|State :||Czech Republic|
|Region :||Plzeňský kraj|
|Area :||3555.8774 ha|
|Geographic location :|
|Residents :||941 (Jan. 1, 2019)|
|Postal code :||348 16|
|License plate :||P|
|Mayor :||František Čurka (as of 2007)|
348 16 Halže
Halže (German Hals ) is a municipality in the Czech Republic with 941 inhabitants (as of January 1, 2019) . It is located on a slightly rising hill about 6 km northwest of Tachov at an altitude of 596 m above sea level. M. in the Upper Palatinate Forest (Český les) and belongs to the Okres Tachov .
Near the neighboring German town of Bärnau there is a border crossing east of the community in the Pavlův Studenec (Paulusbrunn) desert area . To the north are the town of Cheb and the health resorts of Františkovy Lázně and Marienbad .
The parish church has been preserved in Halže to this day, the construction of which began in 1799. In contrast, some of the smaller chapels in the municipal area have fallen into disrepair.
The former castle was the residence of the Hals estate lords until the end of the Second World War. The building, which was rebuilt in the Renaissance style in 1873 and expanded in 1906, was located on the road to Stiebenreith . After the war it was temporarily used as a barracks and burned down to the ground on March 20, 1955. Today only remnants of the park wall are reminiscent of the castle of the lords of Hals. The last remains of the burnt out castle were removed in 1966. The designed castle park with arbor has also disappeared.
In the cemetery of Hals there are still some gravestones of the former German village population, which were made from stones from the area, including the grave of the long-time parish priest Franz Thomas, who worked in Hals until 1943.
After Žďár (German: Planer Brand), a new building area has emerged that is clearly distinguishable from the old town center. In contrast to some other neighboring communities, smaller businesses and commercial traffic are developing in Halže. In the area there are wet meadows with remarkable flora and fauna as well as small fish ponds. A large part of the municipality is part of the Český les nature reserve.
In addition to the municipal office, there is also a primary school in Halže. A school partnership has existed with the primary and secondary school in the neighboring Bavarian town of Bärnau since 1993 .
The first mention of Hals is from 1479 , but the place is older. A fortress near the village was mentioned in 1529. In 1639 the owner of the Tachau manor, Johann Philipp Husmann ( Jan Filip Husmann in Czech ) donated the neck to the Paulan monastery in Heiligen (Světce) near Tachau. Until the dissolution of the monastery in 1787, Hals was part of the parish of Tachau . In 1787, an imperial decree established its own parish in Hals. Under the rule of the Habsburgs from 1526 until the end of the First World War in 1918, Hals belonged to the former Austrian monarchy . The border between Bohemia and Bavaria ran a few kilometers from the village in the west. That was the case even after the fall of the Austrian Empire in 1918 and the establishment of the first Czech Republic. The last landlords in Hals were the Counts Landwehr von Wehrheim, who were resident until they were expelled in 1946.
Neck was probably built as early as the 14th century following a farmyard. As a manor and village of the city of Tachau, it was not part of the knightly fiefdom of the "Tachau Fief Game" and was therefore rarely mentioned in a document. The first entry "zvm Hals" in the registers of the Eger city archive dates back to 1479. And a Hanus Lichtenberger z Halzy is mentioned in 1493 in an act in the Tepler monastery archive. In 1510, Hals is said to have been the only remnant left to the Wolf von Guttenstein ( Gutštejn in Czech ), whose family owned Tachau for a long time in the 15th century. In 1529 he pledged the “Halzy” (“Halzy twrz”) fortress to his brother-in-law Niklas zu Seeberg to plan for 10 years. Neck must have been transferred back to the city of Tachau between 1571 and 1605. At the end of the 16th century, an urgent need for money led to the sale of royal border towns, including the city of Tachau. The city of Tachau and the citizens of Tachau were able to take over their city - but also numerous villages of the Tachau rulership - “for 30,000 shocks of Meisner groschen” as pledge and manage them as free and independent citizens. During this time, Protestantism also gained increasing supporters in the city of Tachau.
During the Reformation, the Catholic Habsburgs fought the growing Protestant movement in the country. After the battle of the White Mountain in 1620, the rule of the Habsburgs was restored. Because of the participation in the movement against the Habsburgs, the city of Tachau was sold with all goods to Baron Jan Filip Husmann in 1623, who also carried out the Counter Reformation in 1625 as the new heir . As the village of the city of Tachau, Hals also appears in the tax role of the villages of the Husman rule. It mentions 5 chalupners , 9 gardeners (small farmers) and a desolate property as subjects .
During the Thirty Years War only five taxable farms were recorded in Hals in 1637, and in 1640 only two. The war - at the same time religious war and state conflict between the powers of Europe at the time - devastated and depopulated entire regions. In Bohemia, Saxony and Sweden in particular held the land alternately. It was not until some time after the war, in 1654, that a dozen families lived and worked again in Hals.
Husmann donated the estate and the village to his monastery saints in 1644, but retained the sovereignty rights. The Tachau monastery was founded by him with a letter of foundation dated February 5, 1639 for the monks of the Paulaner order . After his death, Husmann's widow made a settlement in 1664 with the order, which was also awarded to Hals and the Meierhof, a sheep farm, the Halser mill, the Kretscham and the free beer tavern.
The Theresian Cadastre of Bohemia contains valuable information about the Tachau rule in the 18th century ; thereafter, in 1757, the Tachau parish had 3,954 members, 130 of them in Hals.
Only after the dissolution of the Paulan monastery by Emperor Joseph II was a separate parish established in Hals for the former western part of the Tachau parish due to an imperial decree of February 15, 1787. Until then, the residents of Hals had gone to mass in Tachau, where they had their children baptized, married and buried their dead. The registers begin in 1787 , i. H. the civil registers of births, marriages and deaths in the parish, to which, apart from Hals, the places Ringelberg, Galtenhof and Planer Brand belonged. From the baptismal records a large number of children of the families living here can be seen, but from the death records also a high mortality rate. At most half of all newborns reached adulthood in the 18th century.
The place and the estate were auctioned off to the Tachau rulership in 1789, then in 1792 Franz Edler von Wunderbaldiger, the former official director of the Plan rulership, became the new landlord.
The construction of our own church in Hals was delayed by the Napoleonic Wars . The building material provided was used for other purposes. In 1799, the squire Franz von Wunderbaldinger offered to build a house of worship at his own expense. The places belonging to the parish performed manual and tensioning services, so that the church could be consecrated in October 1800. Later the church tower was added, which - unlike today - was equipped with a pointed tower.
The Halsau church was consecrated to the weather saints "Johann (es) and Paul (us)", whose picture adorns the high altar. The pastor of Ringelberg moved with his chaplain to Hals on December 4th, 1800, where house no. 66 below the church was built for him as a parsonage. A school building (No. 65) was built in 1801 and an additional floor was added in 1878.
On a small hill southeast of the village, a chapel was built in a small grove in 1855, which was consecrated in honor of St. Nepomuk, a little below the chapel of the Holy Cross was built in 1888.
In the 19th century the landowners changed frequently: Sebastian Gradl from Tachau followed in 1803, and Matthias Vinzenz Wagner von Angerburg took over the estate on March 9, 1811, but sold it to Christof Stein on August 19 of the same year. From 1817 the next landlord was Rüdiger Freiherr von Stillfried ; he was followed on October 18, 1828 by Niklas Kahler. Kahler's heirs sold the estate to the Obermeier couple in 1871.
On February 1, 1887, Hugo Ritter von Landwehr-Wehrheim took over the estate and the castle, who retired that year as an imperial colonel . He died in Marienbad that same year. His successor was his son Franz Ritter von Landwehr-Wehrheim. Together with his two adoptive daughters, he was expelled to Pappenheim (Bavaria) after the Second World War , where the last landlord von Hals died on August 2, 1949.
An overview from 1933 shows the estate with 392 hectares. Of the twelve manor-owned buildings, the old castle (neck no. 1) was converted into a Renaissance building in 1873 , and the Landwehr had a right wing added to it in 1906.
By 1930 the number of houses in Hals had risen to 159, a few years later 172 house numbers were counted. The 1939 census showed 707 inhabitants. 29.2 percent of the population lived from agriculture , 12 farms owned between 5 and 11 hectares of land, 30 small farmers owned 2 to 5 hectares and 36 small farmers less than 2 hectares. In addition, the families of carpenters lived in Hals. Loggers, factory workers and a large number of bricklayers who often work outside the village in the summer months, e.g. B. worked in Eger (Cheb).
A two-class elementary school belonged to the village. The children in the first to third grades and the fifth to eighth grades were each taught together by a teacher.
In the period between the two world wars, the Social Democratic Party was initially the leading political force in Hals. She also introduced the mayor, the first to be Johann Dill. The German Social Democratic Workers' Party in the Czechoslovak Republic (DSAP) came into being after the establishment of the first Czech Republic in 1919 . Over the years, however, the Nazi ideology also found increasing support among the population of Hals , especially after the Sudetenland was occupied by troops of the German Reich in early October 1938. At that time, only a few residents of Hals belonged to the Social Democratic Party; the party documents of the local organization were last given to Ludwig Windisch (neck no. 162) for safekeeping.
The mayors from Hals to Johann Dill were until 1946: Josef Gruber (No. 71), Franz Windisch (No. 76), Franz Baumgarten (No. 77) and most recently Thomas Windisch sen. (No. 143).
The long-time pastor of the parish of Hals until 1943 was Franz Thomas, who was also a well-known alternative practitioner well beyond the parish .
In contrast to the neighboring farming villages, there were also some craft businesses and shops in Hals, including several bakeries, hairdressers and shoemakers, but also carpenters, butchers, plumbers, brush makers, blacksmiths and wagons as well as the Windisch building yard. Hals was the seat of a Raiffeisenkasse and a post office and had had its own volunteer fire brigade since 1881 . Four restaurants and four general stores were operated on site, including the grocery store of the Jewish family Salz, who had formerly also operated the brickworks in Hals, until 1938.
The Second World War ended for the population of Hals with the invasion of American troops from Ringelberg . The result of the Second World War was the loss of their homeland for the vast majority of the German population of Hals. In March 1946, the first families of German descent received their deportation order. Up until November 1946, further transports followed, with which the population of German origin was forcibly resettled to the Allied occupation zones in the former German Reich; from the former Tachau district there were a total of 23,542 men, women and children. Most of the transports went via the collective warehouse in Tachau, which was housed in the building of the former Tachau cigarette factory. Only a few Germans were ultimately left in Hals.
In the first elections after the Second World War in 1946, the Communist Party clearly won in the Tachov district. The repopulation of the many depopulated towns and communities in the district began in 1947. In particular, immigrants from Ukraine and Romania settled in the villages on the edge of the Bohemian Forest. In 1948 the collectivization of agriculture and the management by agricultural unity cooperatives began.
After attempts at reform during the so-called "Prague Spring" in 1968, it was not until the "Velvet Revolution" in 1989 that a significant change was made for the political system of the Czech Republic and ended the long communist reign. This fundamental change also characterizes today's development of the Tachov region in the center of Europe and near the German border. In Halže too - in contrast to some other neighboring communities - smaller private-sector businesses are developing.
“ When the Euregio Egrensis was founded in 1993, the rule was from the outset that prejudices had to be broken down on both sides and relationships had to be re-established. Mayor Frantisek Curka was the driving force behind this euregional idea from the start. Since 1990 he has made first contacts in Germany. Many cross-border visits to his region have supported this. Right from the start, his contacts were the region around Bärnau , his immediate neighborhood on the German side. "
The municipality Halže consists of the districts Branka ( Galtenhof ), Halže, Horní Výšina ( Ringelberg , also Oberringelberg ) and Svobodka ( Frauenreith ). Basic settlement units are Branka, Halže, Horní Výšina, Pavlův Studenec 3 and Svobodka.
The municipality is divided into the cadastral districts of Branka u Tachova, Halže, Pavlův Studenec 3, Svobodka and Výšina. In the municipal area, which also includes large forest areas up to the Bavarian border near Bärnau and Mähring , there are the villages and residential areas Doly ( Thörl ), Hamerské Domky ( Hammerhäuser ), Hraničná ( Hermannsreith ) - also known as Pavlův Studenec 3 - which were closed after 1945 and Pomezná ( Wittichsthal ).
Culture and sights
Sons and daughters of the church
- Thomas Windisch , architect and composer
- Josef Schnabl (arrangement): Home atlas of the former political district Tachau-Pfraumberg. (Based on the collection of rescued maps, plans, photos and records from the local supervisors and residents of the former communities) . Local history working group of the Tachauer, Geretsried 1973.
- Franz Löw: Chronicle of the community neck . Home district care Tachau, Nuremberg 1966.
- Zdeněk Procházka : Tachovsko = Tachau District (= Český les. Historicko-turistický průvodce. = Historical-tourist guide. 2). Nakladatelství Českého Lesa, Domažlice 1994, ISBN 80-901122-2-6 .
- Website of the municipality of Halže, CZ
- Neck. In: bbkult.net, Centrum Bavaria Bohemia (German and Czech).
- Information (CZ) with a photo of the parish church
- Church book directory of the Roman Catholic Parish of Hals
- Český statistický úřad - The population of the Czech municipalities as of January 1, 2019 (PDF; 7.4 MiB)
- Overcoming the limit in your mind ( memento from February 11, 2013 in the web archive archive.today ). In: Oberpfalznetz , November 22, 2004.