Royal Bavarian 10th Infantry Regiment "King Ludwig"
The association was established in 1682 under the name of the “Berlo zu Fuß” regiment by Elector Max Emanuel for the Bavarian Army . In 1745/78 it was named Leibregiment Infanterie . From this a regiment of the Bavarian Army developed in the 19th century under the name 10th Infantry Regiment "King Ludwig" . During the Electoral Palatinate Bavarian period from 1778, the regiment was included in the newly created trunk list as the 10th Juncker Line Infantry Regiment . The following numbering was subsequently introduced for the system: 1682/5 (after Ticino ),Infantry Regiment No. 1 (after Bleckwenn ).
In the 17th and 18th centuries the regiments only carried the name of the regiment holder .
Positioning and development
The regiment was set up on June 29, 1682 on the highest orders of Elector Max Emanuel . The Ingolstadt governor's company of General Feldzeugmeister Johann Adolf Graf Berlo de Coquier, who was the first owner of the regiment until his death on March 6, 1683, became the company of Oberwachtmeister Ferdinand Franz de St. Jure Chevalier de Mercy et Marange who was the first colonel in command of the regiment until July 14, 1683 (the designation was not in use until 1872), the company of Captain Johann Albrecht von Notthaft auf Weißenstein, who succeeded de Mercy as colonel commander and held the command until 1688, as well as three newly established companies. It was called the regiment on foot "Graf Berlo" and its strength was 1200 men and 22 horses.
Since 1685 the unit has always been called " Leibregiment ". Regiment owners were always the respective electors / emperors: Max Emanuel (Leibregiment on foot, 1684–1726), Karl Albrecht (Leibregiment Infanterie, 1726–1742, Imperial Leibregiment Infanterie, 1742–1745), Max III. (Infantry Infantry Regiment, 1745–1778).
Campaigns against the Turks in 1683/88
In the campaign against the Turks on September 12, 1683, the regiment, now equipped with eight companies of 200 men each, entered Vienna. Within three weeks it lost half of the men to fighting, but mostly to illness. In December 1683, Colonel de Mercy also died of a fever. Thereafter, Max Emanuel was the owner of the regiment until his death on February 26, 1726. On July 5, 1684, it was renamed the Electoral Body Regiment on foot . The regiment took part in the sieges of Ofen . For the first siege from September 11 to November 1, 1984, only his combat strength (1200 men and 57 horses) is known; during the second (June 17 to September 12, 1686) 101 dead, 110 wounded and 100 sick men, 50 of whom died of their illnesses, suffered. After the siege and heavy storming of Belgrade from August 10 to September 6, 1688, the regiment was still 674 men strong.
Imperial war against France 1689/97
At the beginning of the War of Succession , the regiment was divided into two grenadier and twelve fusilier companies with a total strength of 2100 men. During the war, the regiment played a major role in the bombardment and siege of Mainz (July 26th to September 11th, 1689). After the campaign in Northern Italy (1691 to 1693) a III. Battalion; after the campaign in the Netherlands and on the Upper Rhine (1694 to 1696) a third grenadier company was set up. On April 1, 1699, with the incorporation of the grenadier companies of the Lützelburg, Maffei and Haxthausen regiments, the regiment had 532 grenadiers and 1045 fusiliers.
War of the Spanish Succession 1702/14
In the battle of Höchstädt on September 20, 1703, the regiment's grenadier companies were involved. With 500 men lost, 4,000 prisoners were brought in as booty, 37 cannons, four flags, nine standards and the entire imperial baggage. After the battles near Schellenberg (July 2, 1704) and Höchstädt (August 13, 1704) the regiment was decimated. With the Elector it moved to the Spanish Netherlands, where there were 8 grenadier and 16 fusilier companies with a total strength of approx. 1500 men. In the Battle of Ramillies on May 23, 1706 the regiment suffered a heavy defeat and lost all but one flag. The grenadier battalions and companies were then dissolved or disarmed. On September 1, 1710, the establishment of two battalions, each with a grenadier and five fusilier companies, took place. In the loss-making Battle of Malplaquet , the regiment was marginally involved and therefore suffered only minor losses. After the Peace of Rastatt , the regiment returned to Munich.
Campaigns against the Turks 1717/18, 1737, 1739
The regiment was increased to three battalions with two grenadier and 14 fusilier companies (1441 men in total) on July 10, 1717. It was involved in the second conquest of Belgrade (July 3 to August 16, 1717) under Prince Eugene of Savoy and suffered losses of around 300 men, which, however, were replenished by 643 men in May 1718. In the meantime, divided into four battalions of 5 companies each (September 1734), the regiment was able to pull itself out of the affair in the Russo-Austrian Turkish War at Grocka and then at the Pancsowa in July 1739 with few losses.
War of the Austrian Succession 1741/48
The regiment entered on July 31, 1741 with a strength of 1669 men to take Passau, which was occupied without losses. The occupation of Prague on November 26, 1741, with two battalions, could also take place without losses. At the end of 1741, a V. and a VI were set up for the regiment. Battalion ordered what was not carried out for unknown reasons. Renamed the Praiseworthy Body Regiment on January 31, 1742 , the regiment as a garrison of Prague was exposed to constant attacks by Austrian troops from June 13 to September 30, 1742. In December 1742 the city had to vacate it. On May 9, 1743, only those assigned to the regiment were involved in the battle of Simbach am Inn , who were taken prisoner in Austria as a group. In 1743 the regiment itself fought with little success in Bavaria, which was almost completely occupied by Habsburg troops, and withdrew to the winter quarters west of the Rhine. In 1744, as part of the Franco-Bavarian army, it played a key role in the reconquest of Bavaria. On January 20, 1745, Elector Maximilian III. Joseph von Bayern owner of the regiment, which he kept until his death on December 30, 1777. After a battle near Vilshofen on March 26, 1745, an almost complete battalion (456 men) was taken prisoner. The regiment was then (June 1, 1745) reduced to two grenadier and ten fusilier companies. It also lost its name; it was not given a name again until 1778.
A battalion of the regiment was assigned to the subsidiary corps in Holland in strength of 18 officers, 72 NCOs and 693 men. In the battle of Roucoux on October 11, 1746, the contingent suffered losses of 300 men. It subsequently took part in the battle of Lauffeldt (July 2, 1747). With the siege of Maastricht from April 8 to May 5, 1748, the regiment's service in the War of the Austrian Succession came to an end.
By incorporating parts of the Hildburghausen and Nys regiments, the regiment was strengthened again by March 1749 to four battalions (a total of four grenadier and twenty fusilier companies). In August 1753 the regiment gave up a battalion as a regular for the regiment "Pechmann" .
Seven Years War 1751/59
The regiment provided the II. And III. Battalion to the auxiliary corps of GWM Johannes Claudius Graf Seyssel d'Aix. In October and November 1757 it was involved in the occupation of Schweidnitz (November 12th) and Breslau (November 24th) by the Austrian army. At Leuthen (December 5, 1757) the Habsburg forces and their allies were decisively defeated by Friedrich II of Prussia . The regiment lost eight officers and 186 men to death, wounding or imprisonment. In the battles at Olomouc (May 2 to July 2, 1758) and on the Neisse (October 5 to November 5, 1758) it also fought with little success. In January 1759 the Bavarian Auxiliary Corps was ordered back. The regiment marched to its then home base Wels , the 12th company to Munich.
On October 26, 1770, Lieutenant Field Marshal Franz Joseph Servatius Basselet de la Rosée was appointed 2nd owner of the regiment. At the beginning of 1778 the regiment consisted of 57 officers, six Junkers, four surgeons, 103 NCOs, 27 drums, 18 pipers and 964 men. It also moved from Wels to Neuburg an der Donau. On July 1, 1778, the II. Battalion and the regimental music for the formation of the Kurbayerischen Leib-Regiment gave up and was now called regiment on foot "La Rosée" ; de la Rosée was also appointed owner of the regiment. With the appointment of Lieutenant General Johann Siegmund Graf von Preysing-Hohenaschau as the owner of the regiment, it was called “Graf v. Preysing " , which on January 1, 1790 in the 11th Fusilier Regiment" Graf v. Preysing ”was renamed. Major General Franz Klemens Joseph Anastasius Freiherr von Weichs received the regiment on July 25, 1790, which is now the 11th Fusilier Regiment “v. Weichs " was called. On March 12, 1792, Major General Karl Anton Freiherr von Juncker and Bigatto was appointed Colonel Commander, and from April 16, he was appointed owner of the regiment, which was immediately transferred to Infantry Regiment “v. Juncker ”was renamed.
The 1st battalion of the regiment was subordinated to Colonel von Ernesty's regiment in 1792, which was used as a garrison in Mannheim from December 22, 1792 to September 22, 1795. It had few personnel losses to complain about, but it lost all its luggage and the archives.
For the Second Coalition War , the regiment deployed the reinforced 1st Battalion (almost 1,000 men). After the Battle of Hohenlinden on December 3, 1800, the battalion suffered more material losses than personnel.
From March 27, 1804 the regiment was named 10th Line Infantry Regiment "von Juncker" and had a strength of 52 officers, 100 NCOs and 2380 men.
In the campaign against Austria in 1805, the regiment joined forces with 52 officers, 98 NCOs, 33 minstrels and 1,644 men. It occupied Kufstein in November 1805 and from December 1805 provided the occupation force in South Tyrol.
In the further campaign against Austria in 1809 the regiment fought at Abensberg and Eggmühl in April 1809 and at Bergisel on May 29, 1809. The losses were limited, but on August 8, 1809, the Tyroleans attacked the regiment at the Pontlatzer Bridge and took the remains captured, losing some artillery and the entire baggage train.
Campaign against Russia in 1812
The regiment formed the 2nd Brigade of the 1st Division ( Deroy ) with the 4th Infantry Regiment and provided 47 officers and 1,636 NCOs and men. In the Battle of Polotsk (August 17/18, 1812) the Colonel Commander Colonel Friedrich Graf von Preysing fell , the regiment still numbered 150 men, the companies were led by NCOs. During the retreat it melted down to a total of 57 men by December 31, 1812, so that the regiment had to be partially disbanded and reorganized. In the Battle of Dennewitz on September 6, 1813, the 2nd Battalion, which had been subordinated to the Raglovich Observation Corps , suffered heavy losses in personnel and material.
Campaign against France 1813/15
The newly established 1st Battalion of the regiment was subordinated to the Raglovich Corps with one rifle and five fusilier companies (28 officers, 72 NCOs and 912 men). It was involved in the Battle of Hanau on October 31, 1813. At Bar-sur-Aube on February 27, 1814, the battalion had to face heavy battles against the French. In 1815 the regiment was no longer used. After the Wars of Liberation, the regiment was at times only held to the strength of 14 officers and 20 NCOs. In October 1824 2 battalions with a total strength of 783 men moved into Landau in the Palatinate . From 1831 Amberg was the regiment's garrison town.
A delegation of the regiment (approx. 700 men) supported Greece's struggle for independence against the Ottoman Empire from November 1832 to February 1835. It was ravaged by a fatal disease (4 officers and 153 men died), 135 men were caught after the battle near Aslanaga (August 12, 1834) in captivity, while fighting “only” 9 killed and 18 wounded. After returning from Greece on October 28, 1835 it was named Infantry Regiment "Raglovich" after the new owner, General of the Infantry Klemens von Raglovich zum Rosenhof . After his death on January 3, 1836 ( Infantry Regiment "vacant Raglovich" ) received the regiment on August 29, 1837 Lieutenant General Albert Graf zu Pappenheim, which was immediately renamed the Infantry Regiment "Albert Pappenheim" . On April 26, 1848, it was named 10th Infantry Regiment "Albert Pappenheim" .
In the years 1848/49 the regiment, which had meanwhile grown again to three battalions, was used against insurgents. In the 50s of the 19th century the regiment moved to Ingolstadt as well as some reclassifications. With the death of Lieutenant General Graf zu Pappenheim, the regiment was called the 10th Infantry Regiment from July 1, 1860 , "vacant Albert Pappenheim" .
War against Prussia 1866
In the German War the regiment was split up: The I. and III. Battalion were subordinated to the 4th Brigade (2nd Division) with a strength of 48 officers, four doctors, 148 NCOs, 1,550 men and two officials. The 2nd Battalion was assigned to the Reserve Infantry Brigade. The newly established 4th Battalion was stationed in Germersheim and disbanded on September 13, 1866. In the battles near Zella (July 4th), Kissingen (July 10th), Helmstadt / Üttingen (July 25th) and Roßbrunn (July 26th) the regiment suffered comparatively few losses despite the defeats of the Austro-Bavarian troops.
On April 24, 1867, Prince Ludwig of Bavaria became the last owner of the regiment. The regiment was then called the 10th Infantry Regiment "Prince Ludwig" and was divided into three battalions of four companies each. On the occasion of the birth of Crown Prince Rupprecht , Prince Ludwig donated 3,000 guilders for officers in need and 5,000 marks for NCOs and men (Prince Ludwig Fund).
Franco-German War 1870/71
At the beginning of the war, the Colonel Commander Colonel Albert Freiherr von Guttenberg had 68 officers and 2,736 NCOs and men. The regiment received the baptism of fire in the battle near Beaumont , where it repelled a French attack and in turn went to attack. 44 French were brought in as prisoners, the regiment lost about 100 men. It successfully participated in the Battle of Sedan on September 1, 1870 , during which the Commander-in-Chief was wounded fighting in the front line. The combat strength after the battle was 44 officers and 1,858 NCOs and men. In the course of the first conquest of Orléans on October 11, 1870, the regiment captured 3 French officers and 380 men, but the city had to be returned to the French. In the battle near Coulmiers on November 9, 1870, the regiment was able to hold its positions in the village all day against superior enemy forces. At dusk, the Bavarian troops left Coulmiers in an orderly manner. In November 1870 the regiment had a very high sick leave due to the cold and wet weather. During the battle of Loigny and Poupry on December 2, 1870, the general exhaustion made itself felt and the regiment had to evade the onrushing French. With the second capture of Orléans on December 3, 1870, the regiment, which had been in uninterrupted combat for weeks, was used as flank security. Before the battles at Beaugency-Cravant on December 8, 1870 and at Norée on December 16, 1870, the long-awaited replacement finally arrived. But the regiment was exhausted and had only 16 officers and 1,207 men. The total losses in the Franco-Prussian War were 104 dead, 752 wounded, 102 missing and 91 prisoners.
In 1878 the 1st Battalion was housed in Landsberg , then from 1894 in Eichstätt . In October 1893, an IV half battalion with the 13th and 14th companies was established. The regiment has been stationed in Ingolstadt since 1897. In October 1911 the 1st machine gun company was established. On December 10, 1912 , it was renamed the 10th Infantry Regiment “Prince Regent Ludwig” for almost a year , and on November 5, 1913, it was finally renamed the 10th Infantry Regiment “King” .
First World War
The regiment was at the beginning of the First World War of the 11th Infantry Brigade, in the further the 6th Division and the III. Army Corps of the 6th Army , subordinated and entered with a combat strength of 69 officers and 1,763 men as well as 200 horses and 65 vehicles under its commander Colonel Maximilian Weiß, who had led the regiment since October 1, 1913. Until August 2, 1914, it moved as part of the mixed 11th Infantry Brigade (with subordinate cavalry and artillery units) as a pre-belt in the area south-east of Metz (→ Metz Fortress ). After an orderly retreat, the regiment attacked the 68th French Reserve Division, which was located near Delme, on August 20, 1914 and was involved in the occupation of the place the following morning. It took part in the pursuit of the French troops, which it led to Nancy. The severity of the fighting was reflected in the losses (42 officers and over 400 men) in the first few weeks, during which the regimental commander Colonel Weiss was seriously wounded on September 7, 1914 near St. Libaire and on the following day in Duss reserve hospital (Dieuze) died. After the Battle of Lorraine , the regiment received replacements for five officers and 1,018 NCOs and men. On September 11, 1914, the regiment was detached and moved to the town of Spada west of Metz. From there it repulsed a French counterattack and advanced to St. Mihiel on the Maas. Two days later the regiment had lost over 500 men. On September 18, 1914, Lieutenant Colonel Mieg was entrusted with the management of the regiment and on October 27, 1914 was appointed commander. In November 1914 it took on another replacement of six officers and 1,000 men. The regiment dug in at St. Mihiel over the winter of 1914/15.
On April 7, 1915, the regiment fought against the oncoming French troops in the Aillywald, where it suffered heavy losses (17 officers and almost 600 men). In June 1915 it received 56 officers and 2,765 men as replacements, as well as 14 machine guns, with which the 2nd and 3rd machine gun companies were established.
For the Battle of Verdun , the regiment was placed under the 1st Division. It competed on June 23, 1916 from the Thiaumont Gorge and stormed the Panzerfort Thiaumont. Although it had to break off the attack in front of the “Kalte Erde” tank factory, it was able to capture 60 French officers and 2,673 men. For this it was mentioned in the army report, the commander Colonel Mieg received the Knight's Cross of the Military Max Joseph Order , the indescribable victims on June 23 alone were not mentioned (140 dead, 1,000 wounded and over 300 missing!). In July 1916, the regiment received replacements in strength of 41 officers and 1,550 men.
On September 18, 1916, during the Battle of the Somme , the regiment replaced the remnants of the 9th and 14th infantry regiments and took up position in front of the village of Flers, which was deeply divided. On September 26, 1916, British troops supported by tanks broke in north of Flers. Here, too, the regiment's losses were considerable (twelve officers, ten officer deputies, approx. 700 men), but replacements were scarce.
In 1917 the regiment moved to Flanders, where it was deployed east of Langemarck. On October 4, 1917, after successful British break-ins, the regiment had to evacuate the positions there and retreat to Poelkappelle. During these skirmishes the 1st Battalion was almost wiped out, the III. Battalion was badly hit.
In the Great Battle of France (Michael Battle) in March 1918, the regiment from Cagnicourt was able to advance to Boiry Bécquerelle – Boyelle (approx. 10-15 km), but had to break off the attack with heavy losses. The companies still had 55 to 60 rifles on average. On March 28, 1918, Major Johann Seißer was given command of the regiment. At the end of September 1918 the regiment evaded fighting to Urvillers south of St. Quentin, where it initially repulsed the Franco-American attacks, was withdrawn on October 10 to the river Oise north of Guise, where it successfully repelled enemy attacks until November 4, 1918 . On October 12, 1918, the regiment received a mine thrower company, a regimental message train and message trains for the battalions. The regiment then reached the town of Maubeuge on November 11, 1918 during the general retreat via Beaumont.
On November 18, 1918 the regiment had the combat strength of:
- 1st battalion: twenty officers, 283 NCOs and men, 45 horses
- 2nd Battalion: dissolved
- III. Battalion: eleven officers, 320 NCOs and men, 48 horses
- 1st and 3rd MG companies: seven officers, 151 NCOs and men, 21 horses
During the First World War, the regiment suffered
- Dead: 73 officers, two doctors, 304 NCOs and 2,251 men
- Missing: four officers, 33 NCOs and 383 men
- Those who died from illness: one officer, eight non-commissioned officers and 54 men
At the end of the war, 16 officers, 112 NCOs and 747 men were in captivity.
After the armistice in Compiègne , the remnants of the regiment returned to the garrison in Ingolstadt and were demobilized there from December 22, 1918 . Various volunteer formations were formed from parts . In March 1919 the security company "Bergen" was set up, which on May 25, 1919 became the 12th company to join the Munich Army Regiment. In addition, the security companies "Besch", "Schneider" and "Schreyer" were set up in Mürz / April 1919. In addition, the Security and People's Army Company Stahl was formed, which was active in June 1919 in the border protection of Bohemia. The free formations went with the formation of the Provisional Reichswehr in June 1919 in the III. Battalion of the Reichswehr Infantry Regiment 48.
The tradition took over in the Reichswehr by decree of the Chief of the Army Command, General of the Infantry Hans von Seeckt , from August 24th 1921 the 5th Company of the 20th (Bavarian) Infantry Regiment in Ingolstadt. In the Wehrmacht , the regimental staff, the 1st battalion and the 13th and 14th companies of the 63rd Infantry Regiment continued the tradition.
|Colonel||Anton von Prößl||December 15, 1843 to April 6, 1847|
|Lieutenant colonel||Konrad Engelhardt||April 7, 1847 to December 19, 1849|
|Colonel||Eduard von Teng||December 21, 1849 to February 13, 1855|
|Colonel||Ernst Schizlein||February 14, 1855 to May 8, 1859|
|Lieutenant Colonel /
|Karl Mantey from Dittmer||May 9, 1859 to January 9, 1866|
|Colonel||Klemens von Jones-Tettenweiß||January 10, 1866 to January 8, 1869|
|Lieutenant colonel||Theodor Ritter||January 9, 1869 to July 22, 1870|
|Colonel||Albert von Guttenberg||July 23, 1870 to December 18, 1871|
|Colonel||Ludwig Duntze||December 19, 1871 to December 3, 1874|
|Colonel||Josepf Fleischmann||December 4, 1874 to November 22, 1877|
|Colonel||Ludwig Muller||November 23, 1877 to November 2, 1880|
|Colonel||Karl Popp||November 3, 1880 to August 28, 1884|
|Colonel||Ludwig von Ziegler||August 29, 1884 to October 28, 1887|
|Colonel||Karl Kostler||October 29, 1887 to March 14, 1891|
|Colonel||Karl Lobenhoffer||March 15, 1891 to June 13, 1894|
|Lieutenant colonel||Anton Pflaumer||June 14, 1894 to July 16, 1896|
|Colonel||Karl Leichtenstein||July 17, 1896 to June 1, 1899|
|Colonel||Alfred von Wachter||June 2, 1899 to February 11, 1901|
|Colonel||Rudolf Roesch||February 12, 1901 to August 3, 1903|
|Lieutenant colonel||Jakob Spindler||August 4, 1903 to December 25, 1904|
|Colonel||Heinrich Meyer||December 26, 1904 to March 10, 1907|
|Colonel||Christoph Kiefhaber||March 11, 1907 to September 19, 1910|
|Colonel||Wilhelm von Kischbaum||September 20, 1910 to June 29, 1911|
|Colonel||Karl Weissmiller||July 24, 1911 to September 30, 1913|
|Colonel||Maximilian White||October 1, 1913 to September 20, 1914|
|Lieutenant Colonel /
|Hans von Mieg||September 21, 1914 to March 27, 1918|
|major||Franz Seisser||March 23, 1918 until dissolution|
- The Royal Bavarian 10th Infantry Regiment König. (Volume 36 of the Bavarian portion of the memorial sheets) Verlag des Bayerischen Kriegsarchivs, Munich 1925. Digitized version of the Württembergische Landesbibliothek .
- Konrad Krafft von Dellmensingen , Friedrichfranz Feeser : The Bavaria book of the world wars 1914-1918. Volume I, Chr.Belser AG, publishing house, Stuttgart 1930.
- Georg Tessin : The regiments of the European states in the Ancien Régime des XVI. to XVIII. Century. 3 volumes, Biblio Verlag, Osnabrück 1986–1995, ISBN 3-7648-1763-1 , Vol. 1, pp. 78ff.
- Günter Wegner: Germany's armies until 1918. Volume 10: Bavaria. Biblio Verlag, Osnabrück 1984.
- Alongside the 13th Infantry Regiment, it was the second unit of the 11th Infantry Brigade of the Bavarian Army . To distinguish it from the 1st royal Bavarian infantry regiment "König" , the regiment "King Ludwig " is mentioned above, but the name "10. King Infantry Regiment ”.
- Ticino 1986 vol. 1: 78
- Ticino 1989 vol. 1: 85
- Jürgen Kraus : Handbook of the units and troops of the German army 1914-1918. Part VI: Infantry. Volume 1: Infantry Regiments. Verlag Militaria, Vienna 2007, ISBN 978-3-902526-14-4 , p. 444.
- Dermot Bradley (ed.), Günter Wegner: Occupation of the German Army 1815-1939. Volume 2: The occupation of the active infantry regiments as well as Jäger and MG battalions, military district commands and training directors from the foundation or list until 1939. Biblio Verlag, Osnabrück 1992, ISBN 3-7648-1782-8 , p. 462.