which led to political disputes. As a result, Klaus Johannis , the chairman of the Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania, announced the discontinuation of all cooperation between the DFDR and the PD-L. Thellmann had to resign his offices in the Democratic Forum of the Germans.
The elections to the city council ( consiliul local ) in 2016 resulted in the following distribution of mandates:
- PNL (National Liberal Party) : 10
- PSD (Social Democratic Party) : 7
- UDMR (Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania) : 2
- PMP (People's Movement Party) : 2
After Daniel Thellmann's death from serious illness, his deputy Teodor Neamțu took over the office of mayor in 2009. Gheorghe Roman has been the city's mayor since 2016.
List of Mayors of Medias
The following mayors of the city have been notarized since the 16th century and occasionally before:
Mediaș has partnerships with:
- Głogów in Poland , since 1992
- Sopron in Hungary , since 1993
- De Fryske Marren in the Netherlands , since 1995
- Mineral Wells in Texas , since 2005
- Dąbrowa Górnicza in Poland, since 2011
- Cricova in Moldova , since 2018
- Lutherstadt Wittenberg , since 2019
- Margarethenkirche with the characteristic crooked trumpet tower ("Tramiter"). In the interior of the church there is themost important collection of valuable historical "Transylvanian" carpets after the Black Church of Brașov . The Medias altar in the choir is one of the most important late Gothic worksin Transylvania.
- Hermann Oberth Memorial House
- Historical old city
- Schuller House (educational institution)
- Stephan Ludwig Roth memorial house
- Synagogue , built in 1896
There are two radio stations in Mediaș ( Radio Mediaș and Radio Ring ), a television station ( Nova Tv ) and three weekly newspapers ( Monitorul de Mediaș , Jurnal de Weekend and Medieșeanul ).
The most successful sports clubs in Mediaş are the basketball team and the Gaz Metan football club . In 2011 the football club surprisingly won the qualification for the UEFA Europa League against the German Bundesliga team FSV Mainz 05 .
Mediaș is located on one of the most important international railway lines in Romania ( Bucharest – Budapest – Vienna ), one of the first lines to be electrified by the Romanian State Railways ( CFR ). Moreover, Sibiu a local railway line - via Copşa Mică ( Kleinkopisch ) - achievable. The city center can be reached on foot in around 10 minutes from the train station.
The city lies at the intersection of the national roads ( drum național ) DN 14, DN 14A, DN 14B and the county road ( drum județean ) DJ 141. Via these streets are the cities of Sibiu, Blaj ( Blasendorf ), Târnăveni ( Sankt Martin ), Sighișoara ( Schäßburg ) and Agnita ( Agnetheln ) can be reached.
The public transport network consists of three trolleybus lines and some bus lines.
The city is located in the Transylvanian wine country, where the cultivation of predominantly white wine has always been an important economic factor. This is also attested by the city coat of arms, in which the old coat of arms element, the natural right hand, is augmented by a fertilized grapevine with roots, leaves and two grapes - as evidenced in a seal from 1546. The home community Mediasch also has the fertilized one next to the Tramiter tower Grapevine in their coat of arms.
The wine from Mediaș is mentioned in a prominent place in Bram Stoker's novel Dracula : “The wine was Golden Mediasch, which produces a queer sting on the tongue, which is, however, not disagreeable” (Diary entry by Jonathan Harker, May 5th, for first time on the way to the Count's castle).
sons and daughters of the town
- Christian Schesaeus (1536–1585), Transylvanian humanist
- Michael Weiß (1569–1612), politician
- Michael Conrad von Heydendorff the Elder (1730–1821), chronicler, historian and mayor
- Stephan Ludwig Roth (1796–1849), pastor, school reformer and politician
- Andreas von Gunesch (1799–1875), Evangelical Lutheran superintendent of Vienna
- Theodor Fabini (1828–1849), reformer and popular hero
- Josef Schuster (1849–1914), teacher and member of the Hungarian Reichstag
- Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Binder (1857–1898), lawyer and politician
- Heinrich Siegmund (1867–1937), doctor, state consistorial councilor and publicist
- Samuel Karres (1874–1954), industrialist
- Rudolf Brandsch (1880–1953), politician
- Gustav Michael Julius Schuster “Schuster Dutz” (1885–1968), dialect poet
- Otto Folberth (1896–1991), rector, local researcher, writer
- Carl Göllner (1911–1995), historian and employee of the Romanian secret service Securitate
- George Popa (1912–1973), writer and historian
- Annemarie Suckow von Heydendorff (1912–2007), sculptor
- Gheorghe Váczi (1922-2006), football player
- Otto Gert Folberth (1924–2018), physicist
- Hans Ambrosi (1925–2012), wine specialist
- Hubert Caspari (1926–2004), architect
- Adolf Oberth (1928–2007), chemist and inventor
- Peter P. Schweger (* 1935), architect
- Waldemar Mühlbächer (* 1937), football player
- Klaus F. Schneider (* 1958), poet
- Johann Schneider , regional bishop
- Wilfried "Willi" Schneider (* 1963), skeleton pilot and skeleton trainer
- Margareta Keszeg (* 1965), track and field athlete
- Doris Eisenburger (* 1966), children's book illustrator
- Adelheid Theil (* 1969), actress
- Nadia Hatagan (* 1979), artistic gymnast
- Ionuț Buzean (* 1982), football player
- Amar (rapper) (* 1983), rapper and music producer
- Hanna Binder (* 1985), actress and theater director
- Alexandru Munteanu (* 1987), football player
- Paul Pârvulescu (* 1988), football player
- Radu Zaharia (* 1989), soccer player
Personalities associated with Mediaș
- Ștefan Moldovan (1813–1900), pastor and 1848 revolutionary
- Hermann Oberth (1894–1989), "father of space travel", scientist
- Daniel Thellmann (1960–2009), former mayor of the city of Mediaș (2004–2009)
- List of cities in Romania
- List of German and Hungarian names of Romanian places
- Transylvania # 20. and 21st century (development of natural gas sources in the years before 1914)
- Hansotto Drotloff, Günter E. Schuster (Ed.): Mediasch. A historical foray through the Transylvanian-Saxon city on the Kokel . Schiller, Sibiu (Hermannstadt) / Bonn 2009, ISBN 978-3-941271-15-9 .
- Herrmann Fabini: Mediasch . In: Sacred architecture in Transylvanian-Saxon cities . monuMenta Verlag & Working Group for Transylvanian Regional Studies, Sibiu (Hermannstadt) / Heidelberg 2013, ISBN 978-973-7969-15-6 , p. 171-208 .
- Otto Folberth: Gothic in Transylvania - The Master of the Medias Altar and His Time . Schroll, Vienna / Munich 1973, ISBN 3-7031-0358-2 .
- Topographic map: Medias and the Kokelland. Schiller, Hermannstadt / Bonn 2009.
- Homepage of the Heimatgemeinschaft Mediasch e. V.
- Media on Siebenbürger.de
- Mediaș: Transylvanian beauty in transition (Transylvanian beauty in transition)
- ↑ 2011 census in Romania ( memento from August 18, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) at citypopulation.de
- ↑ In 1315 the Hungarian King Karl Robert granted the Saxons of Mediasch, Schelk and Biertan the same freedoms as those of the Sibiu province
- ^ Ulrich Andreas Vienna: Transylvania - pioneering region of religious freedom: Luther, Honterus and the effects of the Reformation . Schiller Verlag, Hermannstadt / Bonn 2017, ISBN 978-3-946954-05-7 , pp. 9-16 .
- ↑ Sabin Manuila (ed.): Recensământul populaţiei României din 29 Decemvrie 1930. Volume 2. Institutul central de statisticǎ, Bucureşti 1938, S. 438 f.
- ↑ Thellmann changes to the Romanian party. In: Siebenbürgische Zeitung , May 22, 2008.
- ↑ Klaus Johannis: Forumul Democrat al Germanilor din Romania rupe cu Alianta PD-L . ( Memento from October 23, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ Alegeri locale 5th June 2016: Mandate atribiuite pentru Consilieri locali (Romanian) . June 5, 2016. ( MS Excel ; 1.1 MB)
- ↑ The mayors of Medias. In: Transylvania quarterly. Vol. 7, 1801, Second Quarter, pp. 94-109 and Third Quarter, pp. 177-188 .
- ^ The mayors of Medias, 1552–1944. In: Hansotto Drotloff, Günther E. Schuster (Ed.): Mediasch. A historical foray through the Transylvanian-Saxon city on the Kokel. Schiller, Sibiu / Hermannstadt a. a. 2009, ISBN 978-3-941271-15-9 .
- ^ Fritz Keintzel-Schön: The Transylvanian-Saxon family names . Böhlau, 1976.
- ^ Ceremonial signing of the new town twinning agreements. In: wittenbergersonntag.de. Wittenberger Sunday, October 9, 2019, accessed on November 3, 2019 .
- ^ Emil Schmutzler: Ancient oriental carpets in Transylvania . Ed .: Anton Hiersemann. 1st, reprinted in 2010. Leipzig 1933, ISBN 978-3-7772-1015-5 .
- ^ Stefano Ionescu: Antique Ottoman Rugs in Transylvania . 2nd Edition. Verduci Editore, Rome 2005.
- ↑ spiegel.de
- ↑ See the map of Transylvania by Johannes Honterus from 1532.
- ^ Alber Arz von Straussenburg: Contributions to Transylvanian heraldry . Sibiu 1937.
- ↑ Schesäus, Christian in the German Biography
- ↑ Weiss, Michael in the German Biography
- ^ Fabini, Theodor (1828–1849), freedom fighters. In: Austrian Biographical Lexicon 1815–1950 (ÖBL). Volume 1, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 1957, p. 280.
- ^ Joseph Trausch : Writer's Lexicon of the Transylvanian Germans. Bio-bibliographical handbook for science, poetry and journalism. Volume 6: Hermann A. Hienz: D – G (= writings on regional studies of Transylvania. Volume 7, 6). Böhlau, Cologne a. a. 1998, ISBN 3-412-09697-0 .
- ↑ Gustav Schuster at sevenbuerger.de
- ↑ Vasile Antipa: 100 years of George Popa at the "Stephan Ludwig Roth" library in Mediaș on October 19, 2012 at Sibiul.ro (Romanian)
- ↑ Klaus F. Schneider ( memento of November 24, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) at lyrikwelt.de
- ↑ Ștefan Moldovan at cclbsebes.ro (Romanian; PDF; 511 kB)