Infantry Regiment "Grand Duke Friedrich Franz II. Of Mecklenburg-Schwerin" (4th Brandenburg) No. 24
Infantry Regiment "Grand Duke Friedrich Franz II. Of Mecklenburg-Schwerin" (4th Brandenburg) No. 24
Seal of the regiment
|active||July 1, 1813 to 1919|
|Armed forces||Prussian Army|
|Branch of service||infantry|
|Insinuation||III. Army Corps|
|Nickname||Ruppiner Regiment, twenty-four|
|See list of commanders|
The Infantry Regiment "Grand Duke Friedrich Franz II. Of Mecklenburg-Schwerin" (4th Brandenburg) No. 24 was an infantry joined the Prussian army . The regiment was formed in Silesia in 1813 , then moved to the Province of Brandenburg in 1817 . The most important garrison location was Neuruppin . During its existence the regiment took part in all major wars in Prussia and the German Empire , including a. in the Wars of Liberation 1813–1815 and the three Wars of Unification 1864–1871. Friedrich Franz II was honored as the namesake of the regiment . After participating in the First World War 1914-1918, the regiment was disbanded.
Formation and Wars of Liberation (1813-1817)
In the autumn and winter of 1812 Napoleon's Russian campaign failed and the French expeditionary army was devastated. On December 30, 1812, the Prussian General Yorck was responsible for the armistice between Prussia and Russia . In practice, the Prussian troops left the forced alliance with the French army and took the side of the Allies in the fight against Napoleon . On February 9, 1813, general conscription was introduced in Prussia , initially only for the time of the war. On March 17, 1813, the Prussian king called on the people to fight for liberation (" To Mein Volk ") and on the same day declared war on France.
In the course of the reconstruction of the Prussian army , the strength of the army grew from 42,000 men (1807 - upper limit according to the Peace of Tilsit ) to 300,000 men (1813). On July 1, 1813, according to AKO, twelve reserve infantry regiments were formed in the eastern provinces of Prussia that were not occupied by the French. Each of the twelve reserve infantry regiments was assigned to one of the existing twelve line infantry regiments; regiment number and garrison were each identical. Accordingly, the later Infantry Regiment No. 24 was initially set up as the 12th Reserve Infantry Regiment in Breslau and Neisse .
During the Wars of Liberation, the reserve battalions took part in the battle near Luckau in 1813 . The newly formed 12th Reserve Infantry Regiment became part of the 8th Brigade in the 1st Army Corps and thus took part in the autumn campaign of 1813 , before that, among other things, in the battle near Möckern on April 5, 1813 and in the Battle of the Katzbach on August 26 1813.
With AKO of March 25, 1815, the 12th Reserve Infantry Regiment was renamed the 24th Infantry Regiment and was thus a line regiment. The same procedure was followed for the 1st to 11th Reserve Infantry Regiment, the number offset was uniformly 12.
In the summer campaign of 1815 , the regiment took part as part of the 1st Brigade in the 1st Army Corps, including the Battle of Ligny on June 16, 1815 and the Battle of Waterloo (Belle Alliance) on June 18, 1815. On November 2 In 1815 the regiment started the march home, which led via Brussels , Cologne , Braunschweig and Magdeburg to its garrison town of Breslau and Neisse - a distance of more than 1000 km. There the regiment was transferred to a state of peace . The regiment here belonged to the Silesian General Command (later VI Army Corps).
Relocation to Brandenburg, March Revolution and garrison period (1817–1860)
In 1817 the regiment was the III. (Brandenburg) Army Corps and relocated to Frankfurt (Oder) . The regiment stood there for only three years before it was relocated to Ruppin and Prenzlau in September 1820 .
In 1849 the regiment's fusilier battalion took part in the suppression of the Dresden May Uprising alongside light Saxon infantry and two battalions of the Prussian Emperor Alexander Grenadier Regiment . On the night of May 7th to 8th, the Fusilier Battalion moved from Berlin by train to Dresden-Neustadt . The main attack on the insurgent barricades took place on May 9th. On May 11th, the fusilier battalion left Dresden, united with the regiment's musketeer battalions and moved to Westphalia . In total, the Saxon and Prussian troops suffered losses of 31 dead and 94 wounded, including 6 dead and 13 wounded in the regiment's fusilier battalion. 250 people were killed and 400–500 wounded on the part of the insurgents.
On May 17, 1849, the united regiment put down the Iserlohn uprising . The commander of the fusilier battalion, Lieutenant Colonel Schrötter, and another soldier of the regiment fell. On the part of the rebels and civilians, there were more than 100 deaths, probably mainly as a result of a massacre : soldiers of the regiment, enraged by the death of their ambushed battalion commander, searched the houses and executed their residents as well as those who had fled if weapons or ammunition were found .
Now the regiment was split up again, 1st and 2nd Battalion joined the 2nd Division and the Fusilier Battalion joined the 4th Division . Both divisions belonged to the I. Army Corps under General Moritz von Hirschfeld , which occupied the Rhine Palatinate and Baden from the north and west between June 11 and 18 . The Fusilier Battalion took part in the battle near Kirchheimbolanden on June 14, 1849 . Together with a battalion of the Landwehr and two squadrons of Uhlans , the troops took action against irregulars. There were three wounded on the part of the regular troops and 50 dead on the part of the insurgents. The regiment's battalions also took part in a series of smaller skirmishes during June 1949: on June 21 in Wiesental , on June 24 in Neudorf , on June 25 in Durlach , on June 28 in Michelbach , on June 29 near Nauenthal, on June 30th between Kuppenheim and Muggensturm , and finally on June 30th in the pursuit battle near Iffezheim . In total, the regiment had 3 dead and 18 wounded in the Baden campaign.
After the fighting ended, the regiment was assigned to the Occupation Corps and remained in Baden until November 1850.
German-Danish War (1864)
In the war against Denmark of 1864, the regiment took part as part of the 6th Infantry Division in the combined army corps. The first combat mission was the battle of Missunde on February 2, 1864. Only the regiment's fusilier battalion, led by the regimental commander Colonel von Hacke, took part in this. The battalion suffered losses of 5 dead and 8 wounded that day.
The Infantry Regiment No. 24 belonged from now on to the 12th Infantry Brigade under Major General von Roeder . With this large association , various exploratory and outpost battles followed in front of Düppel and Rackebüll (today Sønderborg-Ragebøl), then participation in the enclosure and siege of the Düppeler Schanzen . Seven soldiers of the regiment were wounded while the entrenchments were being closed on March 17, 1864. On April 18, 1864, the Prussian troops under Prince Friedrich Karl finally stormed the entrenchments. Two companies of the regiment belonged to Sturmkolonne 5, which was led by Major von Krohn, commander of the fusilier battalion. 8 soldiers of the regiment were killed in the storming of the entrenchments , a further 54 soldiers were wounded, plus four wounded officers.
After a temporary armistice and breaking off the London Conference , the regiment took part in the transition to the island of Alsen on June 29, 1864 . The regiment suffered losses of 28 dead and 75 wounded. In July 1864 the war ended victoriously for the Prussian-Austrian alliance. Overall, the regiment suffered irretrievable losses of 54 dead and missing in the German-Danish War, plus 54 seriously wounded and 116 slightly wounded or sick.
War against Austria (1866)
In 1866 the regiment took part in the German War , the enemy was the German Confederation under the leadership of Austria . During the war the regiment belonged to the 6th Infantry Division in the 1st Army, and took part in the battle of Königgrätz (Sadowa) in the reserve under General von Manstein . Overall, this battle was very costly. Since the regiment with the reserve was not used, the losses of the regiment in the entire war of 1866 with one dead, one wounded and seven lightly wounded were comparatively low - all from July 3, 1866, the day of Königgrätz.
Franco-German War (1870/71)
The regiment took part in the war against France in 1870/71 and fought again as part of the 6th Infantry Division in the III. Army Corps . The division was under the command of General von Buddenbrock . The regiment's participation in the battle of Mars-la-Tour (Vionville) on August 16, 1870, together with Infantry Regiment No. 64, which was also heavily decimated by this battle, resulted in extremely high losses . Both regiments together formed the 12th Infantry Brigade, which was under the command of Colonel von Bismarck . In the Battle of Mars-la-Tour, the regiment had one day losses recorded by 1,141 men, including 268 deaths, 142 missing and 181 severely wounded. A memorial near Vionville commemorates the war dead of the 24s and 64s in battle .
From January 10 to 12, 1871, the regiment took part in the Battle of Le Mans .
Garrison period in the German Empire (1872–1913)
In the course of the army increase , the regiment built up several sub-units in order to hand them over to newly formed regiments, especially at locations in Alsace-Lorraine . In 1881 the regiment handed the 2nd company over to Infantry Regiment No. 98 in Metz . In 1890 the IV Battalion was transferred to Infantry Regiment No. 136 in Strasbourg . In 1893 a fourth half-battalion was established, which in 1897 was transferred to Infantry Regiment No. 151 in Warmia .
First World War (1914-1918)
The regiment was mobilized in 1914 when the First World War broke out and fought until the end of the war in the 6th Infantry Division, mostly on the western front . Exceptions to this were the participation in the Serbian campaign in autumn 1915 and the Tarnopol offensive in eastern Galicia in summer 1917. (See combat calendar ) The regiment was best known during World War I for its participation in the conquest of Fort Douaumont in February 1916.
During the First World War, the regiment suffered losses of 141 fallen officers, 16 of whom were deployed in other units. In addition, 307 NCOs and 2072 men died in the regiment, a total of more than 2500 deaths. In 1900 an infantry regiment had a peacetime strength of 69 officers and 1977 men, a total of just under 2060 men (with military officials and doctors).
Dissolution and aftermath (from 1919)
After the armistice of Compiègne , the regiment marched back to the garrison in Neuruppin, where it was demobilized on December 21, 1918 and dissolved in 1919. Two free formations were formed from parts in December 1918 and January 1919 . The 1st Volunteer Battalion joined the Volunteer Detachement Grote as the 2nd Battalion and the 2nd Volunteer Battalion formed the Volunteer Battalion "Brandis".
The tradition took over in the Reichswehr by order of the Chief of Army Command Infantry General Hans von Seeckt of 24 August 1921, the 14th and 15th Company of the 5th (Prussian) Infantry Regiment in Greifswald ..
Subordination, structure and personnel
From 1823 on, the regiment of the 6th Infantry Brigade, based in Brandenburg, was subordinate to the 6th Division (also Brandenburg) and thus on to the III. Army Corps belonged. In 1852 the brigades were renumbered, the former 6th Brigade was now called the 12th Infantry Brigade . Otherwise nothing changed, so the regiment still belonged to the 6th Division and thus to the III. Army Corps.
When war broke out in 1914, the regiment moved into the field in this stock, the III. Army Corps was subordinate to the 1st Army .
Uniform and equipment
Teams wore the blue uniform skirt with red Brandenburg cuffs with white piping . The shoulder pieces were red with the yellow number 24 on them. The emblem on the pimple hood was the yellow line eagle. In 1915, the Prussian Army introduced a field gray peace uniform in addition to the field gray field uniform.
The main armament of an infantry regiment of the Prussian army were the rifles of the musketeers and fusiliers . Even before the war against Denmark, the troops were equipped with the Dreyse needle gun. This was followed by the Gewehr 71 , the Gewehr 88 and finally the Gewehr 98 , the standard weapon of the German army during the First World War, with which the regiment went to war in 1914.
Even before the outbreak of the World War, a foot-operated MG company was exhibited in the regiment , equipped with a total of six MG 08s . This was a significant increase in firepower , especially on the defensive of trench warfare . In 1918 a company of mine throwers was set up in the regiment . Heavy weapon support was provided primarily by the two field artillery regiments ( No. 3 and No. 39 ) of the 6th Field Artillery Brigade, which belonged to the 6th Division. Usually a battery was assigned to a battalion, but in the event of attacks or skirmishes, the artillery could be concentrated in the main focus.
From 1824 until his death in 1842, the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg , Paul Friedrich, held the honorary title of head of the regiment . He was succeeded in 1842 as head of the regiment by Friedrich Franz II. , Again until his death in 1883. In 1893, Friedrich Franz III was succeeded in office . appointed head of the regiment, who held the ceremonial office until his death in 1897. His successor as Grand Duke, Friedrich Franz IV. , Was the last head of the regiment from 1904.
Commanders of the regiment were by year of appointment:
|1813||Goltz , Friedrich von der||1773-1813||When appointed as Commander Major|
|1813||Laurens, Ernst Ludwig von||1783-1823||Commandant of Thionville|
|1815||Romberg, Friedrich von||1776-1821|
|1822||Petery, Anton von||1780-1851|
|1834||Wulffen, Alexander von||1784-1861|
|1844||Ehrhardt, Friedrich von||1789-1864|
|1848||Heuseler, Theodor von||1794-1864|
|1851||Rheinbaben , Karl von||1798-1855|
|1855||Trenck, Wilhelm von der||1803-1881|
|1857||Lenz, Eduard von||1804-1865|
|1859||Seydlitz-Kurzbach, Hermann von||1810-1895|
|1863||Hoe, Emil von||1814-1887||then until 1870 commander of the 38th Infantry Brigade|
|1866||Dohna-Schlodien, Adalbert too||1816-1889|
|1871||Bernhardi, Eugen von||1822-1910|
|1876||Ploetz, Wilhelm Albert von||then until 1882 commander of the 25th Infantry Brigade|
|1879||Mülbe, Otto von der||1829-1916|
|1885||Jena, Eduard von||1834-1911|
|1890||Schrotter, Waldemar von||1842-1896||then commander of the 25th Infantry Brigade|
|1893||Albedyll, Eugen von||1842-1916|
|1895||Pope of Ohain, Rudolf||1846-1911|
|1901||Eberstein, Max von||1851-1932|
|1906||Bonin, Eckart von||1854-1928|
|1908||Sothen, Otto von||1854-1932||then commander of the 17th Infantry Brigade|
|1912||Rogalla von Bieberstein, Johannes||1865-1938||then commander of the 26th Infantry Brigade|
|1914||Prince of Buchau, Kurt||1863-1918||killed as commander of the 28th Infantry Division|
|1915||Oven, Georg von||1868-1938||then commander of the 5th Guard Infantry Brigade|
|1918||Feuerheerd, Matthias||† 1944|
|1919||Oven, Georg von||1868-1938|
Garrisons and barracks
Neu-Ruppin (today Neuruppin) was the regiment's most important garrison town, which is why it was sometimes referred to as the Ruppin Regiment . The Brandenburg city was from 1820 the garrison of the regiment, which was initially housed in civil quarters . In 1880 the 1st Battalion moved into the newly built Königstork barracks. The Neuruppin Regional Court is now housed in the listed building . An extension for the 2nd Battalion was built from 1880 to 1883. The III. The battalion moved into the Friedrich-Franz barracks in Neuruppin, consisting of a guard and detention building, barracks 1 and 2, farm buildings, chamber buildings and vehicle shed. The building was erected in 1899/1901 and is now used as an administrative building, including by the Neuruppin Social Court .
The second most important garrison of the regiment was Havelberg , where the 2nd Battalion was stationed from 1860 to 1864 and the Fusilier Battalion from 1864 to 1901. The accommodation took place partly in cathedral monastery buildings, the Havelberg clay cave formed the parade ground .
Prenzlau housed the fusilier battalion from 1820 to 1850 (with a brief interruption).
For shorter periods of time, parts of the regiment had their garrison in Breslau , where the staff and 1st battalion were housed after returning home from the wars of liberation in 1816. The 2nd Battalion was accommodated in Neisse / Upper Silesia at the same time . In 1817 it was relocated to Frankfurt (Oder) . Even Spandau was a garrison for a short time.
- Becher, Paul: History of the Infantry Regiment Grand Duke Friedrich Franz II of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (4th Brandenburg) No. 24. Volume 1 (1838–1869) and Volume 2 (1870–1907), Mittler, Berlin 1908.
- Brandis, Cordt von : Die vom Douaumont: the Ruppiner Regiment 24 in the world war. Kolk, Berlin 1930. (Brandis was involved in the assault on Fort Douaumont as a company commander of the IR-24 , later battalion commander in the regiment)
- Fontane, Theodor : Regiment Mecklenburg-Schwerin No. 24. In: Walks through the Mark Brandenburg . Volume 1 ( Die Grafschaft Ruppin. ) Hertz, Berlin 1862, pp. 139–160 .
- Gareis, Martin : Reminder sheets on the deeds and experiences of the infantry regiment Grand Duke Friedrich Franz II of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (4th Brandenburg) No. 24 in the war 1914-1918. Bruncken, Greifswald 1922. (Gareis had served as a front officer in the regiment.)
- Zychlinski, Franz von : History of the 24th Infantry Regiment. Volume 1 (1813–1815, urn : nbn: de: bvb: 12-bsb10595377-1 ) and Volume 2 (1816–1838, urn : nbn: de: bvb: 12-bsb10595378-7 ). Mittler, Berlin 1908. (Zychlinski served in the regiment from 1833 to 1855.)
- Infantry Regiment No. 24 in the GenWiki project
- Lists of losses of the regiment in World War I
- The new Prussian regiments No. 13–32 on the private homepage PreußenWeb
- The Prussian Army of the Wars of Liberation. Volume 2 ("The Prussian Army in 1813"). Mittler-Verlag, Berlin 1914, p. 308f. and Appendix 25 (Cabinet Order of July 1, 1813).
- Theodor Fontane: Walks through the Mark Brandenburg , Volume 1 ( Die Grafschaft Ruppin ). Hertz, Berlin 1862, p. 152.
- Theodor Fontane: Walks through the Mark Brandenburg . Volume 1 ( Die Grafschaft Ruppin. ) Hertz, Berlin 1862, pp. 154–155.
- Oskar Wilhelm Schuster , FA Franke: History of the Saxon Army. Part III. Leipzig 1885, p. 65.
- Theodor Fontane: Walks through the Mark Brandenburg . Volume 1 ( Die Grafschaft Ruppin. ) Hertz, Berlin 1862, p. 155.
- Peter Bürger : "Shoot him, the dog of democrats!" In: Telepolis of May 17, 2016.
- Theodor Fontane: Walks through the Mark Brandenburg . Volume 1 ( Die Grafschaft Ruppin. ) Hertz, Berlin 1862, p. 156.
- Michael Embree: Bismarck's First War: The Campaign of Schleswig and Jutland 1864. Helion, Solihull 2006, ISBN 978-1-87462-277-2 , p. 55 .
- Michael Embree: Bismarck's First War: The Campaign of Schleswig and Jutland 1864. Helion, Solihull 2006, ISBN 978-1-87462-277-2 , p. 185 .
- Michael Embree: Bismarck's First War: The Campaign of Schleswig and Jutland 1864. Helion, Solihull 2006, ISBN 978-1-87462-277-2 , p. 259 .
- Michael Embree: Bismarck's First War: The Campaign of Schleswig and Jutland 1864. Helion, Solihull 2006, ISBN 978-1-87462-277-2 , p. 269 .
- Michael Embree: Bismarck's First War: The Campaign of Schleswig and Jutland 1864. Helion, Solihull 2006, ISBN 978-1-87462-277-2 , p. 321 .
- casualties for the Prussian Army in the German-Danish War. In: Military weekly paper . Mittler, Berlin 1864, supplements No. 1540, 1557, 1568, 1577, 1584, 1615, urn : nbn: de: bvb: 12-bsb10526056-1 . ( Online research )
- Prussian loss lists 1866. In: Military weekly paper. Berlin 1867, No. 121, 249, 257. ( online search )
- Theodor Fontane : Regiment Mecklenburg-Schwerin No. 24. In: Walks through the Mark Brandenburg . Volume 1, updated edition from 1875, section The 24th Regiment in the War against France in 1870 and 1871.
- Lists of losses of the Royal Prussian Army and the Grand Ducal Baden Division from the campaigns 1870-1871. In: Military weekly paper. Berlin 1871, urn : nbn: de: hbz: 061: 1-79262 , No. 27, 28, 30, 52. ( online search )
- Loss list of the Infantry Regiment Grand Duke Friedrich Franz II of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (4th Brandenburgisches) No. 24 , according to the sources given there: Martin Gareis ( memorial sheets , Greifswald 1922) and Cordt von Brandis ( Die vom Douaumont. Berlin 1930.)
- Jürgen Kraus : Handbook of the units and troops of the German army 1914-1918. Part VI: Infantry. Volume 1: Infantry Regiments. Verlag Militaria, Vienna 2007, ISBN 978-3-902526-14-4 , p. 67.
- list of the Royal Prussian Army. Mittler, Berlin 1905, pp. 70-71 .
- Günter Wegmann (Ed.), Günter Wegner: Formation history and staffing of the German armed forces 1815-1990. Part 1: Occupation of the German armies 1815–1939. Volume 2: The staffing of active infantry regiments as well as Jäger and MG battalions, military district commandos and training managers from the foundation or list until 1939. Biblio Verlag, Osnabrück 1992, ISBN 3-7648-1782-8 , pp. 101-103 .
- Franz Menges: Schrötter, barons of . In: Neue Deutsche Biographie 23 (2007), pp. 592–593.
- State of Brandenburg: Monuments in Brandenburg, Monument No .: 09170916, T
- Statistical evidence of remarkable high-rise buildings of the Prussian army administration completed between 1873 and 1884. Issue 1873/1884, Volume 1, published 1886 urn : nbn: de: kobv: 109-opus-89310 , p 20ff. (Running number 13, "Casernement for the 2nd Bat. Of the 4th Brandenburg Infantry Regiment No. 24")
- State of Brandenburg: Monuments in Brandenburg: Monument no .: 09170910, T