Royal Bavarian 9th Infantry Regiment "Wrede"
The regiment was set up in Bamberg on March 21, 1803 according to the highest resolution . The 1st battalion was set up from the Rhineland Palatinate infantry regiment "Graf von Ysenburg-Büdingen", the 2nd battalion from the Prince-Bishop-Bamberg Infantry Battalion. Lieutenant General Georg August Graf von Ysenburg-Büdingen was appointed the first owner of the regiment . The first colonel in command was Colonel Justus Heinrich von Siebein, who handed over command to Colonel Karl von Vincenti on November 1, 1805 . On March 27, the regiment was named Infantry Regiment "Graf von Ysenburg" , from March 27, 1804 it was renamed the 9th Line Infantry Regiment "Graf von Ysenburg" . In the same year 41 men of the Prussian infantry regiment "von Unruh" took it on. According to the highest resolution of June 4, 1804, the regiment “should only have two flags at all, an embroidered flag as a body flag and a blue waved flag should be sent immediately. The many painted flags that still exist are to be seen and used as body flags. ”The two new flags were handed over on July 27, 1804.
During the 1805 campaign against Austria, the regiment was used as a garrison in Tyrol . From September 27, 1805 it was divided into two battalions, each with one grenadier company and three fusilier companies.
In the war against Austria in 1809, the regiment entered with two battalions of one grenadier company and four fusilier companies with a strength of 1,800 rifles. It was subordinated to the 1st Brigade (von Siebein) of the 3rd Division ( von Deroy ). In April 1809, the regiment was involved in the battles near Landshut , Abensberg and Eggmühl and took Regensburg on April 23 without carrying out any special combat actions. On July 4, 1809, it captured nine Tyroleans during the battle on the Kieserbach. In the Battle of Bergisel on 12./13. August 1809, Unterleutnant Ludwig Freiherr von Künsberg earned the Knight's Cross of the Military Max Joseph Order for his military service there . The regiment remained in the Hall area until 1810.
Campaign against Russia in 1812
The regiment entered with 1,600 rifles under the command of the 1st Brigade (von Siebein) / I. Army Corps (from Deroy). In the Battle of Polotsk 17th / 18th centuries August 1812 an officer fell and the Commander-in-Chief Peter de La Motte and seven other officers were wounded. The losses among the NCOs and men in this battle cannot be determined. Most of them died of illness, hunger and cold. On September 30, 1812 Colonel Friedrich Freiherr von Treuberg was appointed Colonel Commander. On October 24, 1812, the regiment was still two companies strong, a total of 167 men. In addition, all flags of the regiment were lost. During the retreat via Wilna to Plozk, 4,300 replacement men were distributed to the Bavarian Army. On April 10, 1813 there was a battle with Cossacks near Rothenburg. On April 18, 1813, the regiment returned to Bamberg, the II. Battalion turned on, from then to the II. Battalion of the 10th Infantry Regiment was built the regiment "of hype", which (the second French Brigadier General Major Maillot) / the XII. French Army Corps (Marshal Oudinot) was subordinated. In May 1813, the 2nd Battalion suffered some losses from artillery fire at Bautzen (May 20) and from small skirmishes near Hoyerswerda (May 28). In the battle of Dennewitz on September 6, 1813, five officers, including the battalion leader Major von Treuberg, and a number of soldiers were wounded and many members of the battalion were taken prisoner. In addition, the battalion lost two howitzers and four cannons.
Campaign against France 1813/15
On October 24, 1813, the 1st Battalion (six companies) with 822 rifles of the 2nd Brigade (Major General Deroy) / 3rd Division (Lieutenant General de la Motte) was placed in Würzburg and advanced towards Hanau . On October 30, 1813, it took part in the battle of Hanau and had to accept nine dead, 131 wounded and 28 missing. On December 23, 1813, the regiment captured four mortars, seven cannons and two howitzers at Fort Kandscron. On January 10, 1814, the regiment fought extremely successfully near St. Dié, so that the Colonel Commander Colonel Friedrich Freiherr von Treuberg was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Military Max Joseph Order. In February 1814 it marched in the direction of Paris without being involved in heavy fighting. Only in the battle of Arcis-sur-Aube on 20./21. March 1814 an officer and several men were killed and some soldiers were wounded. On April 2, 1814, it took part in the invasion of Paris. The regiment marched in 1815, but was nowhere used.
After Count Ysenburg's death on November 21, 1822, the regiment was called the 9th Line Infantry Regiment "vacant Graf von Ysenburg" . On March 12, 1824, Major General Maximilian Herzog became the owner of the regiment in Bavaria , which at the same time became "Herzog Maximilian" in the 9th Line Infantry Regiment . On January 20, 1830, it lost the name "Duke Maximilian" and was only called the 9th Line Infantry Regiment . On April 29, 1831, Field Marshal Fürst von Wrede became the owner of the regiment, which was renamed the 9th Line Infantry Regiment "Wrede" on the same day , with the order that the regiment would continue to use the name "Wrede". From October 28, 1835 it was called the "Wrede" infantry regiment . On April 20, 1848, the 2nd and 3rd companies moved out in Mannheim to disarm rebels. On April 25, 1848 the III. Battalion set up in Würzburg. One day later, on April 26, 1848, the regiment received its final designation 9th Infantry Regiment "Wrede" . From July 10, 1848, it had to take action against troublemakers and rebels of the 6th and 14th infantry regiments as well as against the free crowd "Blenker". In May 1849 there was a mutiny of the 3rd Company, in connection with which a total of 300 men of the regiment deserted.
From October 24, 1850 to January 1, 1851, the 1st battalion was ordered to the Fulda area of Kurhessen, the 2nd and 3rd. Battalion to Hof to the local border guard. On October 1, 1851 three fusilier companies were dissolved, on November 15, 1856 the 3rd grenadier company, which were re-established on April 24, 1859. on May 20, 1863, Colonel Maximilian Aldosser was given command of the regiment.
War against Prussia 1866
The regiment took part in the German War with the 1st and 2nd field battalion with a strength of 48 officers, 145 non-commissioned officers, 18 minstrels, approx. 1500 men, seven train soldiers and two doctors. It was placed under the 8th Brigade (Major General von Cella) / 4th Division (Lieutenant General Ritter von Hartmann ). For the baptism of fire of the regiment in the skirmishes near Immelborn on 2/3 In July 1866 the Colonel Commandant Colonel Aldosser was wounded. On July 4, at Roßdorf there were three officers and fourteen men killed, three officers and 98 men wounded and ten men missing. In the Battle of Kissingen on July 10th, the III. Battalion some losses (four killed, twenty wounded, 65 men in captivity). The next day there was a clash with Prussian troops near Oerlenbach, where two men were wounded and one officer with 47 men was taken prisoner. On July 26th, the regiment took part in the last skirmishes of the war near Üttingen , Roßbrunn and Hettstadt (a total of 54 men were killed, wounded or captured). When the Marienberg Fortress was bombarded by Prussian artillery on July 27, at the end of the war an officer of the 4th Battalion was killed and three men (4th Battalion and 5th Reserve Battalion) were wounded.
After the war, on August 17, 1866, Joseph Maillinger was appointed Colonel Commandant, who on February 1, 1870 handed over command to Baptist von Heeg.
Franco-German War 1870/71
The regiment entered with 62 officers, four doctors, three quartermasters and 2,160 NCOs and men. It was the 7th Brigade (Major General von Thiereck) / 4th. Division (Lieutenant General Graf von Bothmer ) subordinated.
The regiment received its baptism of fire at the Battle of Weissenburg on August 4, 1870, where it suffered losses of three dead and twenty men wounded.
It was involved in the battle of Wörth on August 6, 1870, five officers, two NCOs and 22 men died. Eight officers and 223 men were wounded, including the later major general Maximilian von Parseval , commander of the 2nd battalion. 46 men were missing.
At Marsal, the regiment suffered no losses on August 14, 1870, rather it carried out clean-up work: It captured 16 French officers and 350 men, and captured 60 artillery pieces and 3,000 rifles. During the battles at Toul from August 12 to 28, 1870, the regiment received three officers and 391 replacements. From September 19, 1870 to January 29, 1871 it was used in the siege ring around Paris . During this time it lost one officer and ten men to the dead, one officer and 32 men to the wounded.
The total losses during the Franco-Prussian War were
- of those killed or injured: eight officers, four non-commissioned officers and 32 men;
- of missing persons: 22 men as well
- Those who died from illnesses: six NCOs and 92 men.
The regiment entered France on August 1, 1914, with a strength of 70 officers, 3,100 men and 235 horses. It was subordinated to the 7th Infantry Brigade / 4th Infantry Division / II Army Corps / 6th Army . Initially, the regiment was used as a border guard until August 19, 1914. In the Battle of Lorraine from August 20 to 22, 1914, it advanced from the Armsdorf - Landorf line to the Rhine-Marne Canal (approx. 50 km). In these three days of fighting alone, it suffered losses of six officers, seven non-commissioned officers and 135 men, of the wounded nine officers and 471 men and 22 missing persons. By August 24th, parts of the regiment crossed the Mortagne, when the French 64th and 74th Reserve Corps and the XV. and XVI. Corps frontally attacked the units deployed in front. The regiment was therefore withdrawn again behind the river and went south of Lunéville in position, which it held until September 14th. Seven officers and 35 men were killed, fourteen officers and 339 men were wounded and 35 men were missing. The commander of the 1st Battalion, Major Maximilian Braun, was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Military Max Joseph Order for his services during the Battle of Lorraine on August 29, 1914. On August 29, 1914, Sergeant Richard Kunz of the 9th Company rescued the flag of the III. Battalions. Despite being wounded on the upper arm, he had to dig himself in twice with the flag while he made his way to his own lines so as not to fall into the hands of the advancing French. On August 30, 1914, 395 replacement men arrived from Würzburg. On September 5, 1914, the company commander of the 11th Company, Oberleutnant Lukas Kaufmann, succeeded in bringing ammunition to the front under strong enemy fire in order to rescue the wounded and to save the battalion flag and the four machine guns. For this he was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Military Max Joseph Order. On September 14, 1914 the regiment withdrew from the front and transferred to the Somme . On September 16, it took on replacements for three officers and 450 men. Hardly arrived at Manancourt on August 26th, it was thrown from Sailly via Morval and Lesboeufs and his 2nd Battalion together with the 2nd Jäger Battalion via Transloy against parts of three French territorial divisions attacking the left flank of the 1st Army Corps and could smash this. It lost 265 dead, 441 wounded and 58 missing. From 12 October 1914, the front froze to trench warfare . The regiment was detached on October 30, 1914 from the Somme section and moved north of Comines. After arriving, it advanced over the heights near Zandvoorde. In spite of all efforts and sacrifices, the next few days brought only widespread progress, so that on November 14th the regiment had to break off the further advance near Klein Zillebeke and go into defense. The fighting cost the regiment of dead twelve officers, 49 non-commissioned officers and 389 men. There are also 18 officers wounded, including the regimental commander, and 484 men and 120 missing. The regiment already marched on with a high number of battle-hardened leaders, but the attack on Ypres made the leaders' situation even worse. On November 8, 1914 the I. and III. Battalion led by first lieutenants (actually lieutenant colonels / majors), four companies of reserve lieutenants (so-called annuals), three companies of deputy officers and five companies of non-commissioned officers. On November 10, 1914, only two officers and 455 men from the replacement battalion arrived. From November 25, 1914, the regiment dug into Flanders. At the end of 1914, it received another three officers and 292 replacements.
At the beginning of 1915, the regiment handed over its flags via the division to the armory administration, as it was recognized that the flag was no longer appropriate in modern combat. During the trench warfare, the regiment managed to lock up an English plane on March 20, 1915 and capture the two pilots. On March 22, 1915, Lieutenant Colonel Anton Staubwasser was appointed regimental commander. By autumn 1915, the regiment lost four officers, 27 NCOs and 454 men in just under a year of trench warfare, received 41 officers and 3,039 men as replacements over the course of the year and was again deployed to full combat strength. Because of a break-in by English troops at VII. And VI. Army corps at Hulluch and Loos became the regimental staff on September 25, 1915 and two companies each of the II. And III. Battalions as well as the III. Battalion of the 17th and the 1st battalion of the 18th Infantry Regiment were set up as a composite regiment under Lieutenant Colonel Staubwasser, which was to come to the aid of the Prussian 14th Infantry Division on the left wing of the VII Army Corps. It had the order to take the Fosse 8 and the lost Hohenzollernwerk again. After six days of struggle against the bravely fighting English, who defended their completely shot positions with the use of massive artillery fire and gas attacks to the end, the Hohenzollernwerk was taken again. For this, Lieutenant Colonel Staubwasser received the Knight's Cross of the Military Max Joseph Order. However, three officers, 18 NCOs and 140 men were killed and five officers were wounded (numbers for NCOs and men are not known). The composite regiment was replaced by the entire II Army Corps by October 23, 1915 and the 9th Infantry Regiment was deployed in French Flanders. During the time when Lieutenant Colonel Staubwasser was absent, Colonel Steinhauser led the parts of the regiment that remained with the 4th Infantry Division .
In 1916 the 2nd and 3rd MG companies were set up. On April 29, 1916, the regiment was surprised by a gas attack, where six officers and 230 men were poisoned, 30 of whom did not survive the gas injuries. By June 23, 1916, the regiment had to accept three officers, 36 NCOs and 390 men dead. Hardly any information is available about the wounded. As a replacement it received 19 machine guns, twelve ambulance carriers and three men. After a 14-day mission on the Somme, the regiment returned to French Flanders. According to the casualties (six dead, 47 wounded) it was not involved in major skirmishes there. On June 17, 1916, Lieutenant Colonel Wilhelm Freiherr von Freyberg took command of the regiment. On August 25, 1916, the regiment returned to the Somme near Flers. After two weeks of artillery preparation, on September 15, 1916, the English, accompanied for the first time with tanks, attacked the survivors still ahead, overran the front and were able to achieve a 3 km deep break in the section of the regiment. The village of Flers had to give it up and was only able to set up a safety line in front of the heights of Gueudecourt. During these battles the regiment was severely decimated (13 officers and 182 men killed, 20 officers and 776 men wounded, 20 officers and 540 men missing, most of whom were probably dead or captured). Only 45 men came to the regiment as replacements. On September 22, 1916, Lieutenant Colonel Rudolf Plötz was appointed regimental commander. It was used again in Flanders over the winter of 1916/17 and remained there.
In Flanders the regiment had to accept dead (149 men) and wounded again and again. From May 27, 1917, the regiment south of the Douve at the Wytschaete-Bogen was thrown to the front. On June 7, 1917, the British blew up the mines in the Battle of Messines under the mine tunnels driven under the front lines, so that the battalion deployed in front was almost completely buried. Immediately after the blasts, the British stormed forward, but were violently repulsed by the remaining battalions of the regiment at the 2nd and then at the sinew position. On June 12th it was pulled out to Audenaarde, but soon afterwards used against Armentières. Up until July 21, 1917, it had suffered the heaviest casualties of fallen (seven officers and 127 men), wounded (eleven officers and 442 men) and missing persons (ten officers and 353 men) during these fighting. On July 26, 1917, Colonel Karl Jaud was appointed regimental commander. The regiment was initially deployed as a reserve for the groups “Dixmude” and “Ypres”, on September 26, 1917, to counterattack against English forces breaking into Passchendaele and on October 4, 1917, it was able to push the English back to Broodseynde. This cost the regiment four officers and 91 men dead, 16 officers and 575 men wounded and 20 missing. On October 7, 1917, the regiment was taken out and replaced by a regiment of the 11th Infantry Division . It took up position on October 14, 1917 on the Remeneauville - Regniéville - Fey en Haye line and held it until March 31, 1918.
In 1918, the Mine Thrower Company, the Regimental Intelligence Train and the Battalion Intelligence Train were set up. As part of the Georgsschlacht (April 9-29, 1918), the regiment came on April 26, 1918 via Dranoutre to Locrehof near Locre. There would now have been the possibility of a deep thrust, but due to the difficult terrain, the artillery remained behind and the units mixed up, so that the commander of the 4th Infantry Division decided to continue the success the following day. The English and French threw new forces on the front overnight and then went on to attack. The regiment rejected the furious attacks, but resuming the advance was out of the question. After all, it took a large number of French prisoners and captured 4 machine guns, but the fighting cost too much blood (six officers killed, 20 non-commissioned officers and 131 men). In mid-May the regiment was detached and renewed in Flanders. On July 20, 1918, Major August Vogel took command of the regiment. On August 16, 1918, the regiment set up for defense in Pusieux. On August 21, 1918 the regiment was hit by the force of the English attack, so that it took up a new position east of Achiet le Petite, evasively fighting. There it was able to hold, but the counterattack of the other regiments of the 4th Infantry Division ( 5th Infantry Regiment and 5th Reserve Regiment ) was drowned in enemy fire. When the British fell on the right flank of the 4th Infantry Division on August 23, the 4th Infantry Division was replaced by the 6th Reserve Division and was kept in readiness as a reserve in Morchies from August 24th. That week the regiment lost seven officers and 52 men dead, 15 officers and 265 men wounded, and 14 officers and 669 men missing. From September 28 to October 28, 1918, the regiment was deployed on the heights between Liry and Marvaux. On October 2 and 3, 1918, it had to face heavy defensive battles again without having to give up any terrain. On October 29, 1918, the regiment for border security in Tyrol was put on the march to Bad Aibling , where it arrived on November 3. After that it was moved by the retreating troops of the kuk army, which was in complete dissolution, via Kufstein and Innsbruck to the Brenner . On November 6, 1918, the 1st battalion in the Franzensfeste, the II. Before Sterzing and the III. position on the Jaufenpass.
The regiment lost overall
- Dead: 88 officers, 299 NCOs and 3,271 men
- Missing: two officers, 32 NCOs, 312 men
- Illness / accident deceased: two officers, 18 NCOs, 114 men.
32 officers, three doctors, 166 NCOs and 1059 men were taken prisoner. The last prisoners of war were not released from captivity until the summer of 1920.
After the armistice , the regiment withdrew via Hall, Lenggries and Bad Tölz and reached its home base in Würzburg on December 2, 1918. There the demobilization took place and in June 1919 the dissolution. Various free formations were formed from parts, which later merged into the Reichswehr Infantry Regiment 45.
An association of former members of the regiment called itself the "Neuner".
- Hans Etzel: The KB 9th Infantry Regiment Wrede (= memorial sheets of German regiments. Bavarian Army . No. 51 ). Becker, Würzburg 1927. Available online: digitized version of the Württemberg State Library .
- Konrad Krafft von Dellmensingen , Friedrichfranz Feeser : The Bavaria book of the world wars 1914-1918. Volume 1. Chr. Belser AG publishing house bookstore. Stuttgart 1930.
- Günther Voigt: Germany's armies until 1918. Volume 10: Bavaria: Infantry Leib Regiment, Infantry Regiments 1–23, Jäger Battalions 1–2, 1st machine gun division. Biblio Publishing House. Osnabrück 1984, ISBN 3-7648-1199-4 .
- The term commander was not in use until 1872
- (structure since June 1808)
- Jürgen Kraus : Handbook of the units and troops of the German army 1914-1918. Part VI: Infantry. Volume 1: Infantry Regiments. Publishing house Militaria. Vienna 2007, ISBN 978-3-902526-14-4 . P. 443.
- Roland Flade: The Würzburg Jews from 1919 to the present. In: Ulrich Wagner (Hrsg.): History of the city of Würzburg. 4 volumes, Theiss, Stuttgart 2001–2007, Volume III / 1–2: From the transition to Bavaria to the 21st century. 2007, ISBN 978-3-8062-1478-9 , pp. 529-545 and 1308, here: p. 530.