district of Zurich
|Population density||9907 inhabitants / km²|
The formerly independent community of Aussersihl was incorporated in 1893 and together with Wiedikon formed district III, which was divided into districts 3, 4 and 5 in 1913 . The name Aussersihl stuck to District 4, its twin, District 5, was considered the industrial quarter. Administratively, Aussersihl has been divided into the three administrative units (quarters) Werd , Langstrasse and Hard by the statistical office since 1971 .
The city district is popularly known as "Chreis Cheib". The word "Cheib" refers to animal carcasses, in District 4 there were once pits for horses and small animals.
Aussersihl is located south of the train tracks between the main train station and Hardbrücke train station . To the east, the Sihl forms the border with the old town . In the south, Aussersihl borders Wiedikon , the district boundary runs from the Sihlhölzli bridge on Ulmberg, along the northern edge of Schimmelstrasse and the Seebahn on the left bank to Badenerstrasse and from there along the latter to Albisriederplatz . In the west, Aussersihl borders on Altstetten .
coat of arms
- A black anchor in silver
When the council of Zurich separated the Kräuel and the Hard from Wiedikon in 1787 and the new community of Aussersihl was created, the first consideration was to use a historical coat of arms. On the one hand, the coat of arms of Hard, based on the chronicle of Edlibach (1493), in silver with a black crossbar, covered with 3 golden bells, or the coat of arms of St. Jakob an der Sihl attested in 1693, also in silver but with 3 crucified golden pilgrim staffs. However, a new one has prevailed - the coat of arms with the black anchor on a silver background, which is still used today.
The first tracks go to the 3rd / 4th Century back. The remains of a Roman villa were found on Badenerstrasse near Letzigrund , and a Roman road led across the military bridge and Hohlstrasse (formerly Hohlenweg). In the 5th / 6th In the 19th century there was an Alemannic cemetery in the area of the bakery . In the 8th century, the Sihlfeld was donated by Ludwig the German to the Fraumünster Abbey. In the 12th century was located at the St. Jakob, at today's tram stop Stauffacher one, infirmary , which was first mentioned in 1221.
The village of Wiedikon , to which Aussersihl also belonged, was established in the 14th / 15th century . On July 22nd, 1443, Aussersihl was the scene of the battle of St. Jakob an der Sihl , where the people of Zurich and Schwyz fought for the inheritance of the Count of Toggenburg and the then mayor Rudolf Stüssi fell.
In the 15th century, the main pit, a place of execution, was built near today's district building . Executions were carried out with the sword in a pit similar to an amphitheater . In 1706 the pit was filled up due to too many spectators and the executions were clearly increased to two meters above the ground. In 1833 the guillotine was introduced and the raven stone was removed.
In the 17th century, Wasenplatz (1698) was located on the border to Altstetten and Albisrieden (near Letzigrund). At that time, animal carcasses were buried at this place opposite the high court , which is why it was also called Tiergarten, Schindanger or Keibenplatz. Keib, Swiss German Cheib , means animal corpse and is popularly used to this day in a rather derogatory designation of District 4 as Chreis Cheib . The expression Cheib is used today as a general swear expression in Swiss German and is no longer associated with cadavers .
When Wiedikon denied the citizens of Kräuel and Hard the citizenship , they asked the city to become a separate municipality. This request was granted on September 27, 1784, but the new community of Aussersihl remained under the Upper Bailiwick of Wiedikon.
Aussersihl became an independent community on March 27, 1787. A year later, a school was set up in the house at Zur Roten Wand . In 1790 the Bölsterlihof, today's slaughterhouse area, was incorporated.
In May 1792, a military training camp with around 1,500 Zurich militia troops was set up in Kreuel. In 1798, French troops were in Aussersihl for the first time. A year later, in June 1799, French, Austrians and Russians were in Aussersihl during the First Battle of Zurich . City of Zurich watched the attacks of the French on the Austrians and provided victim assistance. At the end of August, the Austrian units were replaced by Russian ones and the Second Battle of Zurich followed, which ended in a defeat for the Russians.
In 1810 the last execution of a thief on the gallows took place at the High Court. Ten years later a new cemetery with a prayer house was built opposite St. Jakob (near Stauffacher ) and a veterinary school was founded in the Feldegg house near the former main pit. On August 17, 1821, the new community and school building on Zweier- / Badenerstrasse was inaugurated.
In 1844 the community of Aussersihl experienced a two-year famine and food had to be handed in. A year later, the Spanish Brötli Railway , the first Swiss railway line , opened. This marked the beginning of the division of the community into today's districts 4 and 5. Nine years later, another railway line to Oerlikon was built .
In 1867, Aussersihl had its own secondary school and the wooden Sihl bridge was replaced by a stone one. In the same year broke out in Niederdorf a cholera - epidemic and spread to Aussersihl, were improved after which the sanitary conditions.
The barracks and armories that still exist today were built in the years 1873–1875. In the same year, the community was opened up by the “Rösslitram” from the train station to the central cemetery. In 1975, the electorate approved the relocation of the barracks and weapons field to the Reppisch Valley. The cantonal electorate rejected a popular initiative launched by the EPP in 1978 to demolish the barracks and the stables on Gessnerallee with 133,321 votes against 152,956. A city park for the population would have been created on the barracks area.
The public secondary school Art and Sports School in Zurich has existed since 1989 .
District of Zurich
Already in the 1860s a strong population increase due to immigration began, which brought the community into financial difficulties. The poor economic situation at the end of the 19th century forced the community of Aussersihl to ask the city of Zurich to incorporate it in 1891 . The Aussersihler agreed with 4440 yes to 43 no. The suburb had not only a larger area, but also more inhabitants than the city of Zurich at the time. On January 1, 1893, the community was incorporated into the city of Zurich. In addition to Aussersihl, ten other independent municipalities became part of the city of Zurich in the same year. The city and the new eleven municipalities were divided into five city districts (I to V). Aussersihl and the industrial quarter that belonged to it at that time were added to Stadtkreis III, Wiedikon, from which the municipality had split off a good 100 years earlier.
Lively construction activity developed along with the influx of Italian construction workers. The Sihlfeld cemetery, built in 1877 for the community of Aussersihl, was expanded after the incorporation into the central cemetery of the city of Zurich. The cemetery was expanded in stages over the course of 90 years. After efforts to remove the cemetery sector by sector from the 1950s onwards, significant parts of this largest cemetery in the city of Zurich are under monument protection.
In 1897 the company moved into the new freight yard , one year later the industrial railway started operations and the Hardbrücke was opened to traffic. In 1901 they moved into St. Jacob's Church, instead of the prayer house from 1820, and into the cantonal police barracks. The slaughterhouse opened in 1909 and the Volkshaus opened a year later. The main SBB workshop started operations in 1911.
The division of the original five city districts was revised in 1913 and by dividing the city district III into three and dividing the city district V into two, eight new city districts (1 to 8) were formed. The former community of Aussersihl became today's city district 4, while the industrial quarter, which was split off in 1875 but previously belonged to Aussersihl, became city district 5. The area of the former municipality of Wiedikon became today's city district 3. The second incorporation from 1934 had no effect on Aussersihl, but in a further revision of the city districts in 1971, among other things, Aussersihl from the statistical office of the city of Zurich , was on the drawing board in the three Quarters Werd, Hard and Langstrasse, which are almost exclusively of statistical significance.
As a result of the Zurich youth riots , an association independent Aussersihl was formed in the 1980s to protest against real estate speculation , which tried on various occasions by means of individual cantonal and municipal initiatives to achieve the consolidation of Aussersihl.
At the end of 2018, Aussersihl had 28,729 inhabitants.
Since the 1860s, the community of Aussersihl experienced a high level of immigration, mainly from foreign workers, especially from Italians who were involved in construction and the railroad. Around 1888 Aussersihl had around 20,000 inhabitants; when it was incorporated in 1893, it counted more than the then city of Zurich.
In the mid-1890s, 6500 people of Italian nationality lived in Zurich Aussersihl. Before the First World War, the canton of Zurich was the canton in Switzerland with the highest number of foreigners, accounting for 18.6% of the total population; In the Zurich district alone, 32.2% were foreigners; the proportion in the Aussersihl may have been even higher; Numbers of the former municipality, which has meanwhile become a district, are not known.
The neighborhood was shaped by Italian emigration. In 1901 the first chapel of the Missione Cattolica was consecrated, a foundation of the Salesians of Don Bosco ; Today's mission center with church on Feldstrasse testifies to the uninterrupted presence of the Salesians since then.
The spirited mentality and the precarious living conditions of the workers led to social tensions and disputes with young Swiss people - the so-called "Italian riots" of 1896.
When Mussolini seized power in Italy, this led to a new wave of emigration; this so-called “anti-fascist emigration” was particularly noticeable in District 4 and developed its most important base in the premises of the Cooperativa italiana . The city of Zurich commemorated this period of immigration by naming a square on Langstrasse in the center of Aussersihl “Piazza Cella” in 2008 in memory of the owner of the “Cooperativo” restaurant.
Due to the availability of relatively cheap apartments in today's District 4, among other things, the high proportion of foreigners has persisted to this day and at 41.5% is above the city-Zurich average of 30.5% (end of 2010).
|Quarter||Residents||Women||Men||Total||Women||Men||Total||Proportion of %|
|Total circle 4||26,705||7,543||8,079||15,622||4,868||6'215||11,083||41.5%|
In recent years, the cheap living space and the multicultural diversity in the neighborhoods have increasingly attracted students, young academics, artists and galleries, which, together with the city's upgrading projects, makes district 4 increasingly attractive for other sections of the population. As the popularity grew, so did rents. The proportion of foreigners also fell from 43.6% in 2002 to 37.0% (2018).
From the labor movement to the Federal Council
As early as 1845, the then teacher Johann Jakob Treichler founded the mutual aid and educational association with the aim of getting acquainted with socialist ideas and managing the ever-increasing need of the working class. On November 23, 1851, the avowed socialist Karl Bürkli was elected to the Grand Council of the then still independent community of Aussersihl.
After the incorporation of Aussersihl, there were initially irreconcilable differences between the liberals and the democrats, who were closely linked to the working class. As the democrats became more prosperous, their interests mingled with those of the liberals. The influence of the Democrats on the working class, who turned more towards socialist ideas, declined. In 1893 the Social Democrats (1877) and the Grütlians (1848) united and received eight representatives in the elections of the Great City Council (today municipal council ) in 1892 , while the Democrats moved into the council at sixteen and the liberal at seven.
From April 1, 1898, the workers 'newspaper Volksrecht (later DAZ) was published for the workers' movement. Four years later, in the spring of 1902, the Social Democrats faced the united bourgeoisie. In protest against the discrimination against the other urban districts, the Social Democrats claimed all 27 cantonal seats in constituency III, which they also got on the evening of April 27, 1902. A historic moment: Aussersihl turned red. Were chosen among other Friedrich Erismann , Herman Greulich Pastor Paul Pflüger and secondary school teacher Robert Seidel.
The commoners challenged the elections. On August 18, 1902, the Cantonal Council conceded the elections in District III with 174 to 14 votes, which led to protests everywhere. On the Rotwandwiese alone, over 5,000 workers protested against the cassation . In a second ballot on August 31, all 27 Social Democrats were elected with even better results. In the general renewal elections of 1931, the red Zurich consolidated its position and in 1933 the Social Democratic Party in District 4 received 61% of the vote.
On December 15, 1943, the United Federal Assembly elected Ernst Nobs from Aussersihl as the first social democratic Federal Councilor in Swiss history with 122 votes . District 4 provided another SP Federal Council on December 17, 1959 with Willy Spühler .
Political balance of power today
Together with District 5 , District 4 forms an electoral district in the municipal and cantonal elections. To date, the Social Democratic Party is the strongest party in the constituency with 36.3% of the vote. Together with the Greens (14.3%) and the Alternative List (16.3%), the left-wing parties hold a majority of over 65% of the vote - over 13% more than in the entire city of Zurich.
|City council elections 2018: party strength in%|
|District 4 + 5||36.3||6.1||10.2||1.8||14.3||12.1||16.3||1.8||1.1|
Not only parties are politically important, but also trade unions exert influence and have their headquarters in District 4:
- Comedia , regional secretariat
- Communication Union , Regional Secretariat
- Transport Staff Union (SEV), regional secretariat
- Unia , regional secretariat
- Swiss Association of Personnel in Public Services (VPOD), Central Secretariat
- Trade Union Confederation of the Canton of Zurich , Central Secretariat
The Aussersihl area has always been a place where the city of Zurich relocated unpleasant things. The infirmary and the later beneficiary house , the execution site , the gallows hill and waste and sewage were disposed of in Aussersihl in the same way as the animal carcasses. Later came the foreign workers, the red light district and marginalized people who shape the district to this day. Even today, the residents of the district have to deal with social and population problems that cannot be found anywhere else in the city.
Red light and drug milieu
The drug and red-light district, which is largely responsible for the bad reputation today, is concentrated on a part of Langstrasse between Hohlstrasse and the border with District 5 at the railway underpass and the military road. The triangle formed by Brauerstrasse, Hohlstrasse and Langstrasse is popularly known as the Bermuda Triangle . Bars , cabarets , brothels and prostitutes who buy on the street can be found both directly on Langstrasse and in the side streets .
The Chreis Cheib in transition
In the perception of the population, the chreis Cheib is no longer associated with Keib , i.e. animal carcasses. The term Cheib is used today as a derogatory term for a guy or as a general swear expression . The Chreis Cheib today refers to the bad reputation that stimulate plant or the nightlife in District 4 and is used by the citizens themselves partially with pride and also supported.
In order to actively counter the problems in district 4, mainly caused by the drug and red light district, the city council approved the comprehensive project "Langstrasse PLUS" on March 14, 2001, which is primarily intended to improve public order and security . Since then, those responsible for the project have devoted themselves to the quarter in various sections and have already achieved individual successes. For example, while there used to be more marginalized people than residents at the bakery, the green area is now used again by families, young people and visitors.
In addition to social projects, District 4 is also being upgraded in terms of urban development . For example: The Bäckerstrasse, parts of the Brauerstrasse and the Hohlstrasse were renovated and embellished with trees. In 2014/2015 the office building on Helvetiaplatz is to be refurbished, along with the Molkenstrasse, a project that was approved by the electorate on September 28, 2008. After the opening of the western bypass in 2008, further traffic calming in District 4 is planned as part of the FlaMa (accompanying measures).
The city’s measures support a change that has already started, with more students, artists and young academics discovering District 4 as a place to live. New cafes, bars, restaurants and clubs have sprung up, which in turn makes District 4 more attractive for other sections of the population. The development leads to the fact that previous establishments are being displaced and a better mix of the population appears to be setting in. Private property owners or administrators move with them, renovate their properties and no longer rent them to the community.
Churches and places of worship
In the Aussersihl district (including the Werd and Hard quarters) there are the following Christian churches and places of worship:
The Evangelical Reformed Church has two places of worship:
- The church of St. Jakob bei Stauffacher was built in the years 1899–1901 according to plans by the architects Johannes Vollmer and Heinrich Jassoy , Berlin. The church, built in the German neo-renaissance style, has an 86-meter-high tower and was restored to its original state during the interior renovation in 2003-2004.
- The Bullinger Church in the Hard quarter was built in 1956 and complements the ensemble of buildings of the parish hall and two parsonages that have existed since 1925/1930. After the Pauluskirche in the Unterstrass district, the free-standing bell tower has the second most powerful bell in the city of Zurich with a total weight of 12,446 kg. With its name it reminds of the successor of Huldrych Zwingli , the reformer Heinrich Bullinger .
The Roman Catholic Church is represented in Aussersihl with two parishes and a staff parish for Italian-speaking immigrants:
- St. Peter and Paul bei Stauffacher is the first Roman Catholic church that wasbuilt on Zurich landafter the Reformation and the separation from the Christian Catholic Church . Erectedbetween 1873 and 1874 as a poor people's church in Aussersihl with little financial means for the Catholics moving to Zurich, it received its 60 meter high neo-Gothic towerin 1896according to plans by the architects Alfred Chiodera and Theophil Tschudy . In the years 1979–1981, according to plans by the architect Walter Rieger, a larger sacristy and the St. Anna chapel were added to the church, the name of which is reminiscent of the first place of worship for the Roman Catholic people of Zurich.
- The church of St. Felix and Regula in the Hard quarter was built between 1949 and 1950 by the architect Fritz Metzger . It is consecrated to the patron saints of Zurich, St. Felix and Regula , and is an architecturally forward-looking church. The church no longer has a longitudinal floor plan, but is built in the shape of a transverse oval. The pillars in the church are reminiscent of the tent of God and the structuring of the walls with building blocks reminds that the parish is made of living stones. In 2012, the church was restored to its original state with the help of the Monument Authority.
- The Don Bosco church is located on the corner of Hohlstrasse and Feldstrasse and was built in 1951 according to plans by Attilio Callegari. It replaced a previous church from 1902. The Don Bosco Church is run by the Mission Cattolica di Lingua Italiana, which is a personal parish of the Diocese of Chur under the direction of the Salesians of Don Bosco .
The Serbian Orthodox Church owns the Holy Trinity Church on Elisabethenstrasse , which was built for the Christian Catholic Church in the years 1911–1912 according to plans by Louis Hauser Binder. The church is integrated into the perimeter block development in the quarter and protrudes with the nave into the back courtyard of the building complex. In 1994 she handed over the church to the Serbian Orthodox Church.
The Methodist Church operates a residential and meeting house on the corner of Stauffacherstrasse and Rotwandstrasse from 1909–1910, which was built according to plans by the architect Albert Brändli. Today the Igreja Evangelica Metodista and the Comunidade Brasileira Zurich also gather in the Hall of the Methodist Church.
Personalities who have worked in Aussersihl
- Rosa Bloch-Bollag (1880–1922), one of the central figures of the Swiss labor movement
- Fritz Brupbacher (1874–1945) writer and doctor, ran a doctor's practice with his second wife Paulette Brupbacher in District 4, a square on Weststrasse, which is close to the neighborhood, is named after this couple
- Erminia Cella (1888–1959), ran the restaurant Cooperativa italiana , a contact point for anti-fascist emigration during the Mussolini rule; A square on Langstrasse "Piazza Cella" is named after her.
- Gottlieb Duttweiler (1888–1962), founder of Migros , grew up in the Aussersihl
- David Farbstein (1868–1953), lawyer, local council and first Jewish member of the National Council
- Peter Füssli (1482–1548) founder of the Zurich art of bell casting and rice walker
- Herman Greulich (1842–1925), founder of the first Social Democratic Party in Switzerland
- Max Gubler (1898–1973), Eduard Gubler (1891–1971), painter and brothers, born in Aussersihl.
- Hugo Koblet (1925–1964), Swiss cyclist, grew up in Aussersihl
- Guido Kolb (1928–2007), Zurich writer and 1972–1992 pastor of St. Peter and Paul (Zurich)
- Moritz Leuenberger (1946–) Federal Councilor who had a law firm in District 4 until 1991
- Franca Magnani -Schiavetti (1925–1996), journalist and author, lived in the neighborhood for several years
- Ernst Nobs (1886–1957), first Federal Councilor of the Social Democrats from 1943 to 1951, lived temporarily in the Aussersihl
- Leonhard Ragaz (1868–1945), Reformed theologian and co-founder of the religious-social movement in Switzerland
- Wilhelm Riistow (1821–1878), revolutionary, freedom fighter and military writer
- Irène Schweizer (1941–) pianist and co-founder of free jazz, lives in District 4
- Willy Spühler , Federal Councilor from 1959–1970 and City Councilor of Zurich, born in Aussersihl
The Reformed Church of St. Jakob , built from 1899 to 1901 according to a design by the architects Johannes Vollmer and Heinrich Jassoy , is the only example of the German Neo-Renaissance style in Swiss church construction.
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- Schlaepfer p. 13 and p. 14
- Don Andrea Ciapparella, Tindaro Gatani: 1898-1998, Catholic Mission italiana Zurigo. I Salesiani di Don Bosco al servizio della fede e dell'emigrazione . Zurich 1997, pp. 71 and 99.
- Stefan Hess : Italian riot. In: Historisches Lexikon der Schweiz .; Angelo Maiolino: When the Italians were still Tschinggen. Resistance to the Schwarzenbach Initiative ,: Rotpunkt, Zurich 2011, pp. 41–58
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- Results of the 2018 renewal elections - City of Zurich. Retrieved April 10, 2020 .
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- Yes to further upgrading in Aussersihl - project for Helvetiaplatz on tagesanzeiger.ch
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- Sabine Fischer, Zora Parici-Ciprys: The Reformed Church St. Jakob am Stauffacher in Zurich. (Swiss Art Guide, No. 767, Series 77). Ed. Society for Swiss Art History GSK. Bern 2005, ISBN 978-3-85782-767-9 .
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