Marcel Lefebvre

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Marcel Lefebvre, 1981
Coat of arms; The motto: “Et nos credidimus caritati” (German translation: “And we believed in charity”) refers to 1 Jn 4:16  EU

Marcel François Marie Joseph Lefebvre CSSp (born November 29, 1905 in Tourcoing , Nord-Pas-de-Calais , France ; † March 25, 1991 in Martigny , Switzerland ) was a Roman Catholic archbishop and a leader of Catholic traditionalists who carried out major reforms of the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965): including the theology and practical consequences of Nostra Aetate , ecumenism and the liturgical reforms since 1965.

In 1969 Lefebvre therefore founded the Society of St. Pius X. In 1976 he was ordained a priest without a dismissal letter from Pope Paul VI. suspended , in 1988 he incurred the penalty of excommunication under Pope John Paul II for unauthorized episcopal ordination .



Episcopal ordination of Marcel Lefebvre (4th from left, with crook and miter) on September 18, 1947 by the Bishop of Lille, Achille Liénart , in Tourcoing as Titular Bishop of Anthedon in Palestine and as Vicar Apostolic in Dakar

Marcel Lefebvre was born on November 29, 1905. His parents were the industrialist René Lefebvre and Gabrielle Lefebvre, née Watine. René Lefebvre ran a large spinning company . During the First World War he worked in the Anglo-Belgian embassy service. During the Second World War he worked in the secret service and was captured by Germany in 1941 during the German occupation of France, also because of the reception of refugees. Marcel Lefebvre's mother, Gabrielle, was known for her intensive church engagement in several Catholic organizations. The couple had eight children together, the five eldest of whom entered Catholic orders. In October 1915 Marcel came to the gymnasium of the Sacred Heart College (Institution libre du Sacré-Cœur) in Tourcoing near Roubaix in the diocese of Lille . His father died on March 4, 1944 in the National Socialist concentration and labor camp Sonnenburg in Neumark , where he was imprisoned for his activities in the resistance against the German Reich and for supporting the Allies through espionage activities and helping Jewish citizens escape. One of Marcel Lefebvre's brothers, René, became, like Marcel, a priest with the “Fathers of the Holy Spirit”, three sisters, Jeanne (Congregation of the Atonement of Mary), Bernadette (Congregation of the Sisters of the Holy Spirit) and Christiane ( Discalced Carmelite ) became nuns . Christiane Lefebvre established several traditionalist Carmelite convents in Belgium.

Theology training

Lefebvre also turned to the study of theology. From October 1923 he was a student at the Pontificium Seminarium Gallicum in Urbe ("Gallicum") in Rome, which was directed by the Spiritan Henri Le Floch (1862-1950) with anti-modern, anti-liberal, anti-communist and anti-democratic objectives. Lefebvre studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome, a. a. at the Jesuit Cardinal Billot , and received his doctorate there in 1925 to Dr. phil. and in 1929 Dr. theol. In the same year he was ordained a priest on September 21, 1929 at the age of almost 24 in Lille . He then became a chaplain in Lomme , a suburb of Lille.

Marcel Lefebvre's theological training was interrupted by the French military service in France. After his basic training in Mourmelon-le-Grand , he was assigned to the 509th Panzer Regiment in Valenciennes in December 1926 as a non-commissioned officer. He then resumed his studies in the French seminary in Rome in November 1927. During Lefebvre's military service, Henri Le Floch got involved in the dispute over the action française founded by the right-wing French writer Charles Maurras . After the doctrinal condemnation by Pope Pius XI. In 1926, Le Floch was forced to resign as rector of the "Séminaire Pontifical Français de Rome" in July 1927, which Lefebvre deeply regretted.

Missionary work in Africa

In 1931, like his brother René, he became a member of the Spiritan Order to become a missionary in Africa. From 1932 to 1945 he was a missionary in Gabon and professor of dogmatics and exegesis at the Libreville seminary ; from 1934 - at the age of 28 - additionally its rain . In 1938, Marcel Lefebvre's mother, Gabrielle, died. In the same year he was sent on missions to Donguila, Lambaréné and N'djole, where he remained until 1945. In Lambaréné he made the acquaintance of Albert Schweitzer .

Priest trainer in France

In October 1945 Marcel Lefebvre became head of the Philosophy Scholasticate of the Priestly Education in Mortain in Normandy , a college of his congregation. Here his teaching was strongly influenced by the scholastic theology of Thomas Aquinas .

Episcopate in Africa

On June 12, 1947, Lefebvre was appointed Vicar Apostolic in Dakar at the age of 41 . The Bishop of Lille, Cardinal Liénart, consecrated Lefebvre on September 18, 1947 in his home parish Tourcoing as bishop. His motto “Et nos credidimus caritati” (German translation: “And we believed in charity”) refers to 1 Jn 4:16  EU . On November 16, 1947, Lefebvre took up his service in the Muslim- majority Dakar, the then capital of French West Africa . His predecessor in the Archdiocese of Dakar , Auguste François Louis Grimault, was no longer politically acceptable due to his collaboration with the Vichy regime . As early as 1948 Lefebvre was appointed Apostolic Delegate for the French-speaking colonial areas in Africa and titular Archbishop of Arcadiopolis in Europe (now Lüleburgaz in Turkey ). He then performed various services as titular archbishop and apostolic delegate for French Africa, founded 62 bishoprics up to the establishment of the archdiocese of Dakar, led four bishops' conferences and complied with the papal wish, after several centuries of exclusively Europe-centered missionary work, to train a native African clergy. On September 14, 1955, Marcel Lefebvre was by Pope Pius XII. appointed first Archbishop of Dakar. During his tenure he particularly promoted the formation of priests, established numerous missions and churches as well as educational institutions and hospitals. For the purpose of Christianizing the African indigenous population, he organized the sending of several European mission orders to Senegal . The decolonization of Africa was Lefebvre hostile to, as he this as a by expanding communism deemed initiated movement. With regard to his rigid anti-communism, Lefebvre fully endorsed the decree of Pope Pius XII against the backdrop of the Cold War . on the attitude of the Catholic faithful towards the communist party of July 1, 1949, in which the Pope made membership of communist parties and organizations or their promotion, as well as the publication, dissemination and reading of communist literature under the penalty of excommunication . In 1959, Lefebvre spoke out publicly against communist ideology , the Enlightenment movement and the values ​​of the French Revolution with its declaration of human and civil rights and branded them as anti-Christian heresy. This attitude was viewed with skepticism within parts of the Catholic clergy in France, since one did not want to completely lose the country's left-wing working class to Catholicism with a certain compromise-ready attitude.

Second Vatican Council

In 1958, Pope John XXIII deposed Lefebvre held his office as Apostolic Delegate. Lefebvre remained Archbishop of Dakar. In June 1960, Lefebvre, in his capacity as chairman of the West African Bishops' Conference, was appointed by the Pope to the central preparatory commission for the Second Vatican Council. In addition, John XXIII awarded him. the dignity of a papal assistant to the throne , as indicated by Lefebvre's newly awarded heraldic coat of arms ornamentation with twenty tassels. In 1962 the Pope persuaded the 56-year-old Lefebvre to completely resign from office in Africa in favor of his native student Hyacinthe Thiandoum . After that, Lefebvre was bishop of Tulle (France) for seven months from January 23 to August 11, 1962 , where he was confronted for the first time increasingly with the decline in ecclesiastical and religious practice of the faithful as a result of the process of secularization. The disempowerment of Lefebvre in Africa and his transfer to the rather insignificant diocese of Tulle could be seen as a certain ecclesiastical discipline by Pope John XXIII. be interpreted for the purpose of promoting a more compromise attitude.

In September 1962 Lefebvre was nevertheless elected Superior General of the Spiritans - a congregation that then numbered over 60 bishops - and appointed titular Archbishop of Synnada in Phrygia Salutaris (today Şuhut in Turkey). In this capacity he intervened several times unsuccessfully against more liberal reform projects of the council, which had been opened on October 11, 1962; among other things against the collegiality of the bishops and the ecclesiastical recognition of religious freedom . To Lefebvre's horror, the council schemes worked out over the course of three years in preparation for the council were discarded at the beginning of the council. A confrontation developed in particular against liberal council members from Lefebvre's home country France, the opinion-forming champions of the so-called nouvelle théologie , such as Yves Congar , Marie-Dominique Chenu or Henri de Lubac , as these the question of the immutability and the historicity of truth as well as the relationship wanted to redefine between nature and grace and put the handling of Marxism and non-Christian religions and their knowledge of God on theological background . A relativization of the Catholic Church's sole claim to truth with regard to its relationship to other religions and Christian denominations as well as a more compromise, pastoral-oriented opening of Catholicism to the questions of modern times, such as those represented by Hélder Câmara , was out of the question for Lefebvre. According to Lefebvre, the new religion-tolerant attitude of the church contradicted the previous Christian missionary practice and the missionary mandate of Jesus ( Mt 28 : 19-20  EU ). In particular, the interreligious world prayer meeting initiated later in 1986 under the pontificate of Pope John Paul II in Assisi as a result of the conciliar declaration Nostra Aetate was a thorn in Marcel Lefebvre's side in this regard. In his opinion, the Catholic Church was thereby degraded to the status of any religious community and the outstanding importance of Jesus Christ was relativized.

He compared the theological upheaval during the Council, which Lefebvre saw as a dam break, with the socio-political upheavals of the French Revolution and its propagated motto “ Freedom, Equality, Fraternity ”. The emphasis on tolerant religious freedom and the freedom of conscience of the individual, which had been condemned by the papacy in the 19th century, has now, to the displeasure of Lefebvre, who saw it as fundamental theological errors, elevated to conciliar principles. For Lefebvre there could not be a fundamental right, guaranteed by the Church, to exercise what he believed to be an erroneous religious practice. He rejected the demand for a collegially governed church in favor of a more authoritarian form, as it had been practiced in the pre-conciliar period. On this issue, Lefebvre came into strong opposition to Achille Liénart , who had ordained him priest and bishop. Liénart stressed that the bishops share in the Pope's infallibility in terms of governing the Church, not alongside the Pope, but with him. Lefebvre, on the other hand, found a prominent supporter of his position in Cardinal Alfredo Ottaviani . With reference to Peter's biblical confession of Christ and the promise of Jesus ( Mt 16 : 13-19 EU ), which they wanted to understand as the foundation of the papacy and its leading position within the universal  Church, both emphasized the sole primacy of the Pope . Lefebvre also rejected a restriction of the decision-making power of the bishops in their dioceses, for example through the establishment of national bishops' conferences . The ecumenism as described in the November 21, 1964 by Pope Paul VI. promulgated Council document Unitatis redintegratio , ultimately destroy the Catholic Church. The document refers to the differences between the churches and ecclesiastical communities separated from Rome , but in a wrong, equalizing way, appreciates various similarities with other denominations .

In 1963 founded Lefebvre with the Cardinals Alfredo Ottaviani and Francis Spellman and Luigi Maria Carli , Giuseppe Siri , Arcadio María Larraona , Rufino Santos , Michael Browne and Ernesto Ruffini , Geraldo de Proença Sigaud , José Maurício da Rocha and Antonio de Castro Mayer of The association Coetus Internationalis Patrum , which about 250 conservative council fathers joined and of which he became chairman, was disappointed with what he considered to be a fatal council . Archbishop Lefebvre wrote numerous negative statements at the council, but he supported the council's liturgy constitution ( Sacrosanctum Concilium ) and also approved almost all other documents. The "Coetus Internationalis Patrum" under Lefebvre succeeded in changing some council texts, since Pope Paul VI. sought the greatest possible approval of all assembled bishops of the universal Church and was thus forced to compromise with the conservatives.

After the conclusion of the council, Lefebvre increasingly came into opposition to the post-conciliar developments in the Roman Catholic Church. The secularization process of the Catholic Church in Western Europe and North America, which has been emerging for a long time, with the decline in ecclesiastical practice as well as increasing numbers of people leaving the Church, the closure of convents and seminaries, the decline in ordinations and the laicization of Catholic priests, Lefebvre arranged a direct causal nexus to the consequences of the Reforms of the council.

After the general assembly of the Spiritans in 1968 had decided on far-reaching reforms in the spirit of the council (" aggiornamento ") and the introduction of priestly marriage and the desacralization of the priesthood had been debated within the congregation, Lefebvre resigned, although he was elected superior general for twelve years had been withdrawn from office under protest. When, after the protests and riots of 1968, the Archbishop of Paris François Marty showed understanding for the left-wing movement and its goals, Lefebvre clearly positioned himself against communism in sermons. After the 1969 by Pope Paul VI. Lefebvre refused to introduce the new Catholic Mass ordinance, which was also created with the aim of ecumenical rapprochement with the Protestant churches, and stayed with the celebration of the old Mass ordinance according to the Tridentine rite in the special form of the "1962 rite".

Shortly thereafter, traditionalist seminarians at the French seminary in Rome asked him for help in finding a conservative seminary where they could cling to pre-conciliar beliefs and doctrines. He initially referred her to the university in Freiburg, Switzerland . Until 1972 Lefebvre remained Consultor of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith and lived in Rome.

Establishment of the Society of St. Pius X.

After Lefebvre was asked in 1970 to teach these French seminarians personally, he turned to the diocesan bishop of the diocese of Lausanne, Geneva and Friborg , François Charrière , who founded the Society of St. Pius X. (Latin: “Fraternitas Sacerdotalis Sancti Pii X. ”, abbreviation“ FSSPX ”) as pia unio and approved the provisional status of an officially established religious institute or a community of apostolic life on November 1, 1970, shortly before his resignation as bishop. On October 13, 1972, the "International Convict St. Pius X." was founded, as a theologically conservative spirit still prevailed at the local University of Freiburg in Üechtland . François Charrière had initially only approved the legal status of the FSSPX for six years ad experimentum . The theologically conservative American Cardinal John Joseph Wright , Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy , sent a letter in which he congratulated Archbishop Lefebvre on the establishment of the Brotherhood.

Canonical repeal of the Society of St. Pius X and suspension of Lefebvres

In 1971, Lefebvre told his seminarians that he rejected Pope Paul VI's. promulgated a new Editio typica of the Roman Missal . The church changes since the council are the result of a plot by liberal and anti-Christian powers. Because of his attitude, tensions grew between him and various European bishops. Cardinal Secretary of State Jean-Marie Villot convened a commission and instructed them to investigate the matter. As a result, Lefebvre published a “Declaration of Principles” in 1974 in which he wrote that the FSSPX rejects it and has always refused to follow the “Rome of neo- modernist and neo- Protestant tendencies”. Every faithful Catholic, to whom his salvation meant something, had to reject the new order of the masses.

On February 13 and March 3, 1975, Lefebvre had to answer to the Cardinals Commission in Rome for his attitude. After that, Cardinal Arturo Tabera gave Bishop Pierre Mamie , Charrière's successor, the power of attorney to dissolve the Pius Brotherhood. As a result, Mamie withdrew her recognition as an official Catholic organization on May 6, 1975. From the perspective of Rome, the FSSPX now lacked the canonical basis to run a seminary . From Lefebvre's point of view, the cancellation was invalid because Bishop Mamie exceeded his competencies and other formal errors.

Lefebvre therefore ignored both the instructions of the diocesan bishop and the instructions of Rome and did not close the seminary in Ecône , which opened in 1970 . After being on 29 June 1976 without Dimissorial letters of diocesan bishops and priests seminarians ordained , he had been by Pope Paul VI. suspended . All the powers of his priestly and bishop's office were withdrawn from him and he was no longer allowed to administer the sacraments by the church. On September 15, 1976, the Pope received him for an interview in Castel Gandolfo , which, however, could not change the Pope's judgment against Lefebvre. Pope Paul VI Lefebvre accused Lefebvre in particular of personal ambiguity in claiming "obedience" to the papacy, but with the general reservation that the current minister must comply with the specifications of a "tradition" about which Lefebvre judged subjectively. For his part, Lefebvre emphasized that he did not judge the tradition himself, but merely referred to the documents of the papal magisterium of the 19th century. In a personal reminder letter dated October 11, 1976, Paul VI condemned. the dogmatic error of the concept of church and tradition represented by Lefebvre. In the following years Lefebvre gave public lectures in numerous countries and founded seminaries, priests, retreat houses and schools to support his goals. A group of nuns for the promotion of the Priestly Society was led by his biological sister Sr. Marie-Gabrielle during this period. His other sister, Sr. Christiane, also organized the foundation of a traditional Carmelite monastery in Belgium.


On May 5, 1988, after talks between the Lefebvres Community and the Catholic Church, a protocol of unification was drawn up. The then prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith , Joseph Ratzinger, who later became Pope Benedict XVI, played a decisive role. But after the almost 83-year-old Lefebvre had consecrated Bernard Tissier de Mallerais , Richard Williamson , Alfonso de Galarreta and Bernard Fellay as bishops on June 30, 1988, contrary to papal instructions , with the assistance of his friend, Brazilian Bishop Antônio de Castro Mayer , condemned Pope John Paul II. These episcopal ordinations on July 2nd with the Apostolic Letter Ecclesia Dei Adflicta as a schismatic act. In Lefebvre's opinion, the episcopal ordinations had become necessary because his health deteriorated and the end of his life began to appear. Without the ordination of bishops within the community, after Lefebvre's death, for reasons of the lack of apostolic succession, priests could no longer have been ordained and the community would have been doomed to gradually extinct. According to Catholic church law, the unauthorized episcopal ordinations ipso facto resulted in the excommunication of Lefebvre and Castro Mayer and of the priests ordained by them as bishops. As a result, after the episcopal ordination, about 15 of the 212 priests of the brotherhood turned away from Lefebvre and swore new obedience to Rome. The faithful were asked by Rome to stop following the priests of the community. However, the Roman condemnation of episcopal ordinations did not affect their sacramental validity , since according to Roman Catholic theology of sacraments and corresponding canon law, it is an indelible imprint that permanently modifies the ontic status. This is true here because Apostolic Succession and Ordination Rite were valid. However, according to Roman Catholic law and its legally binding application, the ordination was not legitimate in the said individual case ; the bishops therefore have no ecclesiastical jurisdiction .

Lefebvre died on March 25, 1991 at the age of 85 in Martigny hospital. He was buried on April 2, 1991 in Ecône ( canton Valais ) in Switzerland.

Lefebvre's theological position

In his manifesto of November 21, 1974, Lefebvre stated that every Catholic risking his or her salvation who celebrated Mass in accordance with the liturgical reform of the Second Vatican Council. It is impossible for conscientious, devout Catholics to submit to the liturgical reform "even in the slightest".

He did not see himself as the creator of a new theology:

“I am not a leader of a movement, much less the head of my own church. I am not, as they keep writing, 'the leader of the traditionalists'. Indeed, one has even gone so far as to call certain people 'Lefebvrists', as if it were a party or a separate theological teaching system. That is an inadmissible way of speaking. I do not represent personal teaching in the religious field. All my life I have kept to what I was taught on the school desk of the French seminary in Rome, namely the Catholic doctrine, as it has been the magisterium since the death of the last apostle , who marked the end of Revelation , from century to year Century handed down. "

- 1986

He outlined his position as follows:

“I have repeated often and often that if someone separates from the Pope, it will not be me. The question can be summarized as follows: The violence in the Church is a supreme authority, but it is not absolute and without limits, because it is subordinate to the divine authority, that in tradition, in the Holy Scriptures and in that already through the Church Teaching profession promulgated definitions find their expression. Indeed, the Pope's power finds its limits in the end for which it was bestowed on earth on the Vicar of Christ. Pius IX clearly defined this end in the Constitution Pastor Aeternus of the First Vatican Council . So when I say this I am not putting forward my own theories. Blind obedience is not Catholic; no one is relieved of responsibility when he follows orders from a superior authority, be it the Pope, although it turns out that they contradict the will of God, which we can certainly see from tradition. […] One must admit that Pope Paul VI. has posed a serious problem to the conscience of Catholics. This Pope did more harm to the Church than the 1789 revolution . [...] Paul VI's liberalism , admitted by his friend Cardinal Danielou , suffices as an explanation for the catastrophes of his pontificate . The liberal Catholic is a two-faced personality, always caught up in contradictions. He wants to remain Catholic, but he is obsessed with the desire to please the world. [...] We want to remain connected with Rome, with the Successor of Peter , if we also embrace the liberalism of Paul VI. refuse out of loyalty to his predecessors. "

- 1986

In one of his last sermons on November 1, 1990 in Ecône, Lefebvre again summed up his position:

“Because of the apostasy that reigns in Rome, we have to watch the souls en masse move toward hell . [...] Atheism is based on the declaration of human rights . The states that have since professed this official atheism are in a state of permanent mortal sin . […] We can therefore rightly say that these masses are moving down to hell. [...] He wants to remain God, not only in heaven, but also on earth. That's why He wants soldiers for his army. "

In his open letter to the perplexed Catholics in 1986, Lefebvre sharply disapproved of the position of Pope John Paul II in interreligious dialogue. He refused both the Pope's visit to the Great Synagogue of Rome and the world prayer meeting in Assisi , where representatives of various religions met on the initiative of the Pope to pray for peace in the world. The letter also contained a rejection of the freedom of religion postulated in the Council Declaration Nostra Aetate . According to Lefebvre, this religious freedom cannot be applied to false religions.

Alleged proximity to dictatorial regimes

Lefebvre attracted public attention through statements in sermons , according to which the military junta of Argentina, responsible for tens of thousands of murders, and the dictatorship in Chile under Augusto Pinochet , responsible for more than 3,000 murders, are exemplary governments from a religious point of view. He also found words of praise for authoritarian rulers and dictators such as Philippe Pétain , António de Oliveira Salazar and Francisco Franco . Lefebvre was financially supported by reactionary aristocrats and from circles of the upper class that were hostile to authoritarian republicans .

Own publications (selection)

  • A Bishop Speaks: Writings and Discourses 1963–74. Kreuz-Verlag, Vienna 1976.
  • So that the Church may continue. HE Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre the Defender of the Faith, the Church and the Papacy. Documents, sermons and guidelines. A historiographical documentation. Society of St. Pius X, Stuttgart 1992.
  • Spiritual guide. Reprint III from So that the church will continue to exist. Society of St. Pius X, Stuttgart 1992.
  • I denounce the council! Edition Saint-Gabriel, Switzerland 1979 (new edition: Sarto-Verlag, Bobingen 2009, ISBN 978-3-93-269165-2 )
  • You have dethroned Him: From Liberalism to Apostasy - The Tragedy of the Council. Brotherhood of St. Pius X., Stuttgart 1988 (new edition: Sarto-Verlag, Bobingen 1988 ISBN 978-3-94-385812-9 )
  • Open letter to the perplexed Catholics. Mediatrix-Verlag Vienna, 1986, ISBN 3-85406-067-X (New edition: Sarto-Verlag, Bobingen 2012. ISBN 978-3-94-385807-5 )

further reading

Web links

Commons : Marcel Lefebvre  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. , accessed on June 27, 2019.
  2. , accessed on June 27, 2019.
  3. , accessed June 27, 2019.
  4. , accessed on June 27, 2019.
  5. ^ Film “The Life of HE Marcel Lefebvre”, , accessed on June 27, 2019.
  6. , accessed on June 27, 2019.
  7. ^ Film “The Life of HE Marcel Lefebvre”, , accessed on June 27, 2019.
  8. ^ Film “The Life of HE Marcel Lefebvre”, , accessed on June 27, 2019.
  9. , accessed on June 27, 2019.
  10. , accessed on June 27, 2019.
  11. ^ Film "The Life of HE Marcel Lefebvre", , accessed on June 28, 2019.
  12. Manfred Eder : Lefebvre . In: Religion Past and Present . Mohr / Siebeck, 4th edition, Tübingen 2002, volume 5, p. 174 f.
  13. ^ Film "The Life of HE Marcel Lefebvre", , accessed on June 28, 2019.
  14. ^ Film "The Life of HE Marcel Lefebvre", , accessed on June 28, 2019.
  15. Philippe Roy Lysencourt: Les membres du "Coetus Internationalis Patrum" au concile Vatican II, Inventaire of interventions et souscriptions of adhérents et sympathisants, list of sign ataires et d'occasion of théologiens, Leuven, 2014.
  16. , accessed on June 27, 2019.
  17. ^ Film "The Life of HE Marcel Lefebvre", , accessed on June 28, 2019.
  18. , accessed on June 27, 2019.
  19. , accessed on June 27, 2019.
  20. ^ Film “The Life of HE Marcel Lefebvre”, , accessed on June 29, 2019.
  21. ^ Archbishop Lefebvre's Declaration of Principles , Society of St. Pius X., November 21, 1974, accessed April 27, 2017
  22. Jean-Marie Mayeur, Norbert Brox u. a. (Ed.): The history of Christianity. Volume 13: Crises and Renewal (1958–2000) , p. 116
  23. dunning letter
  24. Epistula Marcello Lefebvre, Archiepiscopo-Episcopo Olim Tutelensi , Latin wording of the warning letter Cum te
  25. ^ Insegnamenti di Paolo VI. XIV (1976), pp. 810-823
  26. ^ Film “The Life of HE Marcel Lefebvre”, , accessed on June 29, 2019.
  27. ^ Film “The Life of HE Marcel Lefebvre”, , accessed on June 29, 2019.
  28. ^ Film “The Life of HE Marcel Lefebvre”, , accessed on June 29, 2019.
  29. Codex des Canonical Law, Title III: Assumption of office and violation of official duty (Cann. 1378–1389) , Libreria Editrice Vaticana, here can. 1378 CIC
  30. See: Unauthorized episcopal ordinations in the article FSSPX
  31. ^ Film “The Life of HE Marcel Lefebvre”, , accessed on June 29, 2019.
  32. Gernot Facius: Marcel Lefebvre, the man who divided the Church , Die Welt , February 4, 2009
  33. cf. on this: Kurt Remele: Catholic Fundamentalism. Distinctions - explanations - inquiries ; Clemens Six, Martin Riesebrodt, Siegfried Haas (eds.): Religious Fundamentalism. From colonialism to globalization . StudienVerlag, Innsbruck a. a. 2004, ISBN 3-7065-4071-1 , p. 62
  34. A l'extrême droite de Dieu: Introduction au dossier sur la Fraternité lefebvriste , RésistanceS - L'Observatoire belge de l'extrême droite , 25 January 2009