Lößnitz (large area)
Radebeuler Lößnitz ( pronunciation : [ løːsnɪt͡s ]) describes a large location in the German wine-growing region of Saxony in the Lößnitz landscape of the same name . It belongs to the city of Radebeul and is located in the Meißen area directly on the Saxon Wine Route and the Saxon Wine Trail . The vineyards are criss-crossed by around 50 kilometers of wine trails.
The steep slopes that characterize the landscape, made up of weathered syenite soils with their dry syenite vineyard walls, are not only designated as a landscape conservation area of Lößnitz , but are also protected as a historical monumental area in Radebeul . This vineyard landscape of the Loessnitz is immortalized by Herbert Schweiniger's Loessnitz song . The large Lößnitz area, defined by the legally stipulated vineyards, makes up around 3.3% of the area of the landscape known as Lößnitz.
The wine in the Lößnitz is grown by eight wineries. These include the formerly electoral Saxon , now municipal Hoflößnitz winery in the Oberlößnitz district , the Saxon state winery at Wackerbarth Castle in the Niederlößnitz district , as well as the more than 200 jointly organized part-time and private winemakers of the Lößnitz. The steep-slope winemakers are divided into the Zitzschewig wine-growing community, the Niederlößnitz wine-growing community and the Oberlößnitz wine-growing association.
Climate and geology
The Lößnitz is located in the Elbe Valley in the north of the Elbe and benefits from the mitigating influence of this river. Due to the climatic conditions on the south side of the steep ascent of the Elbe slope, fine fruit and wine can be grown in Radebeul. The annual average temperature is 9.2 ° C. The average annual sunshine duration, measured on the climate diagram of the former Wahnsdorf weather station , is 1634 hours, above the German average of 1541 hours.
As Radebeul in the Elbe Valley has the mildest climate in Saxony, it is also called Saxon Nice , based on a saying by the Saxon King Johann around 1860.
The Lößnitz rises from the Elbaue over the Elbe terrace to the steep ascent of the Elbe slope, which, as part of the Lusatian fault, consists of weathered syenite soils and merges into the plateau of the Lusatian plate . It is cut by several notch valleys, of which the Lößnitzgrund with the Lößnitzbach permanently carries water, while the other valleys, the Fiedlergrund , the Kroatengrund and the Rietzschkegrund are formed by so-called lost water , which seeps away after reaching the water-permeable sandy soil of the Elbterrassen and back into it Groundwater passes over.
Because of the steepness of many locations above the Elbe Middle Terrace with its 30% to a maximum of over 100% gradient, the soil layer made of weathering products of the subsoil is quite thin. The vines therefore often have to be cultivated in terraces with dry stone walls.
While the Saxon cultivation in the Middle Ages was mainly characterized by the mixed set , since the beginning of the 17th century single-variety cultivation ("Wuerttemberg style") has dominated. Are spread mainly Müller-Thurgau , Riesling , Pinot Blanc , Pinot Gris , Traminer , Kerner , Pinot Noir and Scheurebe . The gold Riesling is grown in Germany only in Saxony.
The Zechsteinweg , which runs below the Zechstein in Zitzschewig, is the educational trail of Saxon viticulture . All grape varieties grown in the upper Elbe Valley are presented here with brief characteristics and their respective cultivation requirements. On June 15, 2008, the 1st International World Cup in wine cork throwing took place there, which was organized, among other things, by the winemaker of the Meinholdschen Weingut .
Sites and vineyards
The three locations of the Lößnitz all bear the place name Radebeul . Of the total of around 85 hectares of vineyards (around a fifth of the Saxon cultivation area), 30 hectares are on steep slopes of over 30%, with a maximum gradient of 47 degrees (over 100%). These steep slopes make up about half of all Saxon steep slopes. Around 450 vineyard names, some of them historical, have been passed down in the Lößnitz since the 13th century.
The Radebeuler Goldener Wagen location is in Oberlößnitz and extends from the eastern city limits to the Lößnitzbach. It covers approx. 31 ha.
The following vineyards belong to the approximately 11 hectares of steep slopes:
- Golden chariot
The Radebeuler Steinrücke is located in Niederlößnitz. It extends from the Lößnitzbach west to Moritzburger Straße , the connection from the Anger from Kötzschenbroda to Lindenau past Lindenau to Friedewald . It covers about 23 hectares.
The following vineyards belong to the approximately 12.6 hectares of steep slopes:
- Buzzard Mountain
- Stone back
- Castle of Peace
- Minckwitz vineyard
- On the mountains (also: paradise)
The following vineyards belong to the approximately 6.7 hectares of steep slopes:
- Betting amount
The Johannisberg vineyard , which gives the location its name, has a rather flat slope.
The Kötzschber and the Schieler can be found as special features of this landscape . For centuries , Kötzschber was the name for wine from Kötzschenbroda , from the Kötzschberg wine region . He is from Martin Luther in 1520 in a letter to the Meissner Bishop praised for his kindness. Since the vineyards today mainly belong to Niederlößnitz, for many years only the Förster wine house from Kötzschenbroda Oberort above the steep slopes of the Radebeuler Steinrücke offered the Kötzschber as white wine, red wine and Rotling . Schieler is an old Saxon name for the wine made from white and red grapes from a vineyard with a mixed phrase . There are two attempts to explain it: The Saxon pronunciation for (princely) pupils is assumed, since they could only afford this inexpensive wine as drinking wine, in contrast to the predicate wines of the gentlemen. And secondly, the property that the wine shimmers in the glass . In Württemberg this wine is also called Schiller wine .
Every year, the autumn and wine festival usually takes place on the last weekend in September on the Anger von Altkötzschenbroda. In the 2007/08 season, the German wine queen , Evelyn Schmidt , came from Lößnitz and worked at Wackerbarth Castle until December 2008. The Saxon Wine Queen 2002/2003 and German Wine Princess 2003/2004, Antje Wiedemann, comes from Lößnitz ( Drei Herren winery , Hermannsberg vineyard ).
The corridor north of the Angers von Kötzschenbroda and belonging to Kötzschenbroda was mentioned as Kötzschberg Wine Mountains as early as 1271 , when Dietrich von Zlauschwitz delivered 12 loads of wine to the Sitzenroda monastery . When the community was founded in 1839, parts of this corridor with its isolated manor or owner mountains, which are separately subordinate to the Dresden office, became the rural community of Niederlößnitz. In the same year, the municipality of Oberlößnitz was founded around the Hoflößnitz.
The first written mention of the Lezenitzberg (Lößnitz) can be found in a document in which the Meißner Bishop Withego I. enfeoffed the Dresden Maternihospital with this vineyard above Haus Reinhardtsberg .
In 1373, the Meißner Bishop Konrad II von Kirchberg-Wallhausen had a wine press with wine cellar ( Bischofspresse ) built on the Zitzschewiger Bischofsberg ( Hohenhaus ) , which , like the vineyard, remained in the possession of the bishops until the secularization in 1539. It is one of the oldest detectable properties in the Lößnitz.
In 1401, during the Dohna feud, the Margrave of Meißen, Wilhelm I the One-Eyed , took over the press house and the surrounding area of the Hoflößnitz from the Burgraves of Dohna . The Wettins concentrated the viticulture of the area on this farm for almost five centuries. After the Reformation , the Wettins took over other extensive vineyards from the church and the monasteries. From 15 vineyards in 1547, by 1630 in Lößnitz alone, 23 vineyards were owned by the Wettins.
As a supra-regional route connection on the flood-proof Heidesand terrace at the foot of the steep slope, Matthias Oeder and Balthasar Zimmermann mapped a route in the first Electoral Saxony survey, begun in 1586 , which today corresponds to the Winzerstraße / Augustusweg route in Radebeul . There were over 20 buildings related to viticulture. House Breitig and House Lotter can already be found in the first Saxon state survey . The Lößnitz is mentioned on the map as "The vineyards in the Lösnitz".
First viticulture regulations
Elector Christian I issued on 23 April 1588 the first wine-producing regulations that Weingebürgsordnung . At the beginning of the 17th century, Württemberger viticulture specialists were brought to the Elbe to introduce cultivation methods "according to Württemberg style", for example the terracing of the steep slopes with dry stone walls in 1616 by the winemaker Jacob Löffler. The Hoflößnitz vineyard clerk Johann Paul Knohll wrote in 1667 with his work Klein Vinicultur-Büchlein , a work commissioned by the Elector, a commentary on the wine governing order , which was a standard work of Saxon wineries until the 19th century.
Since viticulture was carried out all the way down to the lowlands of the Elbe and had even displaced food production there, Elector Johann Georg III decreed in 1684 . the prohibition of further viticulture in the lowlands by his edict "Where the plow can go, no vine should be".
In 1717 Christian Gerber mentioned the Hoflößnitz:
“The Lößnitz is a certain line, because there are all high mountains that carry delicious wine, and because the electoral mountains are also there, this area is called the Hoffe-Lößnitz. And this loessnitz wine is also the best in the whole of the country, which is preferable to Franconian wine in good wine years, but is to be respected immediately to Rhine wine. "
The Saxon Viticulture Society was founded in Meißen in 1739 as the first German viticulture company by its later director, Johann Martin Fleischmann, the electoral Oberlandweinmeister and owner of the Paulsberg in Zitzschewig, as well as the later mountain administrator of the Hoflößnitz, Johann Gottlob Cadner . This company, supported by around 60 vineyard owners, set up a winegrowing school near Zaschendorf in 1810 . As one of the first schools of this kind in Europe in 1840, it organized the winegrowers' festival in the Lößnitz , one of the predecessors of today's autumn and wine festival on the Anger von Kötzschenbroda.
In 1822 the owners of the manor or owner mountains in the area of the later Oberlößnitz, who were subordinate to the Dresden office, founded the local association of vineyard owners in order to be able to provide certain communal tasks for the people living on their property, such as those in the surrounding rural communities were also common. In 1832, 75 landowners followed in the area of what would later become Niederlößnitz, who founded the Niederlößnitzer Weinbergverein .
In 1839, due to the Saxon rural community order of 1838, the two Lößnitz communities Oberlößnitz and Niederlößnitz were founded, this on part of the Kötzschenbrodaer Flur. But the neighboring communities of Zitzschewig and Serkowitz also had their share of viticulture, as the seals from that time show.
Decline in viticulture and phylloxera disaster
The destruction of the war as well as bad harvests (e.g. due to the Little Ice Age ), long-distance trade in foreign wines and the occurrence of diseases (such as powdery mildew around 1850) led to the gradual decline in Loessnitz wine cultivation over the centuries. In addition, there were large-scale problems with insect pests, such as the wine moth in 1844 and the weevil in 1847 . The "natural and world events" held the later mountain Voigt of Hoflößnitz, the vintner Johann Gottlob Mealy (1809-1870), meticulous in his years 1835-1870 comprehensive five-volume diary, which today as regional and weather historical source in the city archives Radebeul located .
At the beginning of the 1880s, the phylloxera disaster also reached the Lößnitz. After phylloxera , which came to Europe from America around 1860, was introduced to Saxony, it was first discovered in the Loessnitz in 1885, when it had already attacked large parts of the vines. Only the Johannisberg and the nearby Eckberg north of Wackerbarths Ruh ' were largely spared. Phylloxera was fought by clearing and burning the vines, the binding posts and the trees in the vineyards, as well as disinfecting the soil with the help of carbon disulfide and petroleum . In 1886 it was found that not only were the measures unsuccessful, but that the soil was also highly poisoned. In the following years, viticulture lost its economic importance. Part of the area was converted into strawberry and peach crops, the rest was bushed and forested.
In 1885 there was still around 150 hectares of cultivation area in the Ober- and Niederlößnitz, due to the phylloxera disaster and its control, the cultivation area decreased to a whole 10 hectares by 1910. At the same time, the two rural communities Niederlößnitz and Oberlößnitz experienced an enormous construction boom and population influx due to the favorable climate. Another part of the former cultivation area was converted to building land.
In 1907 the Saxon government officially declared the entire Saxon wine-growing region to be continuously contaminated.
The Agricultural Council Carl Pfeiffer began in 1913 with the grafted grape introduced in 1905 on the basis of American phylloxera-resistant wild grapes, the first recovery of the loessnitz; In 1916 he took over the management of the vine refining station located near Hoflößnitz , from which the wine-growing research and teaching institute emerged in 1927 . Also in 1913, as the successor to the Saxon Viticulture Society, the Association for the Elevation of Viticulture in the Lößnitz was founded , from which the new Saxon Viticulture Society emerged in 1921 . From this in turn the Weinbauverband Sachsen emerged in 1936 , and Carl Pfeiffer took over the management.
In 1938, the Saxon wine cooperative was founded in Hoflößnitz , which was initially housed in Zitzschewig until it moved to Meißen in 1940. In 1955 it became the Saxon Winzergenossenschaft Meißen . After the dissolution of the Weinbauverband Sachsen in 1945, the existing winegrowing associations were subordinated to the Association of Mutual Farmers Aid , and the Volksweingut Lößnitz was created . Viticulture in the region declined again in the following years, and part of the vineyards became increasingly bushy. 1957 in Zitzschewig the vines experimental station of the GDR on the Krapenberg established, with the help of at that time, 95-year-old Talutanlage variety testing of soft fruit , quince undertook and peaches, as well as responsibilities for the maintenance and testing of wine grape varieties.
After the political turning point in 1990, the Saxony Winegrowing Association was re-established. One of his first tasks in the Loessnitz was the reorganization of the existing vineyards. The association has been a full member of the German Viticulture Association since 1991 . Since then, many vineyards that have been covered with bushes or even forest have been revived, also as a cultural landscape. This often required extensive renovation, especially of the decaying Syenit dry stone walls . Today there are again around 85 hectares of vineyards in the Lößnitz. The centuries-old cultural landscape with its steep vineyards is now protected both as a historical monument protection area Radebeul and as a landscape protection area Lößnitz .
The Hoflößnitz, the monument ensemble in the Golden Carriage , is the former Electoral Saxon winery of the Wettins in the Lößnitz since the Margrave of Meissen Wilhelm I the One-Eyed took over in 1401. Elector Johann Georg I , who signed the Kötzschenbroda armistice in Kötzschenbroda on August 27, 1645 , built the palace next to the Hoflößnitz press house in 1650. This is where the Wettins celebrated their dance parties with wine, including August the Strong .
Another cultural asset that originally comes from Hoflößnitz is the Sachsenkeule , the characteristic bottle for Saxon wine, similar to the Bocksbeutel for Franconian wine. The first Sachsen bottles were delivered in green glass in 1931. Since this tradition was revived, more and more Saxon wines have been sold in a brown Saxon leg.
Today Hoflößnitz is a municipal winery with a wine museum, wine cellar and sales point. The museum not only shows the centuries-long history of viticulture in the Lößnitz, but also reminds with its outdoor exhibition of the construction work of Carl Pfeiffer after the phylloxera disaster. From there it goes past the entrance gate to the Goldener Wagen vineyard to the Spitzhaus staircase that leads to the Goldener Wagen vineyards .
Once a year the Spitzhaus staircase takes place over 397 steps. It has been called the Saxon Mt. Everest Stair Marathon by the organizer since 2005 . In 2011 over 700 participants took part in the competition.
The centuries-old winemaking tradition in the Steinrück region is represented by the Minckwitzscher Weinberg monument ensemble there . It was also on the winery where the first sparkling wine production in the Loessnitz succeeded in 1827. Later the sect were Loessnitz by 1836 in Steinrücken as a factory for moussirende wines founded, second oldest German sparkling wine producer Buzzard widely publicized.
Wackerbarth Castle or Wackerbarths Ruh ' , the monument ensemble in the Johannisberg area , is a baroque castle surrounded by vineyards in the Niederlößnitz district of Radebeul on the Saxon Wine Route to Meißen , which serves as the seat of the Saxon State Winery . Field Marshal General and Imperial Count August Christoph von Wackerbarth acquired the Bishop's Mountains in 1727, as well as some of the green areas below these vineyards. The cabinet minister August the Strong had the Wackerbarths Ruh ' palace built by Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann and the French garden as his retirement home between 1727 and 1730 by the state master builder Johann Christoph Knoeffel, along with the octagonal belvedere by Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann .
Continuing the tradition that began with the Bussard Sektkellerei founded in 1836 , Schloss Wackerbarth not only produces Elbe Valley wines, but also its own sparkling wines, for example under the names Bussard , August der Starke or Graf von Wackerbarth .
Wines like sparkling wine come from a modern production facility that received the Radebeul Builders' Prize in 2004 and the Wine Architecture Prize in 2007 . The combination of old and new building culture made Schloss Wackerbarth on October 19, 2007 the location of the Gottfried Semper Architecture Prize for sustainable building, which was awarded for the first time in 2007 by the Saxon Academy of the Arts and the Saxon State Foundation for Nature and Environment .
The centuries-old wine-growing history of the Lößnitz as well as the present-day town of Radebeul is illustrated by many remarkable cultural assets, as shown in detail in the three layers of Goldener Wagen , Steinrücke and Johannisberg .
Say "The strange foundation to Kötzschenbroda."
“During the Thirty Years War, Elector Johann Georg I spent his time on the Churfürstl. Hoflößnitz vineyards; During his stay there, he loved to drink a lot of wine. This was offensive to his wife, but she did not dare to introduce him to it. So one day she asked Pastor M. Augustin Prescher, who was employed in Kötzschenbroda, to send a warning to the most gracious gentleman from the pulpit. Although he found this very questionable, he finally allowed himself to be persuaded and spoke one Sunday "about the sad consequences of indulgence and drunkenness," and concluded with the words: "Our most gracious Lord drinks too, but he has it and it is good for him! Amen. «After church the pastor becomes elector. Board loaded; he, as well as his wife feared, because of the consequences of his admonition. The elector only said at the end of the table: "Herr Pastor, today he burned something on my fur too." "Oh," replied the pastor, "I should be sorry if it had only hit the fur and not the heart. "In this open language the elector replied:" Pastor! He is an honest man, if all the clergy in my country were like that; Please give me a favor. "When the pastor had concerns about asking for something, the elector said:" He wanted his successors to receive 49 3/4 pots of wine from his cellar every year, 50 pots would be too many "This deputate was given to the pastor zu Kötzschenbroda as a foundation and will probably only have been replaced recently, because Pastor Trautschold received it at the time of his departure."
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- The first land survey of the Electorate of Saxony carried out by Matthias Oeder (1586–1607) on the orders of Elector Christian I; For the 800th anniversary of the reign of the House of Wettin (1889)
- Official website of Hoflößnitz
- Website of the Sächsische Staatsweingut GmbH at Schloss Wackerbarth
- The steep slope winemakers of the Lößnitz introduce themselves
- Herbert Schweiniger's Lößnitzlied
- sunshine, mean values for the period 1961 to 1990 ( Memento from September 23, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) ( ZIP ; 42 kB), accessed on March 10, 2013.
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- Information on types of wine , accessed on March 10, 2013.
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