History of Psychiatry

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The history of psychiatry deals with the historical development of the scientific , social and medical handling of mental and emotional diseases . The history of psychiatry can be divided into three major epochs. From ancient times to the end of the 18th century, the description and treatment of madness dominated . The history of psychiatry in the narrower sense begins with the Enlightenment in the 18th century, when efforts were made to systematically care for the sick. Since the end of the 19th century, psychiatry has developed into an academic science.

History of Psychiatry as History of Science

The history of psychiatry can be presented from different perspectives: It is part of the history of medicine , but also of the history of psychology , with the history of psychoanalysis playing a special role from the end of the 19th century. In addition, there is the history of psychiatry criticism, for example by Michel Foucault , but also the history of anti- psychiatry and feminist psychiatry criticism .

In addition, there are points of contact with philosophy to be included. A presentation of the history of psychiatry is often subjective, because psychiatry is based on certain images of people and behavioral expectations that have been shaped by political and social trends. The social understanding and self-image of the practitioner with regard to their task fluctuated extremely - from the goal of keeping problem cases safe, to attempts to at least influence symptoms of the disease (in order to reduce the negative consequences for the person concerned and / or his environment, to restore an ability to work, etc. .) to the right to treatment of the causes of the disease and the healing of those affected - or the initiation of social changes, e.g. B. in the context of legislative procedures, if one believed that one could start there.

In addition, the assignment of symptoms to certain causes has often changed over time, e.g. B. from religious explanations ( demonic possession, karma ) to the humoral pathology emanating from the Corpus Hippocraticum and expanded by Galen (imbalance of the juices) or metabolic disorders in the brain to psychologizing approaches to individual (repressed conflicts, unfavorable assumptions about the world, complex traumatization ) or collective level (disrupted family system, sick society). Thus, psychiatry could not always be clearly assigned as a specialty of medicine. The more modern theories about the cause of the disease significantly influenced the use of specific treatment measures. The scientific discipline that deals with the symptoms, syndromes and nosologies within psychiatry is psychopathology .

In addition, many of the clinical pictures that were once treated psychiatrically now fall into other medical specialties, and the need for action is assessed differently with different phenomena over the course of time.

A differentiated history of psychiatry therefore combines the history of medicine, social history and the sociology of science , analyzes attributions and tries to elucidate sociological and political connections.

The physicians Theodor Kirchhoff , Erwin Heinz Ackerknecht and Klaus Dörner were among the researchers in the field of psychiatry history in the 19th and 20th centuries .

Treatment of Madness from Antiquity to the End of the 18th Century

Psychiatric hospitals are known from ancient times; the Asklepieion near Pergamon , which offers temple sleep (a form of healing sleep) as the main healing method, can be viewed from a modern perspective as one of the oldest psychosomatic clinics. Numerous representations of clinical pictures have come down to us from the time of ancient Rome, e.g. B. by Cicero ( conversations in Tusculum ), Aulus Cornelius Celsus (approx. 30 AD), Soranos of Ephesus (approx. 100 AD) and Aretaeus of Cappadocia (approx. 150 AD). Galen mentioned the hallucination as Paraphrosyne and saw this as a symptom of psychosis. The Roman treatment methods, which, starting from the Hippocratic and Galen, were mostly based on humoral pathology, included massages , bloodletting , diets , cupping , the administration of hellebore and oil compresses on the head. Attempts were made to promote the understanding by having critical texts read and questioning the sick, and efforts were made to activate the patients through theater games, board games or even travel. Some sick people were also isolated and placed in rooms with high windows. Aulus Cornelius Celsus recommended the use of chains.

According to Jetter, the earliest reports of places of custody for the mentally ill in the German-speaking area, mostly in the form of separated cells, are in the 14th century. There were reports of wooden jester cages, mad boxes and Dorenkisten, for example in Hamburg (1386), Braunschweig (1390 or 1434) and Lübeck (1471). In 1477, the Heilig-Geist-Spital in Frankfurt am Main also had special rooms for “crazy” people.

The first specialized institutions for the mentally ill emerged in the 12th century, for example in Damascus , Cairo and Granada . Good care and goodwill towards patients are often reported, but there are also pure custody houses, for example the Frankfurt "Stocke" or the Lübeck Dorenkisten. The infamous Bethlehem Hospital in London ("Bedlam") was founded in 1377. Restless or aggressive lunatics were sometimes put in wooden boxes (so-called mad boxes ) in front of the city or locked in the city gates, for example in Lübeck at the suggestion of Peter Monnik from 1479.

The situation changed in the late Middle Ages. Symptoms of illness were interpreted as the work of the devil and some affected persons were persecuted by the Inquisition as witches or wizards in connection with them . From the 15th to 17th centuries, thousands of sick people were tortured and burned. This witchcraft madness , especially with regard to the mentally ill, was countered for the first time in the 16th century by the doctor Johann Weyer with his work De praestigiis daemonum .

In the 17th and 18th centuries, hospitals became common; B. in Paris the " Hôpital général ", in England the "workhouses", in Germany the "penitentiaries". They were more like prisons than hospitals. The patients vegetated there in chains. Jacques-René Tenon recommended chains as a therapeutic agent. They were housed with the poor, prostitutes, vagabonds, cripples and offenders (including violent criminals). There were no doctors.

The guards forced the patients to do whatever physical labor they could with harsh sentences, and otherwise left them mentally neglected. Abuse by fellow patients was also the rule. In some places the mentally ill were shown to a paying audience; B. in the 1784 built " Narrenturm " in Vienna . However, this building, which was connected to a general hospital, was already a step towards the increasing "humanization" of treatment.

Institutional psychiatry from the end of the 18th to the end of the 19th century

The socio-historical background of modern institutional psychiatry lies in the modern European population explosion and the resulting social question ( pauperism ). As early as the 17th century, more and more doctors saw behavioral disorders as a medical problem and provided precise descriptions of psychiatric diseases. The Scottish doctor George Cheyne (1671-1743) found that about a third of all medical patients suffered from hysterical , neurasthenic and hypochondriac syndromes, which he called "English Malady". Georg Ernst Stahl (1659–1734) emphasized the importance of the soul in somatic ailments and already distinguished between organic (“sympathetic”) and functional (“pathetic”) disorders. It was not until the end of the century, however, that clinical psychiatry developed that was connected with care in institutions.

Philippe Pinel , who allegedly began to free the sick from their chains in the Bicêtre in 1793 , became a legend . Regardless of the truth of this anecdote, he is considered the most important co-founder of modern French psychiatry. Abraham Joly in Geneva (1787), the Quaker William Tuke in York (1796) and Johann Gottfried Langermann in Bayreuth (1804/1805) also carried out the “liberation of the sick from their chains” . From 1839 the British doctor John Connolly advocated the maxim of renouncing any mechanical coercion ( no restraint ). The "no restraint system" of English insane care was viewed by many doctors as exemplary.

The doctors justify their efforts to the previously only locked away mentally ill with the conviction that the symptoms are somatic (e.g. due to injury or organic disease) and are therefore curable. Pinel developed a system of diseases and represented a therapeutic optimism. For manias and melancholia, he reckoned a cure rate of over 50% within 18 months after the start of treatment. This z. The optimism, in part emanating from the somatics , which also led to the establishment of institutional psychiatry , was in fact not justifiable by the successes achieved. This gave a certain boost to the more pessimistic attitudes towards the healing tendencies, which may be. a. expressed in the rise of Darwinism and in the doctrine of degeneration .

The so-called psychics , on the other hand, viewed mental illnesses as illnesses of the disembodied soul, i.e. as a result of sins. The therapy used brutal physical methods, the purpose of which was to shake the soul. The usual measures in these institutions were physical treatment with rods, sticks and whips and torture methods such as the swivel chair (the patient was rotated on it until blood ran out of his mouth and nose or he lost consciousness), shock cures (e.g. Snow bath or fall bath, ie immersion in ice-cold water), generating physical exhaustion (forced standing, emetics, laxatives, starvation diets), whipping with nettles or rubbing the scalp with substances such as B. Tartar emetic , which caused painful, purulent ulcers. Also, mustard plasters , ants, electricity and hot iron were used.

Foundation of the first institutions

Christian August Fürchtegott Hayner (1775–1837) and Ernst Gottlob Pienitz (1777–1853) conceived the idea of ​​a pure nursing home for insane people who were considered incurable.

The Narrenturm , built in Vienna in 1784 , is considered the world's first psychiatric clinic . It was occupied with patients until 1866.

In 1796 the Quaker William Tuke (1732–1822) founded a private insane asylum in York called " The Retreat ". The idyllically located house was characterized by its calm atmosphere and the renunciation of coercion and violence. In Germany in 1803 Johann Christian Reil lamented the unworthy conditions in breeding houses and madhouses. His reform proposals are reminiscent of the concept of “retreat”. From 1799 Reil began to publish his ideas, in which he differentiated between actual, somatically tangible nerve diseases and “mental disruptions” based solely on psychological phenomena. Its 1803 publication has been viewed in part as the beginning of German psychiatry.

The first psychiatric sanatorium in Germany (representing the beginning of modern “lunatic medicine in the German-speaking area”) is that of Johann Gottfried Langermann according to plans from 1804 in Bayreuth from the “madhouse” to the modern “insane asylum” from 1805, whose director is Langermann 1805 was.

Warnings from physicians such as Albert Mathias Vering (1773–1829) were directed towards the inhuman or inhumane conditions in the psychiatric hospitals, under which it had to be viewed as a miracle when an improvement in the suffering set in . In 1821 he still considered it questionable to admit the insane to insane asylums. It had devastating effects for the person concerned to leave his familiar surroundings and to be in a place that was more like a penal institution than a sanatorium. The philosopher Jakob Friedrich Fries emphasized the medical responsibility for psychiatry in his handbook of psychic anthropology in 1820 , rejected the ethical-theological foundation of the concept of illness and was thus a forerunner of the somatics important for the development of psychiatric institutions . This also ushered in the emancipation of psychiatry into an independent medical field, which at that time began to distinguish itself from other medical disciplines and from the humanities.

Social psychiatric movements began to increase in the 19th century , also starting in England. The no-restraint movement came about after a patient died in a straitjacket . It quickly established itself: while 39 out of 92 patients were handcuffed in 1830, in 1837 it was only 2 out of 120 patients. The approach was introduced by Robert Gardiner Hill (1811-1878) in England. This "no-restraint" movement was decisively promoted by John Connolly (1794–1866).

It was also (in Catholic southern Germany - with many exceptions such as Würzburg - later than in the Protestant north) experimented with other more humane treatment principles, for example social events and activities in handicrafts and agriculture, partly in the houses directly connected to the farms. In many institutions, daily visits by the doctors have been introduced.

Pioneers of institutional psychiatry

  • William Battie (1703–1776), English doctor who is considered one of the first psychiatrists.
  • William Tuke (1732–1822), pioneer of humane treatment and founder of the “Retreat” in York.
  • Franz Anton Mesmer (1734–1815), controversial physician who, despite the untenable theory of mesmerism, achieved success and methodically advanced modern psychotherapy .
  • John Brown (1735–1788), founder of Brownianism, which combined various life and disease theories into an overall concept.
  • Philippe Pinel (1745–1826), French doctor and psychiatrist, who enforced non-violent treatment (the so-called "traitement moral", characterized by affection, gentleness and patience) and promoted progressive psychiatric training.
  • Benjamin Rush (1746–1813), author of the first American textbook, therefore also called the "father" of US psychiatry, and inventor of the straitjacket.
  • Johann Christian Reil (1759–1813), doctor and professor from Halle, who campaigned for the humane treatment of the “insane”.
  • Vincenzo Chiarugi (1759-1820), an early Italian psychiatric reformer
  • John Haslam (1764–1844), pharmacist at Bethlam Hospital in London, who published the first major case study of schizophrenia under the title "Illustrations of Madness".
  • Jean-Étienne Esquirol (1772–1840) psychiatrist, collaborator and student of Pinels . Founder of the monomania theory , from which the terms “ kleptomania ” and “ pyromania ” have survived today. Co-founder of the exemplary French psychiatry tradition.
  • Karl Georg Neumann (1774–1850), doctor at the Charité and early critic of somatic therapies.
  • Gottlob Heinrich Bergmann (1781–1861), established the Hildesheim sanctuary and nursing home.
  • Peter Willers Jessen (1793–1875), director of the first psychiatric hospital in Germany (Schleswig).
  • John Conolly (1794–1866), one of the founders of “no restraint therapy” (treatment in small, humane institutes; principle of the open door, special training for carers).
  • Joseph Guislain (1797–1860), founder of modern psychiatry in Belgium, who thereby freed the mentally ill from their previous prison life.
  • Christian Roller (1802–1878) was a German psychiatrist. He was the founder and long-term director of the Illenau sanatorium in Achern.
  • Georg Ludwig (1826–1910), German psychiatrist. Initiator and first director of the state insane asylum in Heppenheim / Bergstrasse , which at the time was considered a "role model for Germany" by experts. Founder of the relief association for the mentally ill in Hessen. Significant initiator of the first chair for psychiatry in Hessen at the University of Giessen.
  • Ludwig Meyer (1827–1900) was one of the first to introduce the no-restraint principle at a German psychiatric hospital.

As early as 1842, the psychiatrist Wilhelm Griesinger, like other contemporary medical professionals, assumed that 'mental illnesses are brain diseases'. Like Wahle, they referred to the latest physiological research. The reality of psychiatry, however, was shaped by traditional, humanities conceptions that stood in the way of scientifically based research.

Psychiatry since the late 19th century

Scientific psychiatry until 1945

The beginning of a scientific psychiatry is often associated with Philippe Pinel, since his striking achievement is seen first of all as the liberation of the “lunatics” from the chains in the French revolutionary times. In intellectual history, the French Revolution is seen as the culmination and end point of the Enlightenment (the "Age of Reason"). Up until this point in time, mental disorders seemed to have been viewed primarily as disorders of the intellectual activity (instruments for describing the intellectual functions were presented, for example, by John Locke and Bonnot de Condillac ). With Pinel's conception of the “manie sans délire” a paradigm shift seems to have been initiated: People were amazed to note that there were apparently psychological disorders that do not affect the intellectual functions or only marginally impair them. Pinel's rather anecdotal mention of “manie sans délire” led, via André Matthey's concept of “pathomania”, to the development of Esquirol's monomania , which, due to its extreme conceptual fuzziness, met with massive rejection by the end of the 19th century (the terms “ kleptomania "And" pyromania "have survived to this day).

The development initiated with Pinel's “manie sans délire”, however, prepared the ground for dealing with disorders that were less noticeable than the classic “mental illnesses” (such as disorders that in today's psychiatric terminology as affective disorders, neurotic disorders [compulsions, phobias , etc.] and personality disorders ) and the z. B. were placed at the center of consideration by Sigmund Freud . It is also essential James Cowles Prichards concept of " moral insanity " and Koch's "The psychopathic inferiority" (1899), which ultimately contributed significantly to the concept of personality disorders.

In the second half of the 19th century it was hoped that mental illnesses could soon be traced back to anatomical changes in the brain. This hope was supported z. B. from the discovery of the language center ( Broca center ) by the neurologist Paul Broca . The connection with other medical disciplines, especially neurology , grew stronger. There was also an increasing clinicalization of psychiatry, i. H. Patients were treated in beds.

Towards the end of the century, “nervous disorders” ( neuroses ) became the focus of attention, with the technique of hypnosis playing an important role. At the beginning of the 20th century, however, German psychiatry showed itself to be skeptical or even hostile towards such approaches, especially towards psychoanalysis . The physician and philosopher Richard Wahle was one of these skeptics . In 1931 he published his "Fundamentals of a New Psychiatry". In contrast to theories such as psychoanalysis, he advocated a physiological, from his point of view the only correct scientifically founded view of psychiatric ailments. According to Wahle, there are no physiological indications that there are "character traits" or "drives" in the brain. He also rejected the view that human thoughts are shifted into the unconscious because they are evil. Repression does not match the constant activity of the brain. He formulated his scientific contribution on the basis of neuroscientific knowledge of his time. Psychiatry should undertake appropriate research on the basis of his investigations and the current "brain theory".

Electric shocks were used to treat soldiers traumatized in World War I ( war tremors ). During the war between 1915 and 1918, around 70,000 patients died in psychiatric hospitals, whose death was not actively pursued by malnutrition, but often not prevented either, since in addition to the scarcity and insufficient food allocations, various considerations about the supposed inferiority of these people and their acceptability the costs they caused were employed. The integration of psychotherapeutic methods into psychiatry only came about in the following decades. The " destruction of life unworthy of life " was first propagated in 1920 by the psychiatrist Alfred Hoche . Other countries have experimented with somatic treatments, e.g. B. Cardiazol - shock therapy (artificially evoking epileptic seizures through toxic substances), electroconvulsive therapy , which Ugo Cerletti and Lucio Bini used for the first time in Rome in 1938, and psychosurgery , which includes prefrontal lobotomy , Egas Moniz (he later received the Nobel Prize) and Almeida Lima in Portugal.

At the beginning of the 20th century, classic German psychiatry set the trend. Their main representatives were Emil Kraepelin (1856–1926), Karl Jaspers (1883–1969) and Kurt Schneider (1887–1967). In the light of the emerging term hereditary disease , many mental illnesses have been classified as "hereditary". At the beginning of the National Socialist era , compulsory sterilization was legalized with the law for the prevention of hereditary offspring . After the outbreak of the Second World War (1939–1945), around 100,000 mentally ill people were murdered in German institutions as part of the so-called “ Action T4 ” and “euthanasia” for children . With the participation of the health administration, doctors and nursing staff, more than 350,000 people in German hospitals were largely forcibly sterilized; the murders of the sick during the Nazi era claimed well over 150,000 victims. After these crimes were concealed for decades, several scientific studies are now available.

Psychiatry after 1945

After the end of the war, psychiatry developed slowly in Germany. In the Federal Republic of Germany in 1970, the German Medical Association dealt with psychiatric care for the first time in its history. In the following two years, associations such as the German Society for Social Psychiatry (DGSP) and the Aktion mentally Ill e. V. founded. Representatives of all interest groups were found in the latter, which was probably not insignificant for the fact that the Aktion mentally Ill e. V. took over the management of the Psychiatrie-Enquête , which was constituted on August 31, 1971. In the GDR, the Rodewian theses on the abolition of detention psychiatry, the social integration of the sick into society and the development of outpatient and day-care services were adopted as early as 1963 . Initially, however, these were only implemented in a few regions.

The Psychiatry Enquête, around 200 experts from all areas of psychiatry , dealt with the situation of psychiatry in Germany until 1979. In September 1975 it published a 430 A4-page report on the state of psychiatry in the Federal Republic of Germany. He lamented the brutality in psychiatric hospitals and a blatant lack of outpatient care options and additional forms of treatment (e.g. art therapy ). Overall, over 70 percent of the patients were treated against their will. This led to a series of reforms.

Progress has also been made in somatic approaches: the development of psychotropic drugs from 1952 onwards made it possible to influence psychological processes with drugs. With the discovery of chlorpromazine as an antipsychotic in this year , the beginning of modern pharmacopsychiatry is equated. However, this clear scientific progress is often perceived as ambiguous by those affected by the medical prescription of psychotropic drugs. Sometimes considerable side effects with irreversible consequential damage (e.g. tardive dyskinesia ) have to be accepted. On the other hand, the generally observed phenomenon of medicalization, especially in psychiatry, has to be viewed as anti-therapeutic , since prescribing medication, which is technically easy to handle, seems to be the method of choice (contrast between pragmatism and self-reflection - or “Are we up to the perfection of our products? "). The development of psychotherapy led to better healing and rehabilitation options, with different psychotherapy methods being used in East and West Germany. Research into the effectiveness of psychotherapies still occupies a large area today. In 1992 the psychiatry specialist became the new specialist title "Psychiatry and Psychotherapy".

In the field of psychiatric classification, the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders aimed to achieve uniform diagnostics, in the newly developed versions of which individual German researchers were and are also involved.

Pioneer of scientific psychiatry

In 1899, Emil Kraepelin classified mental illnesses according to course and prognosis and thus came to differentiate between manic-depressive insanity (affective disorders) and dementia praecox (group of schizophrenias). He thus created the basis of the psychiatric system that is still valid today. Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) was the first to explain hysterical states as a result of traumatic experiences or the suppression of drive fantasies. He became the founder of the independent discipline of psychoanalysis .

Other pioneers in the historical development were Johann Christian Reil (1759–1813), who is considered the founder of modern psychiatry and who first used the term “psychiatry” in 1808. For the academisation is Johann Christian August Hein Roth to name (1773-1843), the 1811 first professor in Leipzig held a Western University Chair of a soul-healing known royal box.

Bénédict Augustin Morel (1809–1873), who advocated the theory that mental illness represents a degenerative variant of the normal type that emerges more clearly with each new generation, should be mentioned with regard to the debate about the causes of mental illnesses and their localization within medical thought lead to the extinction of the species. Wilhelm Griesinger (1817–1868), who worked as a professor of psychiatry at the Charité from 1865, saw mental illnesses as diseases of the brain and thus established a research direction that played an important role in German-language psychopathological research.

The Parisian neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot (1825–1893), who influenced the teachings of Sigmund Freud with his research on hysteria , also achieved special significance

The description and naming of individual illnesses, disorders or symptoms differentiated the view and set research in motion. Karl Ludwig Kahlbaum (1828–1899) was the first to describe the condition of catatonia . The New York physician George Miller Beard (1839–1883) coined the term neurasthenia , which was also adopted by Freud and is now rarely used . Eugen Bleuler (1857-1939) is considered to be the one that the term schizophrenia coined in psychiatric nomenclature. Paul Julius Möbius (1853–1907) introduced the term ' endogenous ' for independently developing psychoses, which was valid until the ICD-10 classification (1991). By Julius Wagner-Jauregg psychiatric symptoms were of neurosyphilis as a late consequence of syphilis are differentiated and treated successfully. Ernst Kretschmer (1888–1964) shaped the psychiatric debate with the establishment of a typifying constitutional doctrine, which also influenced the racial doctrine of National Socialism.

As one of the newer treatment methods, which was the first to emphasize the psychological aspect, several psychiatrists experimented with hypnosis , which in this context can be seen as a forerunner of modern psychotherapies. The main focus was on the symptoms of hysteria. In parallel to Freud and Josef Breuer (1842–1925), Hippolyte-Marie Bernheim (1840–1919) also tried to influence hysterical symptoms through hypnosis. In Switzerland, Auguste Forel (1848–1931) helped hypnosis gain recognition as a therapy against the resistance of the contemporary medical profession. Otto Binswanger (1852–1929) delivered at the same time fundamental studies to understand the hysteria.

As head of the Vienna University Psychiatry and editor of psychiatric specialist publications, Theodor Meynert (1833–1892) had an influential influence on the next generation of psychiatrists. Carl Wernicke (1848–1905), after whom the Wernicke Center is named, stands for individual discoveries , while others shaped the theoretical debates and thus paved the way for certain therapeutic concepts, such as Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849–1936) for behavioral therapy and Johannes Heinrich Schultz (1884–1970) as the developer of autogenic training , Richard Wahle (1857–1935), who stood for the physiological foundation of psychiatry, and Pierre Janet (1859–1947) as a pioneer of modern psychotherapy.

At the meta level, Karl Jaspers (1883–1969) and Arthur Kronfeld (1886–1941) are important for the philosophical and epistemological debate .


In Germany and many other countries there are numerous museums and permanent exhibitions on the subject of psychiatry. Mostly they show their historical development, the changing therapies, drugs and devices, the legal and political bases as well as individual personalities of the subject. Especially the German museums often also refer to the years of National Socialism ; there are often memorial sites and places of remembrance. These museums are almost always located on the premises of the clinics that have often existed for a long time.

See also


Older literature

  • Erwin Heinz Ackerknecht : Brief history of psychiatry. Stuttgart 1957; 2nd, improved edition, ibid. 1967, ISBN 3-432-80043-6 .
  • Franz Gabriel Alexander and Sheldon T. Selesnick: History of Psychiatry. Constance 1969.
  • Rolf Baer: The psychiatric system around 1800 and how it was overcome. Cologne 1983 (= The Medical Conversation. Volume 3).
  • Karl Birnbaum : History of Psychiatric Science. In: Oswald Bumke (Hrsg.): Handbuch der Geisteskrankheiten. 11 volumes. Berlin 1928-1932, Volume 1, pp. 11-49.
  • Dirk Blasius : The managed madness. A social history of the madhouse. Fischer-Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1980, ISBN 3-596-26726-9 .
  • Eugen Bleuler , J. Dorner, M. Fischer, K. Hasse, J. Kläsi, HW Maier, J. Raecke, K. Schneider, R. Schneider, H. Schwabe, M. Thumm, F. Wendenburg, K. Wilmanns: Open welfare in psychiatry and its border areas: a guide for doctors, social hygienists, economists, administrative officials, as well as organs of public and private welfare. Digitization project Springer Book Archives. Heidelberg 2013.
  • Gundolf Keil , Gerhardt Nissen (Hrsg.): Psychiatry on the way to science. Psychiatry-historical symposium on the occasion of the 90th anniversary of the opening of the "Psychiatric Clinic of the Royal University of Würzburg". Thieme, Stuttgart / New York 1985.
  • Theodor Kirchhoff (ed.): German insane doctors. Individual images of their life and work. Edited with the support of the German Research Institute for Psychiatry in Munich and numerous employees. 2 volumes. Berlin 1921-1924.
  • Kurt Kolle (Ed.): Great neurologists. 3 volumes. Stuttgart: Thieme 1956–1963; 2nd edition there 1970.
  • Emil Kraepelin : A Century of Psychiatry. A contribution to the history of human morality. Berlin 1918.
  • Heinrich Laehr : On the history of psychiatry in the second half of the last century. In: General journal for psychiatry and psychiatric forensic medicine. Volume 44, Issue 4, 1888, pp. 294-310.
  • Werner Leibbrand , Annemarie Wettley : The madness. History of Western Psychopathology . Verlag Karl Alber, Freiburg / Munich 1961 (Orbis academicus Volume II / 12), ISBN 3-495-44127-1 .
  • Annemarie Leibbrand-Wettley : The position of the insane in the society of the 19th century. In: Walter Artelt , Walter Rüegg (ed.): Studies on the history of medicine in the nineteenth century, Volume I: The doctor and the sick in society in the 19th century. Stuttgart 1967, pp. 50-69.
  • Bernhard Pauleikhoff: The image of man through the ages . History of ideas in psychiatry and clinical psychology. 7 volumes. Pressler, Hürtgenwald 1983–1992.
  • Pierre Pichot: A Century of Psychiatry. Paris 1983.
  • Giuseppe Roccatagliata: A History of Ancient Psychiatry. New York 1986.

More recent literature

  • Matthias C. Angermeyer, Holger Steinberg: 200 years of psychiatry at the University of Leipzig. People and Concepts . Springer, Heidelberg 2005, ISBN 3-540-25075-1 .
  • Dirk Blasius: Simple soul disorder. History of German Psychiatry 1800–1945 . Fischer TB, Frankfurt am Main 1994, ISBN 3-596-11738-0 .
  • Cornelia Brink : Limits of the institution. Psychiatry and Society in Germany 1860–1980 . Wallstein, Göttingen 2010, ISBN 978-3-8353-0623-3 .
  • Burkhart Brückner: History of Psychiatry . (Series: Basiswissen), Psychiatrie-Verlag, Cologne 2014, 2nd edition, ISBN 978-3-88414-494-7 .
  • Wolfgang U. Eckart : History of medicine . 4th edition. Springer, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-540-67405-5 .
  • Klaus Dörner : citizens and madmen. On the social history and sociology of science in psychiatry. New edition. Frankfurt am Main 1995, ISBN 3-434-46227-9 .
  • Klaus Dörner: Psychiatry and the social question. A plea for an expanded psychiatry historiography. In: Norbert Frei (Hrsg.): Medicine and health policy in the Nazi era. R. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich 1991 (= writings of the quarterly books for contemporary history. Special issue), ISBN 3-486-64534-X , pp. 287–294.
  • Magdalena Frühinsfeld: Anton Müller. First insane doctor at the Juliusspital in Würzburg: life and work. A short outline of the history of psychiatry up to Anton Müller. Medical dissertation Würzburg 1991, pp. 9–80 ( Brief outline of the history of psychiatry ) and 81–96 ( History of psychiatry in Würzburg to Anton Müller ).
  • Gundolf Keil , Gerhardt Nissen (Hrsg.): Psychiatry on the way to science. Psychiatry-historical symposium on the occasion of the 90th anniversary of the opening of the "Psychiatric Clinic of the Royal University of Würzburg". Stuttgart / New York 1985.
  • Michaela Ralser: The subject of normality. The knowledge archive of psychiatry: Cultures of disease around 1900. Fink, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-7705-4980-1 .
  • Heinz Schott , Rainer Tölle : History of Psychiatry. Disease teachings, wrong turns, forms of treatment . Beck, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-406-53555-0 .
  • Edward Shorter : History of Psychiatry . Fest, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-8286-0045-X .
  • Jacques Vié and Henri Baruk : History of Psychiatry. In: Illustrated History of Medicine. German version ed. by Richard Toellner et al., special edition in six volumes, Salzburg 1986, Volume IV, pp. 1944–1985.

Special topics

  • Alfred E. Angst: The first psychiatric magazines in Germany. Medical dissertation in Würzburg 1975.
  • Burkhart Brückner: Delirium and madness. History, personal reports and theories from antiquity to 1900. Vol. 1: From antiquity to the Enlightenment . Pressler, Hürtgenwald 2007, ISBN 978-3-87646-099-4 . Vol. 2: The 19th Century - Germany . Pressler, Hürtgenwald 2007, ISBN 978-3-87646-109-0 .
  • Françoise Castel, Robert Castel, Anne Lovell: Psychiatization of everyday life. Production and marketing of psycho goods in the USA . Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1982.
  • Heinz Faulstich . Starvation in psychiatry. With a topography of Nazi psychiatry. Lambertus, Freiburg 1998. ISBN 3-7841-0987-X Contents
  • Esther Fischer-Homberger : Hypochondria. Melancholy to neurosis: diseases and conditions . Huber, Bern 1970.
  • Esther Fischer-Homberger: The traumatic neurosis. From somatic to social suffering . Huber, Bern 1975, ISBN 3-456-80123-8 ; Psychosocial, Giessen 2004, ISBN 3-89806-275-9 .
  • Michel Foucault : Madness and Society. A story of madness in the age of reason . Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1989, ISBN 3-518-27639-5 .
  • Norbert Frei (Hrsg.): Medicine and health policy in the Nazi era. R. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich 1991 (= writings of the quarterly books for contemporary history. Special issue), ISBN 3-486-64534-X , here: pp. 191–331: Psychiatry and “Euthanasia” . With contributions from Achim Thom , Bernd Walter , Dirk Blasius and Thorsten Sueße, among others .
  • Gerhardt Nissen , with the collaboration of Francisco Alonso-Fernandez: (Ed.): Somatogenic psychosyndromes and their therapy in childhood and adolescence. Medical historical, neurological, neurophysiological, neuropsychological, psychological, neurosurgical, endocrinological, psychiatric, prognostic and therapeutic aspects. Bern 1990.
  • Frank Hall: Psychopharmaceuticals - their development and clinical testing: on the history of German pharmaceutical psychiatry from 1844–1952 . Kovac, Hamburg 1997.
  • David Healy : The Antidepressant Era . 3. Edition. Harvard University Press, Cambridge 2000.
  • Maren Lorenz : Criminal Bodies - Troubled Minds. The standardization of the individual in forensic medicine and psychiatry of the Enlightenment . Hamburger Edition, Hamburg 1999, ISBN 3-930908-44-1 .
  • Uwe Henrik Peters : Psychiatry in Exile: The Emigration of Dynamic Psychiatry from Germany 1933–1939. Kupka, Düsseldorf 1992, ISBN 3-926567-04-X .
  • Peter Riedesser , Axel Verderber: machine guns behind the front. On the history of German military psychiatry . 2nd Edition. Mabuse-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2004, ISBN 3-935964-52-8 .
  • Hans Ludwig Siemen: Reform and radicalization. Changes in Psychiatry in the Great Depression. In: Norbert Frei (Hrsg.): Medicine and health policy in the Nazi era. R. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich 1991 (= writings of the quarterly books for contemporary history. Special issue), ISBN 3-486-64534-X , pp. 191-200.
  • Stefanie Westermann u. a. (Ed.): Nazi "Euthanasia" and memory. Coming to terms with the past - forms of remembrance - perspectives of those affected. LIT-Verlag, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-643-10608-7 .

Web links

Wiktionary: Psychiatry  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: Madhouse  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations


  1. Hans Bertram: The development of psychiatry in antiquity and the Middle Ages. In: Janus 44, 1940, pp. 81-122.
  2. ^ Hubert Tellenbach : Melancholy. 2nd Edition. Berlin / Heidelberg / New York 1974, p. 1 f.
  3. Konrad Goehl : Guido d'Arezzo the Younger and his 'Liber mitis'. 2 volumes. Horst Wellm, Pattensen near Hanover (now Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg) 1984 (= Würzburg medical-historical research. Volume 32), ISBN 3-921456-61-4 (also philosophical dissertation Würzburg), pp. 99–115.
  4. ^ Esther Fischer-Homberger : History of Medicine. Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg / New York 1975, p. 172 f.
  5. Cf. for example Theodor Kirchhoff: Outline of a history of German insane care. Berlin 1890; and the same: History of Psychiatry. In: Gustav Aschaffenburg (Ed.): Manual of Psychiatry, General Part, Dept. 1–5, Special Part, Dept. 1–7. Leipzig / Vienna 1911–1915, General Part, Section 4, pp. 1–48.
  6. ^ Paul Diepgen : History of Medicine. The historical development of medicine and medical life. Berlin, Vol. 1: 1949, Vol. 2.1: 1951 ( From Enlightenment Medicine to the Establishment of Cellular Pathology (approx. 1740 - approx. 1858). ), Vol. 2.2: 1955, here: Volume 1, p. 139 .
  7. ↑ Based on the popular scientific presentation "800 Years of Psychotherapy" by Manfred Spitzer as part of the BRalpha series "Geist & Brain" here
  8. Giuseppe Roccatagliata: A History of Ancient Psychiatry. 1986, p. 201.
  9. Magdalena Frühinsfeld: Brief outline of psychiatry. In: Anton Müller. First insane doctor at the Juliusspital in Würzburg: life and work. A short outline of the history of psychiatry up to Anton Müller. Medical dissertation Würzburg 1991, pp. 9–80 ( Brief outline of the history of psychiatry ) and 81–96 ( History of psychiatry in Würzburg to Anton Müller ), pp. 9–14.
  10. https://www.behavioral.net/article/confronting-chaos
  11. Dieter Jetter: Principles of the history of the madhouse. Darmstadt 1981, pp. 10-12.
  12. ^ Theodor Kirchhoff: Overviews of the history of German insane care in the Middle Ages. In: General journal for psychiatry and psychiatric forensic medicine. Volume 43, 1887, Issue 1, pp. 61-103, here: pp. 69-96.
  13. Cf. also Theodor Kirchhoff : Relations between demons and witches and the German insane care. In: General journal for psychiatry and psychiatric forensic medicine. Volume 44, Issue 4, 1888, pp. 329-398.
  14. https://www.behavioral.net/article/confronting-chaos
  15. Gunnar Heinsohn, Otto Steiger, Rolf Knieper: People production - general population theory of the modern age. Frankfurt / M .: Suhrkamp 1979 ( summary ), from: Herz, Dietmar; Weinberger, Veronika (ed.): The lexicon of economic works . Düsseldorf: Verlag Wirtschaft und Finanz 2006.
  16. ^ Robert Castel: The Metamorphoses of the Social Question. Constance: UVK Verlagsgesellschaft mbH 2008 ( table of contents )
  17. See for example Georg Schlommer: Guide to clinical psychiatry. 2nd, revised edition. Munich 1919.
  18. Magdalena Frühinsfeld: Brief outline of psychiatry. In: Anton Müller. First insane doctor at the Juliusspital in Würzburg: life and work. A short outline of the history of psychiatry up to Anton Müller. Medical dissertation Würzburg 1991, p. 9–80 ( Brief outline of the history of psychiatry ) and 81–96 ( History of psychiatry in Würzburg to Anton Müller ), p. 70.
  19. Bernd Ottermann, Ulrich Meyer: The insane reformer Georg Wetzer from Herbruck. A contribution to the history of the antipsychiatric movement of the early 20th century. In: Würzburg medical history reports. Volume 5, 1987, pp. 311-321, here: p. 311.
  20. Johann Gottfried Langermann: About the current state of the psychological healing methods of mental illnesses and about the first psychiatric sanatorium established in Bayreuth. In: Medicinisch-surgical newspaper. Volume 4, 1805, pp. 90-93.
  21. Erwin H. Ackerknecht : Brief history of psychiatry . Enke, Stuttgart 1985, ISBN 3-432-80043-6 ; P. 34 f.
  22. Magdalena Frühinsfeld: Brief outline of psychiatry. 1991, p. 79.
  23. Lars Helferich: The Exclusion / Inclusion Debate in Psychiatry and its Effects on the Social Position of Those Affected Diploma thesis, 2011
  24. ^ Klaus Dörner : Citizens and Irre. On the social history and sociology of science in psychiatry. 2nd Edition. Frankfurt am Main 1984, p. 216 f.
  25. Werner Leibbrand , Annemarie Wettley : The madness. History of Western Psychopathology. Alber, Freiburg im Breisgau and Munich 1961 (= Orbis Academicus , II, 12), p. 394 and 399.
  26. Dieter Jetter: Principles of the history of the madhouse. Darmstadt 1981, pp. 34 and 119-122.
  27. Magdalena Frühinsfeld (1991), p. 66.
  28. Cf. R. Gaupp, M. Lewandowsky, H. Liepmann, W. Spielmeyer, K. Wilmanns (eds.): Journal for the entire neurology and psychiatry: Originalien. Heidelberg (Springer) 2013, p. 229.
  29. ^ Karl Birnbaum : History of psychiatric science. In: Oswald Bumke (Hrsg.): Handbuch der Geisteskrankheiten. 11 volumes. Berlin 1928–1932, Volume 1 (1928), pp. 11–49, here: p. 31.
  30. Magdalena Frühinsfeld (1991), p. 64 f.
  31. Magdalena Frühinsfeld (1991), p. 90 ff.
  32. Dieter Jetter: Principles of the history of the madhouse. 1981, p. 34.
  33. Magdalena Frühinsfeld (1991), p. 66.
  34. On the criticism of the term “human” cf. Gundolf Keil : Dealing with AIDS sufferers as a challenge to a humane society. "Statement" on the acquired immune deficiency syndrome from a specialist historical perspective. In: Johannes Gründel (Ed.): AIDS. Challenge to society and morals. 2nd Edition. Düsseldorf 1988 (= writings of the Catholic Academy in Bavaria. Volume 125), p. 31–41, here: p. 32 f.
  35. See K.-J. Neumärker, M. Seidel, D. Janz, HW Kölmel (ed.): Border areas between psychiatry and neurology. Heidelberg (Springer) 2013, p. 37f.
  36. ^ Richard Wahle : Foundations of a new psychiatry. A reading book for lay people, students and researchers. Vienna 1931.
  37. Richard Wahle: Mechanism of the spiritual life. Vienna / Leipzig 1906.
  38. ^ Bangen, Hans: History of the drug therapy of schizophrenia. Berlin 1992, ISBN 3-927408-82-4
  39. Michael von Cranach , Hans-Ludwig Siemen: Psychiatry in National Socialism: the Bavarian sanatoriums and nursing homes between 1933 and 1945 , Oldenbourg, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-486-56371-8 .
  40. See also Dirk Blasius : The "Masquerade of Evil". Psychiatric research during the Nazi era. In: Norbert Frei (Hrsg.): Medicine and health policy in the Nazi era. R. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich 1991, ISBN 3-486-64534-X , pp. 265-285.
  41. ^ Holger Steinberg: Psychiatry at the University of Leipzig: A two hundred year tradition. In: Würzburger medical history reports 23, 2004, pp. 270–312; here: p. 303.
  42. Anders, Günther : The antiquatedness of humans . [1956] First volume: On the soul in the age of the second industrial revolution . CH Beck, Munich 6 1983, ISBN 3-406-47644-9 , author's note on the back of the cover.
  43. See also Jean Bogousslavsky (ed.): Following Charcot. A Forgotten History of Neurology and Psychiatry. Basel 2011.
  44. See also Bern Walter : Anstaltsleben als Schicksal. National Socialist hereditary and racial care for psychiatric patients. In: Norbert Frei (Hrsg.): Medicine and health policy in the Nazi era. R. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich 1991 (= writings of the quarterly books for contemporary history. Special issue), ISBN 3-486-64534-X , pp. 217–233.
  45. ^ Rolf Brüggemann and Gisela Schmid-Krebs: Verortungen der Seele - Locating the Soul. Psychiatry Museums in Europe - Museums of Psychiatry in Europe. Mabuse Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2007, ISBN 978-39383-0448-8 .
  46. Eckart Roloff and Karin Henke-Wendt: Visit your doctor or pharmacist. A tour through Germany's museums for medicine and pharmacy. Volume 1, Northern Germany, ISBN 978-3-7776-2510-2 , and Volume 2, Southern Germany, ISBN 978-3-7776-2511-9 , Verlag S. Hirzel, Stuttgart 2015.
  47. See. The comments on the book, History of Psychiatry 'by E. Shorter. In: Swiss Archive for Neurology and Psychiatry . Vol. 2000, no. 3, p. 123 f.