Press history in Germany

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Title page of the Relation by Johann Carolus (1609), the world's first newspaper.

This article covers the history of the press in Germany from its beginnings to the present.

Roots and Origins (12th - 15th Century)

Since around 1380, commercial letters reported not only on private and business news but also on politics and science. The Fugger newspapers are a famous example .

In the 14th century the term “ newspaper ” in the Cologne area developed from “zidunge”, which stood for “news”, “news”.

In 1445, the invention of printing with movable type by Johannes Gensfleisch from Mainz, also known as Johannes Gutenberg , laid the foundation for the mass distribution of press products.

Mainly pamphlets and leaflets are published and distributed. The name leaflet probably refers to its rapid distribution. They did not appear periodically, often only once, but still count as print media to this day . When only a very small part of the population was literate, it was mainly the illustrations that conveyed the message of the leaflet. They should also encourage people to buy. Images of strange, wild animals were very popular; unknown objects, lands or creatures and monstrosities.

First beginnings of the periodical press (16th - 18th centuries)

Around 10,000 pamphlets with religious and / or political content published mostly sharp criticism and satirical representations between 1501 and 1530.

In 1502 the Newe zeytung appeared , a non-periodical compilation of news items printed for the first time.

The New Newspapers reported on current events or summarized the latest political, cultural and social events - preferably sensational news. They came out regularly, so they already had (a certain) periodicity and topicality . The “New Newspapers” existed around the beginning of the 18th century, with an estimated 5000 to 8000 titles between 1500 and 1700.

1597 comes in Rorschach , Lake Constance , the Rorschacher monthly first periodicals German language magazine out in the successor to the pamphlets or broadsheets that were previously anzeigten news.

In 1605, Johann Carolus published in Strasbourg for the first time the relation of all reputable and memorable histories , which the World Association of Newspapers recognized as the first newspaper in the world. This means that Germany can be considered the country of origin of the newspaper. Aviso, Relation or Zeitung (published by Julius Adolph von Söhne in Wolfenbüttel) appeared as the second oldest newspaper from 1609 . Further newspapers were founded in quick succession, initially in Germany, soon also abroad: In Basel (1610), Frankfurt am Main (1615 - Frankfurter Postzeitung ), Berlin (1617), Amsterdam (1618), London (1621) and Paris ( 1631).

1650 appear in Leipzig with the incoming newspapers from Timothy Ritzsch the first time a newspaper with six issues a week. From 1663, Georg Greflinger's North German Mercurius was already offering rubrics sorted by topic.

In 1680 the Frankfurter Journal had a circulation of 1,500 copies.

In 1681, the German-language magazine E. G. Happelii was published in Germany, greatest Memories of the world, or so-called Relationes curiosae by Eberhard Werner Happel and in 1688 the monthly discussions by Christian Thomasius .

In the 17th century there were more than 200 mostly short-lived newspapers with an average circulation of 300 copies, the range of which was expanded significantly by reading aloud.

In the 17th century the pamphlets and papers became more and more political, which was mainly due to the situation in the country and the Thirty Years War. The population wanted more and more detailed information about the political situation. More than 7,000 German-language political pamphlets and leaflets have been documented for the 17th century.

Towards the end of the 18th century approx. 200 to 250 newspapers (circulation mostly less than 700 copies) at the same time in Germany. For the year 1801 a circulation of 1200-1300 is handed down for the Breslauer "Schlesische Privilegierte Zeitung" ( Schlesische Zeitung ). - One exception is the Hamburgische Unpartheyische Correspondenten , which had the highest circulation with 30,000 copies. The press is subject to princely censorship .

One type of magazine was Moral Weekly . The magazines written and published by the Englishmen Joseph Addison and Richard Steele served as models. Topics were besides political: the family, the upbringing of morality, tolerance, virtue and morality, living together in society and the court and criticism of it. The court and the nobility were mocked without promoting a new form of government or society. A famous German moral weekly was the Patriot, which appeared very successfully in Germany from 1724 to 1726 .

In 1703 the Wiener Zeitung was founded in Vienna , the oldest still existing German-language newspaper, in 1705 the Hildesheimer Allgemeine Zeitung as the oldest German newspaper (founding name Hildesheimer Relations-Courier ), in 1780 in Switzerland the Neue Zürcher Zeitung , and in 1788 The Times in London .

In 1725 the first women’s magazine , The reasonable Tadlerinnen , was published by Johann Christoph Gottsched.

The Allgemeine Zeitung , founded by Johann Friedrich Cotta , appeared for the first time in 1798 and became the most important German daily newspaper in the early 19th century.

Path to the modern press (from the 19th century)

The mass press emerged in the 19th century, which was largely due to the technical innovations in printing presses . The high-speed press was invented in 1812, the rotary presses in 1845 and the Linotype typesetting machine in 1886 . In addition, the population's interest in information from politics and society continued to grow.

In addition, the state monopoly on advertising was lifted, creating a second source of income for the newspaper industry - advertising sales. Through the sale of advertisements, the newspaper itself could be sold even more cheaply, which led to a much greater distribution.

In the same period the literacy rate rose rapidly, in 1750 only 10% of the population could read and write, in 1871 it was already 88%, thus the readership of newspaper readers increased enormously. At the end of the 19th century there were around 3,500 newspapers in Germany.

In 1819, the Karlovy Vary resolutions set press censorship.

1832 weekly newspaper founded for the Delmenhorst district ; Predecessor of today's Delmenhorster Kreisblatt

In 1835 the first news agency was founded, Agence Havas in Paris.

The first regularly illustrated magazine was the Leipziger Illustrirte Zeitung in 1842 .

In 1848, the freedom of the press was enshrined in law for the first time in the Paulskirche constitution . Soon thereafter there was a relapse into pre-March methods ( mandatory bail , stamp duty , ...), but the old press control could not be restored.

In 1855 the Berliner Börsen-Zeitung was founded by Hermann Killich von Horn , and in 1886 the weekly supplement Berliner Börsen-Courier became an independent newspaper.

In 1872 the Berliner Tageblatt was founded by the Berlin publisher Rudolf Mosse .

In 1874, freedom of the press was finally enshrined in the Reich Press Act.

In the 19th century the party and opinion press developed as well as a mass press .

At the end of the 19th century the big press groups emerged : Mosse , Ullstein Verlag and August Scherl Verlag in Berlin.

Before the First World War there were around 4,000 German newspapers, but the war greatly reduced this number.

During the First World War , freedom of the press was abolished and replaced by strict military censorship .

1916 Alfred Hugenberg founds the first newspaper company and creates the first media company by buying August Scherl Verlag and Ufa in 1927 .

In its constitution in 1919, the Weimar Republic guaranteed freedom of expression as an individual right , but did not contain freedom of the press.

The republic protection laws of 1922 and 1930 and the emergency ordinances of 1931 and 1932 lead to numerous newspaper bans.

1,932 are in Germany 4702 newspapers , edition 25 million.

Press under National Socialism

Prohibition of the newspaper Das Andere Deutschland due to the ordinance of the Reich President for the protection of the people and the state . March 11, 1933

In 1933, when the National Socialists came to power, the content was brought into line with the press and major interventions in the publishing structures, which were previously based solely on economic criteria. The freedom of the press was abolished and the media were placed at the service of the Nazi state.

Content alignment

After the National Socialist seizure of power, the newspapers were given the status of a "bearer of public tasks" ( Editor's Act (entered into force on January 1, 1934); justification (see below for details)), which means that they have switched from being a controller of state action to a state instrument of propaganda and influencing the German people in the spirit of National Socialism. In March 1933, the Reich Ministry for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda (Reich Propaganda Ministry ) was created under the direction of Joseph Goebbels as the central monitoring and guidance institution.

Those who did not suit the rulers ideologically were dismissed, expelled or murdered. Protest was rare, even the journalistic and publishing professional associations only dared to object indirectly. Unlike other unions, the journalists' representation " Reichsverband der Deutschen Presse " was not banned, but in 1933 the members simply elected the new National Socialist " Reichspressechef " Otto Dietrich to head their association. The publishers also appointed Max Amann as their chairman in June 1933. As “Reichsleiter for the press of the NSDAP” and as the president of the “ Reichspressekammer ” responsible for media control, he was one of the top Nazi officials.

, Adopted on 4 October 1933 Editor Law limited the profession of journalists : only those who met the racial conditions and was considered "politically reliable" was allowed to publish all the others had a disbarment . As of January 1, 1934, about 1,300 journalists lost their jobs as a result of the editors' law; many liberal newspapers (such as the Vossische Zeitung in Berlin) had to cease publication as a result.

After the 1935 order to eliminate the scandalous press , publishers whose newspapers "offended" or "harmed the dignity of the press" could be excluded from the "Reich Association of German Newspaper Publishers", which also meant a professional ban.

The Nazi state had thus created a set of instruments that guaranteed complete control over the content of the media. The result was a wide variety of interventions in newspaper production.


Stumpps Hitler portrait 1933
  • The Dortmunder General-Anzeiger , at that time the largest German daily newspaper published outside Berlin, commissioned the well-known press illustrator Emil Stumpp , who had worked regularly for the newspaper for years, to draw a portrait of Adolf Hitler for his birthday. According to the caption “drawn from life”, the unfavorable portrait was printed on the front page on April 20, 1933 and viewed as a malicious caricature by supporters of the National Socialists, who had long disliked the left-wing liberal orientation of the paper . The editorial office was then occupied by the local SA and the Dortmund General-Anzeiger was confiscated by the National Socialists; his entire company assets were confiscated by the NSDAP. The newspaper was continued as the party newspaper Westfälische Landeszeitung - Rote Erde . Stumpp was banned from working , emigrated to Sweden , was denounced and arrested during a visit to Germany and died in Stuhm prison in 1941 .

In order to enforce National Socialist content, the editorial offices received instructions from the Reich Propaganda Ministry on which topics were to be dealt with and how (see also Reich Press Conference ). In order to be able to enforce better control of the content, control of the editorial offices was withdrawn from the publishers by installing editors-in-chief who were acceptable to the Nazi state and who were no longer subordinate to the publishers, but could make their editorial decisions independently.

“The Nazi apparatus used the possibilities of the media very consistently to convey its goals in all political and social areas. At first the focus was on the press with its numerous printed products, which meant flexible, cheap and fast information provision for the population. [..] Goebbels' goal from the beginning was to bring the entire press, radio and all other forms of journalistic expression of opinion under the strict control of the National Socialists. Synchronization was the key requirement for this. Gradually, the RMVP alone determined what became an official public issue and what did not. ”- Joseph Goebbels in his typical diction:“ I see the ban on newspapers as neither a normal nor an ideal situation ”, but the government will“ if necessary provide means and find ways to deal with the press. "The Reich Propaganda Minister relentlessly demanded:" Anyone who ... wants to work is welcome to us. We hold out our hand to him and expect him to strike openly and unreservedly in this hand. "

Interventions in the publishing structures

The National Socialist press policy included not only content- related harmonization, but also the economic and publishing structures were standardized in favor of the NSDAP . As early as the spring, the Nazi state expropriated the newspapers of the SPD and KPD without compensation, which was the first time that the NSDAP came into possession of significant resources to publish its own newspapers.

Although the bourgeois publishers who remained after the expropriation of the social democratic and communist press had initially hoped that if they were not able to keep the freedom of the press intact, if not the freedom of the press, then they lost property after the workers' parties SPD and KPD and then other owners of their publishing houses: the Jewish publishers were quickly eliminated, a little later Catholic and liberal newspapers, small businesses, internationally renowned newspapers (such as the Vossische Zeitung and Berliner Tageblatt ) and, in the end, some of the early champions of the brown movement were expropriated or for sale their newspapers forced.

To this end, the Nazi state issued two ordinances in 1935 that limited the economic possibilities of the remaining bourgeois publishers:

  • The order to close newspaper publishers to eliminate unhealthy competitive conditions made it possible to expropriate publishers in cities with more than one newspaper or to force them to sell;
  • the order to maintain the independence of the newspaper industry forbade the organization of publishing houses as corporations and prescribed personal property, whereby each owner could only be involved in one newspaper.

A large part of the publishers sold (initially because of the bad economic situation of the press before 1933 voluntarily, later under pressure) since 1934 stakes in their own newspaper or the entire newspaper to the publishers Phönix-Zeitungsverlags-GmbH (for the denominational press) and Vera Verlagsanstalt GmbH (for other bourgeois newspapers), merged with competing Nazi newspapers or gave the newspapers completely to the NSDAP.

In 1944 the NSDAP finally controlled 36 percent of all newspapers in the German Reich, which, however, brought out a total of 82.5 percent of the daily circulation.

Overall, the number of daily newspapers in the Nazi state fell from 4,702 in 1932 to around 2,500 in 1937 and further to 977 in October 1944. In the last weeks of the war there were further newspaper closings and amalgamations, as well as the destruction of publishing houses and printing houses until the Allied troops finally closed the National Socialist German press in April / May 1945.

Press during the occupation 1945–1949

In Germany immediately after the war , the victorious powers created the basis for the complete reorganization of the press system in both the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic by banning existing newspapers and their licensing policy .

Before the end of the war, the Western Allies had prepared far less specifically for the transformation of the German media landscape than the Soviet side. The Soviet Union began training German communists in exile as cadres for media development early on, while the Western Allies were still developing strategies for post-war press. From July 1943 the Soviet government published the German weekly newspaper Free Germany and operated radio stations in the Soviet Union, both initially primarily as a means of psychological warfare . The communist cadres started work immediately after the Red Army conquered German territories. Like the Western Allies, they started out from the masses who had been seduced into National Socialism and were supposed to educate them about Nazi crimes and war guilt and to help eliminate the remaining Nazis. In contrast to the press officers of the Western Allies, who were supposed to pursue a pluralistic model for the German press landscape, there was a clear ideological mandate for the communist cadre to reshape the worldview in the direction of socialism.

In 1943 the British and Americans decided to peacefully integrate post-war Germany as a democratic state in Europe and to win the population over to this approach. In October 1943, the European Advisory Commission was founded together with the Soviet Union . She drew up the first general plans for the German press landscape after the war: the German press should continue to work in the most important editorial offices without a transition after a partial exchange of personnel with Allied censors. The British and Americans abandoned this approach in the course of the following months because they considered it too dictatorial, while the Soviet Union did its own preparations for the post-war order of the German press landscape. In April 1944, the Psychological Warfare Division took over the preparation of specific projects for the Western Allies . According to her, a central allied commission should jointly and comprehensively determine media policy. Concrete guidelines for press policy were presented on April 16, 1945 in the Handbook for the Control of German Information Services .

The aim of the handbook was to eliminate the Nazi influence of the press, for which the elimination of the entire existing press was deemed necessary. With recourse to an Allied ordinance of November 24, 1944, it therefore essentially provided for a sequence of three stages for their press policy:

In order to eliminate the Nazi influence, all journalists and old publishers who had worked in Germany since 1933 were to be banned from the profession , with exceptions .

Almost all traditional daily newspapers had to close ( blackout ) on the instructions of the occupation authorities, but a few dozen were able to reappear under their traditional name for a few days or weeks between April and July 1945 (some content was limited to local reporting, announcements and / or advertisements). for example the Cellesche Zeitung , the Mühlhauser Anzeiger , the Tageblatt for Penig and Lunzenau , the Eisleber Zeitung , the Schaumburger Zeitung from Rinteln or the Deister and Weserzeitung from Hameln . The other provisions, in particular the professional ban for journalists, were not implemented consistently. Parallel to the beginning of the reorganization of the German press, there were prisoner-of-war newspapers from 1944, although they played a subordinate role.

The French basically followed the British-American guidelines, but pursued a divergent and inconsistent media policy for their own profile and because of internal disputes.

The information and news that was important for the population was initially conveyed in all the occupied areas primarily through the newspapers published by the Allied troops (" Heeresgruppenpresse "), from which a large number of large daily newspapers that still exist today should emerge. The army group newspapers consisted largely of the same national articles for all and differed only in the local reporting and the announcements of the respective military commanders. Around 20 German editors worked for the papers, which would later form the core of the editorial offices of the licensed newspapers. From summer 1945, following the army group press, a limited number of new licensees received the now necessary special permission to publish so-called licensed newspapers instead of the (old) publishers burdened by the Nazis . In November 1945, the last Army Group newspaper was discontinued in the American-occupied territories. In contrast, the British did not begin licensing until the spring of 1946.

During this time the following newspapers and publishers were founded:

With the Daily Rundschau , the model of the occupation zone newspaper was also created in the Soviet zone . The other allies adopted the model of the zone newspaper partly in parallel to the already started licensing for newspapers with mostly smaller circulation areas. The zone newspapers were provided with German editorial offices, which always paid attention to a political balance. This model should serve as a model for the licensed newspapers. In addition, the zone newspapers were "teaching editors" for the journalists of later German newspapers. Zone newspapers and licensed newspapers sometimes appeared in parallel and merged. The Berlin edition of the Neue Zeitung was the last zonal newspaper to cease to appear in 1955.

In the American zone , despite efforts to create ideologically heterogeneous editorial teams and publishing groups, ideologically oriented papers soon emerged. By 1948, 56 newspapers with 112 side editions were licensed. The economic conditions were strictly regulated. At first, due to paper shortages, the newspapers appeared twice a week with an average of five pages. Nevertheless, the licensed newspapers were economic successes because of their monopoly position. American press officers only carried out minor re-censorship; However, the military administration issued directives which forbade the treatment of taboo subjects (for example, quarrels between the Allies) and were supposed to enforce the separation of news and opinion and the renunciation of Nazi language. From July 1947, however, criticism of the Soviet Union was permitted. In May 1949, the American administration transferred responsibility to the German press laws.

The British military administration relied on its later licensing on the German parties that had been formed in the meantime. Licensees had to have a clear political background. In the case of the British, it was not internal plurality, but competition between newspapers of different orientations that was supposed to ensure diversity of opinion. Due to a shortage of paper and largely destroyed printing plants, licensing in the British zone made slow progress. The military administration carried out particularly intensive post-censorship, which was hardly effective with the bulk of the papers. Criticism of the supply situation, military authorities and the Soviet Union could hardly be suppressed in the British zone. The allocation of newspapers to parties was changed at the end of 1946 in accordance with the state election results. Increasingly, however, the British began to feel the radicalization of the party newspapers. From mid-1946 onwards they pursued increased training initiatives for journalists and founded the DPD agency . In 1948, four large, non-party daily newspapers were finally licensed. In addition, committees were created in which German publishers and journalists could influence the licensing process.

The French military administration began licensing in August 1945. In principle, it retained the principle of ideologically heterogeneous editorial offices, but placed more control officers in the editorial offices than the other Western Allies. In addition, from 1947 newspapers of the German parties appeared in the French-occupied zone. These quickly caused the French to have similar censorship problems as the British. The occupation administration reacted to this with rigid measures such as paper withdrawal and bans. From the spring of 1949 the licensing process was transferred to the newspaper publishers' association.

The Soviet military administration expropriated all publishers immediately after the occupation. Printing works were transferred to the SBZ administration, which organized the printing of newspapers. Initially, non-partisan newspapers with a bourgeois orientation were also allowed to appear, but these were discontinued until 1951. The SMAD -latt daily review immediately took over the leading role in the SBZ. It was supplied exclusively by the Soviet news agency. After the formation of parties, each received a central organ. The SED was clearly predominant and also dominated weekly district and company newspapers. Journalist training was centralized at the University of Leipzig and at the Berlin Broadcasting School.

In West Germany the personal turning point towards the “Third Reich” was hardly implemented consistently. Contracts ensured that the licensed newspapers would continue to appear in the old publishers' printing works at an early stage, even if they were not allowed to influence the print products in the media. Because the old publishers had the printing equipment and had not been expropriated in the western zones. In addition, despite their intentions to the contrary, the Western Allies mainly resorted to journalists who had worked in Germany before 1945.

From September 1945, licensed magazines were also published. You should primarily deal with political background information. Allies also allowed critical discussions on the war guilt question and reconstruction plans in them comparatively early on.

On September 21, 1949 the general license was granted in West Germany and anyone could start a newspaper. Most of the newspapers that appeared after that were founded by the so-called old publishers . They had already formed a new association in 1948. The return to the press market was only partially successful, as the license papers had largely established themselves economically by 1949.

Press in the Federal Republic of Germany

The general license has led to a sharp increase in the number of newspapers / titles since 1949. In the founding phase after 1949, the following newspapers were created:

The German Press Agency was founded in 1949 through a merger of the German News Agency , the South German News Agency and the German Press Service . To this day it is the largest German-speaking agency. The increasing competition, especially among local newspapers, led to strong cut-throat competition between the newspapers from the licensing phase and the press of the old publishers. Most of the time, the latter had to give up again, as the licensed press had already built up a loyal readership. From 1954 there was a strong concentration of the press , which particularly decimated the number of smaller local newspapers and considerably improved the position of the large publishers . The number of single newspaper circles doubled.

In 1956 the German Press Council was founded.

1968 followed the student leader Rudi Dutschke perpetrated assassination student protests against the Axel-Springer-Verlag .

In 1974 the draft of a press law framework law was presented, but it was never to be implemented.

In 1976 the process of press concentration was largely stopped, and the structure of the press landscape in terms of size and numbers did not change significantly until reunification .

In 1978 the daily newspaper (taz) appeared for the first time.

Press in the GDR

The Soviet occupying power and later the GDR government only issued licenses to parties and large organizations. Only between 1946 and 1953 could private daily newspapers appear, such as the Leipziger Zeitung , Berlin am Mittag , Altenburger Nachrichten , Weimar the Abendpost , Potsdam the Tagespost and the Nacht-Express in Berlin. The Express-Verlag was able to develop into a more differentiated, larger publishing house with magazine titles such as Illustrierter Radsport-Express , Der Collector Express or Der Kleingärtner und Siedler . The liberal democratic party newspapers Norddeutsche Zeitung and Der Morgen also initially had private licensees . However, the private newspapers were closed by the beginning of the 1950s at the latest or the licenses were transferred to the East German parties .

The licenses were necessary until the collapse of the GDR in order to be able to publish a title. The number of daily newspapers in the GDR remained almost constant over the forty years. In the GDR, too, formal freedom of the press was enshrined in the constitution . However, there were numerous restrictions through ordinances, regulations and controls of the authorities, so that there was nothing left of the freedom of the press as Western democracies know it. There was no press law. One cannot speak of freedom of information either.

The titles were distributed exclusively through the postal newspaper distribution , which delivered the press products to newspaper kiosks or sent them by post directly to the end customer with a subscription. This distribution structure was the best way for the state to exercise its control. The mass media were controlled by the state apparatus, the highest authority for this was the Agitation and Propaganda Department of the Central Committee of the SED . Approved, but nevertheless not welcome publications, due to restrictions, often received too few raw materials to be able to print and publish their titles.

The daily newspaper with the highest circulation was the Young World of the FDJ (around 1.3 million copies in 1989), ahead of Neues Deutschland (almost one million copies in 1989), the central organ of the SED. In 1989 there were 39 daily newspapers in the GDR , 30 of them regional newspapers . Their total circulation was around 9.7 million copies. The SED itself published 15 district newspapers, which were sold to West German publishers through the Treuhand after reunification . The GDR's print media also included 30 weekly newspapers and magazines, including television, family, women's and fashion magazines (a total of around nine million copies); Not to forget the very popular and still much quoted satirical magazine Eulenspiegel .

Press after reunification

In 1991 the Treuhandanstalt sold the East German newspapers and magazines that had been in the exclusive possession of political parties (mostly the SED ) and mass organizations in the GDR since the early 1950s . Only West German publishers were accepted (a French high-potential applicant for the Märkische Allgemeine , the Dernières Nouvelles d'Alsace from Strasbourg , withdrew his offer to the Treuhandanstalt "because of the Gulf War"). Since the daily newspapers that were already leading in GDR times, the former SED district newspapers , were not split up when they were sold, their monopoly-like position in East Germany has been preserved to this day. Other (mostly smaller) West German publishers founded a large number of local newspapers at the beginning of the 1990s (estimates are between 70 and 140), but most of them had to be discontinued. Last but not least , however, the publisher Dirk Ippen proved with the successful establishment of the local newspapers Oranienburger Generalanzeiger including Gransee-Zeitung and Ruppiner Anzeiger as well as the Altmark-Zeitung that, despite the Treuhandanstalt's sales policy, which preserved the old monopolies, it was possible to found local newspapers (see also the daily newspapers of the GDR ).

The few new startups in the area of ​​popular magazines in the east were SPIESSER and Gute Idee after the fall of the Wall . Only the colorful weekly Superillu can be described as a success. It is a holdover from the failed tabloid Super! .

Press and the new media

Mid-1990 began publishers of newspapers and magazines so that their printed editions by Internet to supplement presences. The forerunner of this development in Germany was the Schweriner Volkszeitung , whose website went online on May 5th, 1995. It was the first German daily newspaper on the Internet.

Initially, the press published their printed texts one-to-one on the Internet. Only gradually did an independent online journalism emerge . In autumn 2000 one of the first pure internet newspapers was founded in Germany, the Netzeitung . They refrained from distributing and selling printed matter; instead, she provided content for local newspapers, among other things.

Another important pure internet newspaper in German-speaking countries is Telepolis . It was published as a print edition until 1998 and deals primarily with questions of network policy, data protection and the media, but also with scientific topics, politics and cultural criticism.

Due to the ever increasing popularity of new media such as blogs , web feeds and podcasts , traditional media also became aware of the new forms of presentation after 2001 and used them cross-media for cross-promotion .

Since November 2004, Wikinews has also been an attempt to establish an open, wiki- based news platform.

A pilot project for an individual daily newspaper was planned from mid-2007 , in which the user should largely be able to determine the printed content himself.

Against the background of online media, the perspective of print media is also changing . There are fears that newspapers will die out or that they will exit the print business.

Newspaper museums


Newspapers often offer or enclose reprints of older editions on certain occasions (e.g. anniversaries , birthdays ). Series also appear in which individual issues are reprinted (e.g. newspaper witnesses ).

See also



  • Deutsche Presse - Biobibliographic handbooks on the history of the German-language periodical press from its beginnings to 1815, ed. by Holger Böning, Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt: Frommann-Holzboog, 1996–
    • Vol. 1: Hamburg: annotated bibliography of newspapers, magazines, intelligence sheets, calendars and almanacs as well as biographical references to editors, publishers and printers of periodicals

Böning lists over 1000 titles, 600 of which are not included in Joachim Kirchner's journal bibliography.

  • Karl Schottenloher: leaflet and newspaper. A guide through the printed daily literature, Volume 1: From the beginnings to 1848, Berlin, Schmidt 1922. Newly edited, introduced and supplemented by J. Binkowski, Munich, Klinkhardt and Biermann 1985, ISBN 3-7814-0228-2 .


  • Klaus Beyrer, Martin Dallmeier (ed.): When the post was still making newspapers. A press story. Anabas Verlag, Giessen 1994, ISBN 3-87038-258-9 (catalog for the exhibition of the same name in the Deutsche Postmuseum Frankfurt am Main, June 9 - September 4, 1994).
  • Holger Böning : Periodical press, communication and education. Hamburg and Altona as an example. Edition Lumière, Bremen 2002, ISBN 3-934686-09-5 .
  • Holger Böning: World conquest by a new audience. The German press and the road to education. Hamburg and Altona as an example. Edition Lumière, Bremen 2002, ISBN 3-934686-08-7 .
  • Daniel Bellingradt: Aviation journalism and the public around 1700. Dynamics, actors and structures in the urban space of the Old Kingdom , Stuttgart: Steiner, 2011, ISBN 978-3-515-09810-6 .
  • Margret Boveri : We all lie. A capital newspaper under Hitler. Olten: Walter, 1965.
  • Hans Bohrmann, Gabriele Toepser-Ziegert (Hrsg.): NS press instructions of the pre-war period. Edition and Documentation , Vol. 1–7 (1933–1939), Munich: Saur 1984–2001.
  • Bernd Drücke: Between a desk and a street battle? Anarchism and Libertarian Press in East and West Germany . Klemm & Oelschläger Verlag, Ulm 1998, 640 pages. ISBN 3-932577-05-1 .
  • Ernst Fischer; Wilhelm Haefs; Mork-Gothart Mix (Ed.): From Almanac to Newspaper. A handbook of the media in Germany 1700–1800 . Munich. Verlag CH Beck 1999. ISBN 3-406-45476-3 .
  • Norbert Frei , Johannes Schmitz: Journalism in the Third Reich . Munich CH Beck, 3rd revised edition 1999, ISBN 3-406-45516-6 .
  • Christian Heger: Press steering à la Bismarck. Methods of press control in Prussia and in the German Empire . In: Ders .: In the shadow realm of fictions: Studies on the fantastic history of motifs and the inhospitable (media) modernity, AVM, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-86306-636-9 , pp. 279-291.
  • Martin Herzer: Foreign Correspondents and Foreign Press Policy in the Third Reich . Böhlau Verlag, Cologne 2012, ISBN 978-3-412-20859-2 .
  • Arnulf Kutsch, Johannes Weber: 350 years of daily newspaper, research and documents. Edition Lumière, Bremen 2002, ISBN 3-934686-06-0 .
  • Kurt Koszyk : History of the German Press. Vol. 2, 1966 to Vol. 4, 1986. Colloquium Verlag, Berlin.
    • Kurt Koszyk: German press in the 19th century. History of the German press part II. Colloquium Verlag, Berlin 1966.
    • Kurt Koszyk: German Press 1914-1945. History of the German Press Part III. Colloquium Verlag, Berlin 1972, ISBN 3-7678-0310-0 .
    • Kurt Koszyk: Press Policy for Germans 1945-1949. History of the German Press Part IV. Colloquium Verlag, Berlin 1986, ISBN 3-7678-0663-0 .
  • Kurt Koszyk: Journalism and Political Engagement. Life pictures of journalistic personalities ed. and introduced by Walter Hömberg, Arnulf Kutsch and Horst Pöttker. Lit-Verlag, Münster 1999, ISBN 3-8258-4276-2 .
  • Margot Lindemann: German press until 1815. History of the German press part I. Colloquium Verlag, Berlin 1969.
  • Katja Lüthy: The magazine: On the phenomenology and history of a medium , Konstanz 2013, ISBN 3-86764-413-6 .
  • Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann , Winfried Schulz, Jürgen Wilke (Hrsg.): Fischer Lexikon Publizistik Massenkommunikation. Frankfurt 2002.
  • Heinz Pürer, Johannes Raabe: Media in Germany. Volume 1: Press . UVK Medien, Konstanz 1996.
  • Rudolf Stöber: German press history. From the beginning to the present. 3rd, revised edition. UVK Verlagsgesellschaft, Konstanz / Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-86764-516-4 .
  • Martin Welke, Jürgen Wilke : 400 years of the newspaper. The history of the daily press in an international context. Edition Lumière, Bremen 2008, ISBN 978-3-934686-37-3 .
  • Franz Josef Wiegelmann: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Life, work and impact history in the mirror image of the press since 1832; Bonn 2006, 380 pages. ISBN 978-3-939431-01-5 .
  • Franz Josef Wiegelmann: Wi (e) der die Juden. Judaism and anti-Semitism in journalism from seven centuries; Bonn 2005, 268 pages. ISBN 978-3-9809762-8-2 .
  • Franz Josef Wiegelmann: Wi (e) der die Juden. Judaism and anti-Semitism in journalism from seven centuries. Supplement Dresden; Bonn 2007, 12 pages. ISBN 978-3-939431-12-1 .
  • Franz Josef Wiegelmann: Wi (e) der die Juden. Judaism and anti-Semitism in journalism from seven centuries. Supplement Celle; Bonn 2007, 12 pages. ISBN 978-3-939431-13-8 .

Web links

Wiktionary: Press history  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Sources and footnotes

  1. World Association of Newspapers: Newspapers: 400 Years Young! ( Memento from May 10, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  2. Volker Hagedorn on: Galloping reporters in DIE ZEIT October 22, 2015 p. 18
  3. ^ Digitized newspapers of the 17th century
  4. ^ 150 years of the Schlesische Zeitung (1742–1892); New e-book edition (Kindle version) of the 1892 anniversary book of the important Breslau daily newspaper; Schöneck 2012.
  5. Annegret Bölke-Heinrichs: The press illustrator Emil Stumpp. In: Heimat Dortmund (magazine of the historical association for Dortmund and the Grafschaft Mark), No. 1/2001 (special issue: History of the Council in Dortmund ), p. 46 f.
  6. Media policy under National Socialism  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ( FH Augsburg , WS 2006/2007 - PDF, 12 p., 437 kB)@1@ 2Template: Toter Link /  
  7. The gift idea: Historical newspaper reprints. , December 2, 2010, accessed on July 6, 2013 .
  8. Kicker Edition. 50 years of the miracle of Bern. With the reprint of Kicker from July 5, 1954. (No longer available online.) Sportiversum, formerly in the original ; Retrieved July 6, 2013 .  ( Page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /  
  9. Newspaper witnesses ( memento of January 10, 2014 in the Internet Archive )