List of toadstools

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The following list of poison mushrooms is still incomplete. It should be noted that there is no generally recognized classification of the degree of toxicity for many mushrooms; With some mushrooms, such as the fog cap, there is not even agreement as to whether they are to be regarded as edible or poisonous. Raw, poisonous species such as pearl mushroom , honey fungus and others are not included in the following list, as raw mushrooms in general and wild mushrooms (risk of infection with the fox tapeworm ) in particular should be avoided. Many mushrooms in their raw state contain hemolysins or other substances that are destroyed when heated.

In addition, the list only includes mushroom species that have already been detected in Germany. Some large genera contain many poisonous species, which are not all listed individually (for example the crack fungi ).

image Common name (s) Latin name Toxicity level Mushroom poisons Likelihood of confusion
Ramaria pallida, Lipik crop.jpg Bellyache coral Ramaria mairei toxic Gastrointestinal toxins Other edible or poisonous coral mushrooms
Clitocybe phyllophila T71 (1) .jpg White lead funnel Clitocybe phyllophila highly poisonous Muscarin Other funnels
Tricholoma virgatum, McCall 1.jpg Burning knight Tricholoma virgatum toxic Indole alkaloids Edible: Erd-Ritterling and relatives
2010-07-28 Ramaria formosa (Pers.) Quél 95684.jpg Tricolor coral Ramaria formosa toxic Unknown gastrointestinal poison Other coral mushrooms
Fragrant radish helmling Mycena diosma toxic Muscarin (unsure) Edible: lacquer funnels
Panaeolus papilionaceus (Bull.) Quél 183735.jpg Fertilizers (some) Panaeolus spec. toxic Hallucinogens : psilocybin , psilocin Edible: common stick sponge , poisonous: hatchet
Ino.geo.jpg Earth-leaved crack fungus Inocybe geophylla highly poisonous Muscarin Other fissures
Coprinopsis atramentaria RH 06.jpg Wrinkled ink Coprinopsis atramentaria highly toxic with simultaneous consumption of alcohol Coprin , only toxic when combined with alcohol Edible: Schopfintling - Coprinus comatus
Fastberingter knight Tricholoma batschii.jpg Fast-ringed knight Tricholoma batschii toxic Gastrointestinal toxins Other knights
Clitocybe dealbata 1.jpg Feldtrichterling Clitocybe dealbata highly poisonous Muscarin Other funnels
Flesh-brown umbrella Lepiota brunneoincarnata deadly poisonous Amanitin Other poisonous small umbrellas
Flesh pink umbrella Lepiota subincarnata deadly poisonous Amanitin Other poisonous small umbrellas
Flesh red umbrella Lepiota helveola deadly poisonous Amanitin Other poisonous small umbrellas
2006-10-25 Amanita muscaria crop.jpg Fly agaric Amanita muscaria highly poisonous Ibotenic acid , muscimol Kaiserling - Amanita caesarea - very good edible mushroom, but extremely rare in Germany
False Morel.jpg Spring lobster Gyromitra esculenta deadly toxic (toxicity varies) Gyromitrin Edible: morels
Amanita verna-02.jpg Spring cap mushroom Amanita verna deadly poisonous Amatoxins , phallotoxins Edible species: mushrooms , light-colored deafblings
2009-09-03 Scleroderma citrinum Pers 55647 crop.jpg Common potato bovist Scleroderma citrinum highly toxic (neurological syndrome with e.g. hypothermia , drop in blood pressure, sweating, visual disturbances, temporary loss of color vision or blindness) Gastrointestinal toxins and neurotoxins
Other poisonous potato bovies such as B. Scleroderma cepa
Mycena-pura-radish-helmling.jpg Common radish helmling Mycena pura toxic Muscarin (unsure) Edible: lacquer funnels
2010-09-17 Tricholoma sulphureum.jpg Common sulfur knight Tricholoma sulphureum toxic Gastrointestinal toxins
Dripped knight Tricholoma pessundatum toxic Gastrointestinal toxins Other knights
Greenhouse umbrella Lepiota citrophylla deadly poisonous Amanitin Suspicious of poison : Yellow parrot - Leucocoprinus brinbaumii , also occurs in greenhouses and flower pots
Galerina marginata.jpg Poison Hauling Galerina marginata deadly poisonous Amanitin Edible: common stick sponge , highly poisonous: other cloves
Poison giant umbrella Chlorophyllum venenatum toxic Unknown active ingredients Edible: other saffron umbrella , giant umbrella
2011-10-26 Amanita phalloides (Fr.) Link 177883.jpg Green death cap mushroom Amanita phalloides deadly poisonous Amatoxins , phallotoxins Edible species: mushrooms , green pigeons
Green-leaved sulphurous head Hypholoma fasciculare.jpg Green-leaved sulfur head Hypholoma fasciculare toxic Triterpenes : fasciculole Edible: gray-leaved sulfur head
Tricholoma auratum.jpg Green compact Tricholoma equestre deadly toxic ( rhabdomyolysis ; so far only when consumed multiple times) probably toxic pigments Green cap mushroom , deadly poisonous, similarly colored knights .
Collar Knight Tricholoma focale toxic Gastrointestinal toxins Other knights
2011-10-30 Galerina marginata (Batsch) Kühner 178829.jpg Cloaks (some) Galerina spec. highly poisonous Amanitin Edible: common stick sponge , deadly poisonous: poisonous hatchet
Helmet circle ring Cudonia circinans highly poisonous Gyromitrin  
Am.echin.jpg Hedgehog amanita Amanita echinocephala highly poisonous Smithiana toxin Edible: fringed amanita
Paxillus involutus 20061015w.jpg Bald Krempling Paxillus involutus potentially fatal (autoimmune reaction from earlier consumption of kremplingen) Hemolysins , hemagglutins , other unknown toxins; In addition, life-threatening hemolysis due to autoimmune reactions ( Paxillus syndrome) can occur after previous meals Other, potentially fatal crumbs (also suspected of causing Paxillus syndrome)
Psilocybe semilanceata.jpg Bald heads (some) Psilocybe spec. toxic Hallucinogens : psilocybin , psilocin Poisonous: hatchlings , crack fungi
Agaricus.xanthodermus .-. Lindsey.jpg Carboleggerling Agaricus xanthodermus toxic Gastrointestinal toxins Other mushrooms
Maroon umbrella Lepiota castanea toxic unknown toxins Other poisonous parasols
2006-08 Amanita virosa crop.jpg Cone-capped death cap mushroom Amanita virosa deadly poisonous Amatoxins , phallotoxins Edible species: mushrooms , light-colored deafblings
Inocybe rimosa a3 (1) .jpg Conical crack fungus Pseudosperma rimosum highly poisonous Muscarin Other poisonous crack fungi
2000 Amanita regalis cropped.jpg King fly agaric, brown fly agaric Amanita regalis highly poisonous Ibotenic acid , muscimol Panther mushroom - Amanita pantherina (highly poisonous)
Perl mushroom - Amanita rubescens and stocky amanita - Amanita spissa -, both edible
Omphalotus olearius-Zavodnica.JPG Luminous olive mushroom Omphalotus olearius highly poisonous Gastrointestinal toxins: sesquiterpenes False chanterelle , edible: chanterelle
Purple-brown sand umbrella Lepiota brunneolilacea toxic possibly amatoxins Other poisonous parasols
Lactarius pyrogallus.jpg Milchlinge (some hot-tasting) Lactarius spec. toxic terpenoid pungent substances Edible: mild-tasting milk pieces
Ergot 090719.jpg Ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea deadly toxic (but can be used medicinally) Ergot alkaloids
2009-07-21 Amanita gemmata.jpg Daffodil yellow amanita Amanita gemmata highly poisonous probably muscarin , muscimol , ibotenic acid Yellow death cap mushroom
2008-11-22 Clitocybe nebularis.jpg Fog cap Clitocybe nebularis poisonous (is also often eaten without consequences) Nebularin , gastrointestinal toxins Highly poisonous: giant rötling , tiger knightling
Ear-shaped white oyster mushrooms Pleurocybella porrigens fatally toxic (only toxic in people with kidney disease) Pleurocybellaziridine Edible: oyster
2013-10-16 Cortinarius orellanus 1a.jpg Orange-foxed rough head Cortinarius orellanus deadly poisonous Orellanin Other similar types of hair veils
2008-10 Amanita pantherina cropped.jpg Panther mushroom Amanita pantherina highly poisonous Ibotenic acid , muscimol King fly mushroom - Amanita regalis (highly poisonous), pearl mushroom - Amanita rubescens and stocky amanita - Amanita spissa -, both edible
Perfumed funnel Paralepistopsis amoenolens highly toxic ( acromelalga syndrome ) Acromelic acid Other funnels as well as Hallimasche and red chalk knights , in particular red chalk knight
Guinea fowl gerling Agaricus moelleri toxic Gastrointestinal toxins Other mushrooms
Rough Amanita Amanita franchetii toxic unknown toxins Other amanita
Gyromitra gigas 85397.jpg Giant Lorchel Gyromitra gigas toxic Gyromitrin With large specimens of the even more poisonous spring lobster
2005-09-25 Entoloma sinuatum cropped.jpg Giant Rötling Entoloma sinuatum highly poisonous Gastrointestinal toxins ( vinyl glycine , lectins ) Fog cap , edible: may mushroom
Inocybe geophylla (32986194586) .jpg Crack fungi (some) Inocybe spec. highly poisonous Muscarin Other poisonous or poisonous cracked fungi
2011-11-23 Mycena rosea cropped.jpg Pink radish helmling Mycena rosea toxic Muscarin (unsure) Edible: lacquer funnels
Entoloma lividoalbum 124239.jpg Red rot (some) Entoloma spec. toxic Gastrointestinal toxins Roof mushrooms , foggy gray funnel . Edible: calocybe gambosa
Wrinkled bell ringing Conocybe rugosa deadly poisonous Amatoxins
Boletus satanas cropped.jpg Satan's bolete Rubroboletus satanas toxic unknown toxins Edible: net- handled witch's bolete
Tricholoma sciodes 110922w.JPG Sharp knight Tricholoma scioides toxic Indole alkaloids Edible: Erd-Ritterling and relatives
Lepiota cristata 20070819w.jpg Umbrella (some) Lepiota spec. highly poisonous Amatoxins Other umbrellas
Cortinarius infractus.jpg Veils (some) Cortinarius spec. highly poisonous often unknown Other veils
2008-11-26 Cortinarius splendens Rob.  Henry 234178.jpg Beautiful yellow clubfoot Cortinarius splendens deadly poisonous Unknown kidney toxins Other, similar types of funnels , Schüpplingen or sulfur heads
2012-10-26 Mycena pelianthina (Fr.) Quél 320254.jpg Black-toothed radish helmling Mycena pelianthina toxic Muscarin (unsure) Edible: lacquer funnels
Pholiota squarrosa2.jpg Bulky Schüppling Pholiota squarrosa toxic Gastrointestinal toxins: sesquiterpenes Other inedible Schüpplinge , Hallimasche
2006-07-12 Cortinarius rubellus 1.jpg Pointed rough head Cortinarius rubellus deadly poisonous Orellanin Other similar types of hair veils
Psilocybe.semilanceata.Alan.jpg Pointed conical bald head Psilocybe semilanceata toxic Psilocybin , baeocystin
2012-10-03 Lepiota aspera (Pers.) Quél 268378 crop.jpg Pointed, spiky umbrella Lepiota aspera toxic with simultaneous consumption of alcohol Coprin Edible: giant parasols
Russula.emetica .-. Lindsey.jpg Deafblings (some hot-tasting) Russula spec. toxic terpenoid pungent substances Edible: mild-tasting russulas under the Täublingsregel
2012-03-28 Tricholoma pardinum Quél 208648 crop.jpg Tiger knight Tricholoma pardinum highly poisonous Gastrointestinal toxins Edible: other knights like the black- fiber knight or the earth knight
2007-08-29 Clitocybe rivulosa.jpg Funnels (some) Clitocybe spec. highly poisonous Muscarinic , acromelic acid other funnels
Sarcosphaera eximia (cropped) .JPG Purple crown mug Sarcosphaera coronaria highly toxic (especially raw) Gyromitrin
Wax-stalked funnel Leucocybe candicans highly poisonous Muscarin Other funnels
White-brown knight Tricholoma albobrunneum toxic Gastrointestinal toxins Other knights
2010-05-27 Inocybe erubescens.jpg Brick-red crack fungus Inosperma erubescens highly poisonous Muscarin Edible: calocybe gambosa , Ripe mushroom
2009-11-14 Hypholoma sublateritium (Schaeff.) Quél 65279 crop.jpg Brick-red sulfur head Hypholoma lateritium toxic Triterpenes (clavaric acid), agglutinins , hemolysins Edible: smoky- leaved sulfur head ; poisonous: green-leaved sulfur head
2008-09-06 Hapalopilus nidulans.jpg Cinnamon-colored soft pork Hapalopilus nidulans highly poisonous Polyporic acid was confused with the edible liver shrimp ( Fistulina hepatica ) in all four known cases

See also

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Helmut Besl: Poison mushrooms: a manual for pharmacists, doctors and biologists with an introduction to the identification of fungi . Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart 1985, ISBN 3-8047-0680-0 , p. 1-295 .
  2. a b c Bettina Haberl: More than just stomach pain - poisoning with Scleroderma species . In: Mycologia Bavarica . tape 19 , 2019, pp. 145-159 .
  3. Regis BeDry, Isabelle Baudrimont, Gerard Deffieux, Edmond E. Creppy, Jean P. Pomies: Wild Mushroom poisoning as a cause of rhabdomyolysis . In: New England Journal of Medicine . tape 345 , no. 11 , September 13, 2001, ISSN  0028-4793 , p. 798-802 , doi : 10.1056 / NEJMoa010581 .
  4. Gabija Laubner, Gabija Mikulevičienė: A series of cases of rhabdomyolysis after ingestion of Tricholoma equestre . In: Acta Medica Lituanica . tape 23 , no. 3 , 2016, p. 193-197 .
  5. Martin Kirchmair, Patrícia Carrilho, Rudi Pfab, Bettina Haberl, Joana Felgueiras, Fernanda Carvalho, José Cardoso, Ireneia Melo, José Vinhas, Sigrid Neuhauser: Amanita poisonings resulting in acute, reversible renal failure: new cases, new toxic Amanita mushrooms. In: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation . tape 27 , no. 4 , 2012, p. 1380-1386 , doi : 10.1093 / ndt / gfr511 ( ).
  6. ^ A b Andreas Stöver, Bettina Haberl, Claudia Helmreich, Werner Müller, Frank Musshoff: Fatal Immunohaemolysis after the Consumption of the Poison Pax Mushroom: A Focus on the Diagnosis of the Paxillus Syndrome with the Aid of Two Case Reports . In: Diagnostics . tape 9 , no. 4 , September 26, 2019, ISSN  2075-4418 , p. 130 , doi : 10.3390 / diagnostics9040130 ( [accessed April 9, 2020]).
  7. ^ Haberl B., Kleber JJ, Zilker Th .: Kremplinge and family Paxillaceae. In: ToxInfo. TU Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Toxicological Department, 2000, accessed on April 10, 2020 .
  8. Toshiyuki Wakimoto, Tomohiro Asakawa, Saeko Akahoshi, Tomohiro Suzuki, Kaoru Nagai: Proof of the Existence of an Unstable Amino Acid: Pleurocybellaziridine in Pleurocybella porrigens . In: Angewandte Chemie . tape 123 , no. 5 , February 1, 2011, p. 1200–1202 , doi : 10.1002 / anie.201004646 .
  9. a b Philippe F. Saviuc, Vincent C. Danel, Pierre-Arthur M. Moreau Daniel R. Dominguez, Anne M. Claustre: erythromelalgia and Mushroom Poisoning . In: Journal of Toxicology: Clinical Toxicology . tape 39 , no. 4 , January 2001, ISSN  0731-3810 , p. 403-407 , doi : 10.1081 / CLT-100105162 .
  10. ^ A b A. F. Villa, P. Saviuc, J. Langrand, G. Favre, D. Chataignerl: Tender Nesting Polypore (Hapalopilus rutilans) poisoning: report of two cases . In: Clinical Toxicology . tape 51 , no. 8 , September 2013, ISSN  1556-3650 , p. 798-800 , doi : 10.3109 / 15563650.2013.827708 .

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