German protected areas in the South Seas
The German protected areas in the South Seas ( German colonies under international law ) comprised a large area of large and small islands that have different histories. They were based on the imperial letter of protection for the commercial branches of German companies. Their German history ended with the First World War .
Prehistory: The trading house Joh. Ces. Godeffroy & Sohn and German Colonial Policy
Since the 18th century, German-speaking travelers have accompanied research expeditions to the South Seas and tried to trade in competition with other countries. The Hamburg merchant Johan Cesar Godeffroy achieved particular fame . In 1857 he founded a trading post on the Samoan Islands , which as yet not by Western nations occupied were. The Apia / Samoa station was centrally located for him, because Godeffroy's merchant fleet operated between the ports of Melbourne , San Francisco and Valparaíso , among others . Starting from Samoa, the company was able to build up a trading network that maintained 45 stations and included the Tonga , Solomon and Marshall Islands as well as the later Bismarck Archipelago . The main trade item was palm oil , which was initially exported as a liquid in barrels, but later as the core of the coconut ( copra ). As a supplement to domestic production, the company switched to plantation cultivation and brought foreign workers from Asia to the South Seas. This exacerbated the decline of island traditions due to new pathogens and alcohol imports. Godeffroy was also a promoter of science who organized numerous research trips, founded the Museum Godeffroy in Hamburg in 1861 and published an ethnological journal ( Journal des Museum Godeffroy ). In 1879 Joh. Ces. Godeffroy & Sohn, now known worldwide, made the payments. The South Seas division was ceded to the newly founded Deutsche Handels- und Plantagengesellschaft (DHPG), which was finally pledged to the London-based bank Baring Brothers .
Chancellor Otto von Bismarck did not want to leave it at that out of national interest. He pushed for the establishment of a rescue company and in 1880 submitted a contract to the German Reichstag containing a state guarantee, the so-called Samoa bill . The Federal Council approved the bill on April 15, 1880, but Parliament finally decided otherwise on April 27. Nevertheless, the Samoa bill can be seen as the beginning of the official German colonial policy under Bismarck.
Up to this point in time, the South Seas policy of the young German Reich had more diplomatic than colonial features. A friendship treaty with the island state of Tonga was concluded around 1876 . Calls for "Reichsschutz" initially met with the reluctance of Bismarck, although state interventions were announced. As early as 1878, the German corvette captain Bartholomäus von Werner had acquired supposed rights to ports on the islands of Makada and Mioko in the later Bismarck Archipelago. However, the islands did not come under German rule until 1884/85.
From 1906, the German South Sea areas consisted of two large administrative areas, which consisted of a large number of islands and which in turn can be divided into several cultural areas :
German New Guinea (official name from around 1899)
- (German) Melanesia
- Bismarck Archipelago
- (Northern) Solomon Islands , until 1899 also Choiseul and Ysabel
- (German) Micronesia
- Carolines , administered as East and West Carolines (including the Palau Islands)
- northern Mariana Islands
- Marshall Islands , own reserve from 1885 to 1906
- (German) Melanesia
- German Samoan Islands
It is noteworthy that the vast islands of German Micronesia were administratively part of German New Guinea. While this archipelago thus extended over large parts of the western Pacific and part of New Guinea, the German Samoan Islands only comprised two islands including smaller minor islands.
In 1909 there were an estimated 450,000 indigenous people, 1,150 descendants of foreign settlers with natives, 2,140 Chinese ( who were brought to the areas as plantation workers ), 72 Japanese, 162 Malays and Tagals and 1,534 Europeans lived in the German South Sea regions.
Economically , the colonies in the South Seas played no significant role. The main export product, copra , makes up only 8 percent of German copra imports. The total trade of the German Empire with its Pacific colonies in 1909 was less than 0.15 percent of German foreign trade . Nevertheless, well-known private companies, such as the New Guinea Company or the Jaluit Company , were active in the areas conceived as trading colonies . In the early years of German colonial rule, from 1884 to approx. 1906, these companies also performed sovereign administrative tasks.
In 1884 the New Guinea Company was founded, which wanted to found a state under German "protection" in Melanesia .
On August 19, 1884 Otto von Bismarck promised his support. In November the German warships SMS Elisabeth and SMS Hyäne then called at the New Britain archipelago and hoisted the German flag on New Pomerania , Neulauenburg and German New Guinea . Southeast New Guinea had recently been claimed by Great Britain as British New Guinea . The west was part of the Dutch colonial empire . On May 17, 1885, the New Guinea company received sovereign rights for northeast New Guinea (called Kaiser-Wilhelms-Land ) and the Bismarck Archipelago with an imperial “ letter of protection ” . In 1886 the northern Solomon Islands were added.
Kaiser-Wilhelms-Land (New Guinea)
The description from 1899:
The Finisterre Mountains reach an altitude of 3475 m, with a 1000 m high coastal mountain range in front of it. In the unexplored interior there is still the octopus chain and the Bismarck chain . The Ramu River (also Ottilien River) and the Kaiserin Auguste River are navigable. There is also the Gogol (river) , which flows into the Astrolabebai and the Markham river , which flows into the Huongolf .
The native Melanesian or Papuan population was estimated to be around 100,000. Attempts to recruit settlers for a settlement colony failed. In 1900 about 50 Germans and only a few other Europeans lived in the colony, including missionaries . In addition, there were administrative officials of the New Guinea Company, which exercised sovereignty until 1899, as well as their small police force .
In 1909 136 male and 61 female colonists lived here. 185 Germans made up the majority. The following professions are named: 21 planters, nine seamen, as many government officials, two technicians and a doctor.
In 1913 the number had grown to 283 Europeans (180 men, 103 women, 38 of them children). In 1913 the focus was on Friedrich-Wilhelmshafen, today's Madang , with 224 people, Eitape with 47 people and Morobe district with 12 people. At that time, statistics also indicated 17 mixed race, 10 of them in Friedrich-Wilhelmshafen, 3 in Eitape and 4 in Morobe .
Otto Finsch traveled to New Guinea with Samoa in early 1884 and visited almost the entire north coast from Mioko on five trips. During his travels he discovered seven harbors and the Kaiserin Augusta River, concluded contracts for land acquisitions and hoisted the German flag.
The Rheinische Missionsgesellschaft and the Neuendettelsauer Mission (both Protestant) as well as the Catholic Steyler Missionswerk in Kaiser-Wilhelmsland were active in the church.
From 1920 the area, together with the also formerly German Bismarck Archipelago, was an Australian mandate area under international law . In 1975 it was united with the Australian Papua to Papua New Guinea and became independent.
Stations of the Europeans
The first station was founded on November 5, 1885 in Finschhafen , the seat of the governor in 1899 . She formed the origin of the New Guinea Company. Hatzfeldhafen and Konstantinhafen soon followed . Stephansort was added in 1888, Erima in 1890 and later Maraga and Jamba.
Finschhafen was the seat of the governor until the great malaria epidemic in 1891. Another important city was Friedrich-Wilhelmshafen, which was the seat of the governor from 1891 to 1899 and became the center of the New Guinea Compagnie and later the seat of the Friedrich-Wilhelmshafen district . Other ports were Potsdamhafen and Berlinhafen .
There were tobacco , copra , wood, cotton , trepang and pearl exports.
Steamer traffic with New Guinea took place every eight weeks via Singapore in 1899 . There were also sailing ships going to Australia. There was hardly any rail traffic. An exception was the field train drawn by oxen in Astrolabe Bay, which had sheds and wagon sheds in Stephansort. In addition to a few important plantings, the railway connection that began in Erimahafen in 1896 also connected the nearby hinterland via two branch lines.
The archipelago consists of several mountainous islands that are geographically assigned to Melanesia . The archipelago was named after Otto von Bismarck .
The main islands of the Bismarck Archipelago are:
- Admiralty Islands
- French Islands, now the Vitu Islands
- New Hanover, today Lavongai
- Neulauenburg, today the Duke of York Islands
- Neumecklenburg, today New Ireland
- New Pomerania with the Gazelle Peninsula , today New Britain
- Western islands
In 1899 the population of the archipelago was estimated at 180,000 to 200,000 people. One spoke of Melanesians or Papuans .
The islands were first discovered for Europe in 1616 by the Dutch navigators Jakob Le Maire and Willem Cornelisz Schouten , but it was William Dampier who named them: New Britain, New Ireland, the York Island and New Hanover.
In 1874 and 1875 trading stations of the Hamburg trading company Joh. Ces. Godeffroy & Sohn (see → Johan Cesar VI. Godeffroy ), which was ruined two years later. In addition, a station for the house of Hernsheim and Comp. on Makada near Neulauenburg.
The German Trading and Plantation Company of the South Sea Islands , founded in 1880 , expanded its trade and requested imperial protection. The Australian Methodists of the Wesleyan Mission and the Hiltrup missionaries of the Sacred Heart Mission in the Bismarck Archipelago were missionary .
With the beginning of the First World War in the colonies , on September 21, 1914, Herbertshöhe was handed over to an Australian fleet . At the radio station Bita Paka in the hinterland of Herbertshöhe there was a short but fierce battle between Australian marines and German militiamen, including Melanesian auxiliaries.
Stations of the Europeans
During the German colonial period, several stations arose in the Bismarck Archipelago, which served, among other things, administration and trade: Friedrich-Wilhelmshafen, seat of government from 1892 to 1899, Herbertshöhe ( seat of government in Neupommern from 1899 to 1910), Rabaul ( seat of government in Neupommern from 1910), Seeadlerhafen (government station on the Admiralty Islands from 1911), Mioko (Neulauenburg), Matupi (Blanchebai), Ralum u. a.
In addition to the companies mentioned, export was also carried out by Forsayth , based on Ralum. The natural products copra , cotton, trepang , mother-of-pearl and tortoiseshell were exported . The value was around 700,000 marks in 1896/97.
The customary currency around 1900 was still diwarra , the shell money of the indigenous population.
(Northern) Solomon Islands
In 1899 the size of the German colonial area in the South Seas is given as 21,000 km². The largest islands at that time were Bougainville , Choiseul and Santa Isabel . The northernmost island, Buka , was smaller but had a conveniently located harbor, then called Carola Harbor. The volcano Balbiberg in the Kaiser Mountains on Bougainville has a height of 3,067 m. The interior of the islands remained unexplored by Europeans at that time because it was considered uninteresting for trade.
In 1899 the population is estimated to be no more than 100,000. The German colonial administration calls them Melanesians and " cannibals ". The island of Buka was particularly densely populated .
The discovery of the archipelago for Europe took place in 1568 by the Spaniard Alvaro de Mendaña de Neyra . His expedition explored the southern part of the archipelago and named the islands of San Cristoval , Guadalcanal and Isabel . The following year, the French navigator Louis Antoine de Bougainville explored the northern area of the Solomon Islands and named Bougainville , Buka, and Choiseul . The first European traders and missionaries immigrated at the beginning of the 18th century.
The German Empire took over the northern part of the islands in 1886 as a "protected area". In 1889 a German expedition led by Governor Reinhold Kraetke toured the Solomon Islands. The southern islands fell to Great Britain in 1899. In 1900 the islands of Santa Isabel and Choiseul were also ceded to Great Britain in the Samoa Treaty . Bougainville and Buka remained in German ownership. The Catholic men's congregation of the Meppen Maristen Societas Mariae was missionary here .
Until 1918 the islands belonged to German New Guinea in the Pacific , but the German crew surrendered to an Australian-French fleet on September 17, 1914.
After the end of the First World War, the German part was given as a League of Nations mandate under Australian administration and is now part of Papua New Guinea.
Stations of the Europeans
The German government station for the Solomon Islands was Kieta , on the northeast coast of Bougainville .
The smaller Solomon Islands in particular have a rich population of coconut palms. In 1899, copra was the only export product worth mentioning at 2.4 t.
The first Europeans came to Micronesia in the 16th century . Since October 1885, the Marshall Islands have been one of the island possessions in the far northeast of the German South Sea regions. Germany's attempt to take possession of the islands to the west of it also failed because of the Carolines dispute . Until the Spanish-American War in 1898, the islands of Micronesia, except for the Marshall and Gilbert Islands , belonged to Spain. Guam was annexed by the USA in 1898/99.
In the German-Spanish Treaty of 1899 , the German Empire acquired the Caroline and Palau Islands as well as the northern Mariana Islands for 25 million pesetas (almost 17 million marks ) from Spain. This enlarged the area - now combined to form German New Guinea - to the north and west. From 1899 onwards, the German South Sea area comprised the majority of the Micronesian island world, unofficially also called German Micronesia . Despite the immense number of islands - 700 Caroline Islands alone - their total area was comparatively small. The land area of all German-owned islands in Micronesia was 2,476 square kilometers. This roughly corresponded to the area of the then Duchy of Saxony-Meiningen .
In 1914, the Caroline Islands, the Palau Islands , the Mariana Islands and the Marshall Islands were occupied by Japan and later placed under Japanese administration.
The northern Mariana Islands included Saipan , Tinian , Rota , Pagan and many other small islands.
The original inhabitants were called Chamorro , there were also immigrants from the neighboring islands and mixed race. The population was estimated at 3,500 locals and 2,000 immigrants around 1910.
On March 6, 1521, Ferdinand Magellan was the first European to discover the archipelago. In 1667 it was taken over by Spain and named after the Spanish Queen Maria Anna of Austria .
After the Spanish-American War, Spain ceded the southern part to the USA and sold the northern part to the German Empire on February 12, 1899 with the German-Spanish Treaty . During the German colonial period, the Capuchins were active in missionary work on the Marianas.
Stations of the Europeans
The German administrative headquarters and main trading center was in Gárapan on Saipan. From the time it was taken over by Germany in 1899 to 1907, a district administrator was responsible for the administration. Thereafter, the local administration of the Saipan station district until 1914 was in the hands of a station manager who was subordinate to the district administrator on Yap in the Carolines. A government doctor, a government school and a postal service were located on Saipan. The port was a little north of Gárapan near Tanápag.
Carolines (today: Federated States of Micronesia)
Ponape , Yap , Truk , Kosrae and 700 small coral islands , spread over a length of 3,000 km.
40,000 Micronesians make up the (mixed) indigenous population. In 1907 137 Europeans lived here, including 83 Germans.
In 1527 the archipelago was discovered by the Portuguese Diogo da Rocha , who called them Sequeira islands . In 1696 they were taken over by Spain and renamed Carolinen . From 1731 to 1875 Spain no longer cared about the islands when it made claims, Great Britain and the German Empire protested.
German claims, put forward in 1885, were awarded an arbitration award by Pope Leo XIII. rejected. The German Empire was granted a naval base. This right was waived and Spain bought the islands in 1899. The Liebenzeller (Protestant) and the Capuchin (Catholic) were missionaries here .
In 1910 and 1911, the Sokehs rebelled against German colonial rule on Ponape . The anti-colonial uprising was violently suppressed by the German navy .
On August 12, 1914, the radio station on Yap was destroyed by English warships. Then the islands were occupied by Japan without resistance and in 1920 they came to Japan as a League of Nations mandate.
Stations of the Europeans
Germany administered the Karolinen as two separate administrative districts: the East Karolinen and West Karolinen . The administrative border ran along the eastern 148 degree length . The relevant district offices were located on the islands of Pohnpei ( Ponape district , based in Messenieng ) and Yap ( Jap district , based in Tomil ).
Copra, trepang , mussels, tortoiseshell in small quantities compared to imports.
The Palau Islands, albeit remote, belong together with Yap to the Western Carolines. Around 1910 they consisted of 7 larger, inhabited and 20 smaller, uninhabited islands with an area of 450 km². Most of it fell on the main island of Babelthuap .
The Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos first sighted the islands in 1543, but attempts to colonize them and trade with the population were not made by the British until the 18th century. In the late 19th century, the Spaniards colonized the islands and, after their defeat in the Spanish-American War, sold them, along with most of the remaining Carolines, to the German Empire in the German-Spanish Treaty of 1899. At the instigation of the Reich Post Office for the laying of a future German telegraph cable in the western Pacific, the district administrator Arno Senfft took possession of the island of Sonsorol on March 6, 1901 . One day later, the islands of Merir and Pulo Anna followed, and on April 12, 1901, the island of Tobi and the Helen Reef .
Japan occupied the islands at the beginning of the First World War and later received them as a League of Nations mandate.
Stations of the Europeans
Around 1910 there were two government stations on the Palau Islands: one on Koror and one on Angaur .
The area of the Marshall Islands is 181 km². They are divided into two groups of islands, the eastern Ratak chain (88 km²) and the western Ralik chain (93 km²).
In 1899, 43 Germans and 40 other Europeans lived here alongside the 15,000 Micronesians. Four of them were government officials.
In 1896/97 only 2,400 tons of copra were exported. In 1904 oil fruits including copra to the value of 576,000 marks were exported. In addition, products of hunting, animal husbandry and fishing to the value of 7,000 marks were exported. The trade was largely in the hands of the Jaluit Society .
The Spanish explorer Alonso de Salazar was the first European to visit the islands in 1526. The islands went unnoticed by Europeans for another two centuries until the English captain John Marshall visited them in 1788. In 1878 the German ship SMS Ariadne called the Jaluit -Atoll in order to conclude a contract with the chief chiefs, which, among other things, guaranteed the installation of a coal station . In the contract, the locals were allowed to fly a flag in the German national colors black-white-red , the Marshall flag or flag of the Ralik Islands . After a German trading company had settled on the islands in 1885, the first Imperial Commissioner Wilhelm Knappe took over sovereignty over the islands in 1886 . In 1906 they officially became part of the German New Guinea colony . The Methodist Boston Missionaries ( ABCFM ) and the Hiltrup Sacred Heart Mission ( MSC ) were missionary here . On September 29, 1914, Japanese troops (Japan had entered the First World War on August 23, 1914 on the side of the Entente) occupied the Eniwetok Atoll and the next day the Jaluit Atoll , the administrative center of the Marshall Islands.
Stations of the Europeans
The Marshall Islands were administered from Jabor (also Jabwor ); a small island on the southeast passage to the Jaluit lagoon . Since 1886 Jabor was the seat of an Imperial Commissariat (at times called the State Governor). There was also a harbor master's office as well as a court and prison. Jabor had several landing stages as well as a post and coal station. The headquarters of the Jaluit Society and branches of mission societies were also located here. However, the number of Europeans on the entire Jaluit Atoll was only about 30 people. European trading stations were also on the islands of Arno , Likiep , Majuro , Maloelap , Mejit and Mili in the Ratak chain. In the Ralik chain there were stations on the islands of Ailinglapalap , Ebon , Lae , Namorik and Ujae .
A few years after Jaluit, Nauru also received a government post .
Nauru (Pleasant Island)
Nauru is a 20 km² small atoll south of the Marshall Islands and east of the Gilbert Islands . The highest point is about 60 m. The island had rich phosphate deposits during the German colonial times .
Around 1900, Nauru was inhabited by around 1,400 native Melanesians and immigrant Polynesians. In addition, Europeans have stayed on Nauru again and again since 1830.
The British captain John Fearn , who reached the island in 1798, is considered to be the European explorer of Naurus . First the islands came into British possession. In the 19th century, Nauru was a notorious base for foreign sea and beach pirates. In 1878 the Nauruan tribal war broke out , armed conflicts between hostile island clans.
In 1888 Nauru was part of the German colonies and the tribal war ended by a German-British agreement. Despite its exposed location, the island was administratively added to the Marshall Islands. In 1900, abundant phosphate deposits were discovered and intensively exploited in the following years. The Methodist Boston Mission and the Hiltrup Sacred Heart Missionaries ( MSC ) were missionary .
In 1914 Nauru was occupied by British-Australian troops without a fight.
Stations of the Europeans
Due to the increased importance of the island due to the phosphate mining, a government station of its own was set up shortly after 1900.
At the beginning of German colonial rule, the main export item was copra. After the discovery of the phosphate deposits, they became the island's main economic activity. From 1906 the Nauruan Phosphate Society was active on the island.
Neighboring and extra-territorial areas
- Guam was claimed for Spain by Miguel López de Legazpi in 1565 . After the Spanish defeat in the Spanish-American War , the southern Mariana Islands came under US administration in 1899.
- The Gilbert Islands (now part of Kiribati ) were discovered by English sailors from 1765 to 1788, including Captain Thomas Gilbert . In 1892 the Gilbert Islands were declared together with the nearby Ellice Islands (now Tuvalu ) to the British Protectorate of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands , which in 1916 became a British crown colony as the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony . On the island of Banaba there were now depleted phosphate deposits.
- Southern Solomon Islands : In 1899 these became part of the British Empire . In 1900, Choiseul and Santa Isabel were given over to Great Britain by the German Empire as compensation in the Samoa Treaty.
- Tonga was also renounced due to the Samoa Treaty by the German Reich after a German-Tongan friendship treaty had been concluded in 1876. In 1900 Great Britain was awarded the archipelago.
- German claims to the Philippines could also not be implemented ( Manila incident ).
- The atoll Wake , bordered by German Micronesia in the south and west, has been one of the oceanic possessions of the United States since 1899.
German Samoan Islands
As German Samoa , the German Empire was awarded the two larger Samoan islands of Upolu and Savaiʻi after the treaty of February 16, 1900 with Great Britain and the USA . In the eyes of many Germans, Samoa was a " model colony ". It covered 2588 km² and 37,000 inhabitants.
The first European to discover Samoa for Europe in 1722 was the Dutchman Jakob Roggeveen . An American expedition under Charles Wilkes reached Samoa in 1839 and left a consul . The British (probably) opened a consulate in 1847. A German trading company opened its trading post around 1855 and shortly thereafter there was also a German consul.
Hamburg was initially in trade with Samoa through a branch of the shipowner Johan Cesar VI. Godeffroy in front. But this did not go unchallenged. In 1878 the USA received the port of Pago Pago on Tutuila (Eastern Samoa), which was very important to them. A year later the empire received a port near Apia on Upolu (Western Samoa).
After considering a joint administration under three states, an agreement was reached in the course of 1889, after bloody unrest in which the German consul Wilhelm Knappe was involved, to divide the archipelago into two, with Great Britain being compensated by other Pacific islands. Eastern Samoa became American territory (henceforth American Samoa ). Western Samoa became the German colony of German Samoa.
During the German colonial era, the Meppen Marists were missionary in Samoa.
On August 29, 1914, at the beginning of the First World War, New Zealand troops occupied the German part of the Samoa Islands without a fight. New Zealand received Western Samoa as a League of Nations mandate in 1920 and as a trust territory in 1946 .
Stations of the Europeans
The seat of the governorate was in Apia. In Falealili there was a station line for the south coast of Upolu . The station management for Savai'i was in Matautu .
The sea trade was handled almost exclusively by English, American and also Norwegian ships.
The mail steamer line of Norddeutscher Lloyd was discontinued in 1893. A resumption was planned for October 1914, but did not take place due to the First World War. In 1912 86 merchant steamers and 32 sailing ships called at German Samoa. The roads had a length of about 76 km and were mainly in the city and planting district of Apia. Railways were largely non-existent.
Governors of the New Guinea Company
- 1885–1888 Georg von Schleinitz
- 1892–1895 Reinhold Kraetke
- 1895–1896 Georg Schmiele
- 1895–1896 Hugo Rüdiger
- 1896–1897 Curt von Hagen
- 1897–1898 Hugo Skopnik
There were also imperial commissioners:
- 1885–1886 Gustav von Oertzen
- 1889-1892 Fritz Rose
The seat of governors and commissioners was Finschhafen from 1885–1891, Stephansort from 1891–1892 and Friedrich-Wilhelm-Hafen from 1892–1899.
Governors of German New Guinea
- 1899–1902 Rudolf von Bennigsen
- 1902–1914 Albert Hahl
- 1914–1919 Eduard Haber (provisional until 1917)
The seat of the governor was Herbertshöhe from 1899 to 1910 and Rabaul from 1910 (see Rabaul district ).
Governors of German Samoa
- 1900–1911 Wilhelm Heinrich Solf
- 1912–1914 Erich Schultz-Ewerth
The seat of the governor was in Apia on Upolu.
German island and place names in the South Pacific:
- German Colonial Society: Small German Colonial Atlas. Publishing house Dietrich Reimer, Berlin 1899.
- Hans-Henning Gerlach, Andreas Birken : The South Seas and the German Seepost. German Colonies and German Colonial Policy Volume 4. Königsbronn 2001, ISBN 3-931753-26-3 .
- Karlheinz Graudenz, Hanns-Michael Schindler: The German colonies. New edition, Weltbildverlag, Augsburg 1994, ISBN 3-89350-701-9 .
- Hermann Joseph Hiery : The German South Seas 1884-1914 - A manual. 2., through Aufl. Schöningh, Munich a. a. 2002, ISBN 3-506-73912-3 .
- Hermann J. Hiery (Ed.): Sources u. Research on the South Seas . Series A: Sources Vol. 1. 2005 ff. Previously Vol. 1–3. Series B: Research Vol. 1. 2002 ff. Previously Vol. 1–3. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden.
- Livia Loosen: German women in the South Pacific colonies of the German Empire. Everyday life and Relations with the Indigenous People, 1884–1919. Bielefeld 2014. ISBN 978-3-8376-2836-4 .
- Rochus Schmidt : Germany's colonies - their design, development and resources . Volume II. Publishing house of the Verein der Buchfreunde Schall & Grund, Berlin 1898. (Reprinted by Weltbild-Verlag 1998).
- Heinrich Schnee (Ed.): German Colonial Lexicon . Quelle & Meyer, Leipzig 1920
- Winfried Speitkamp: German colonial history. Reclam, Ditzingen 2005, ISBN 3-15-017047-8 .
- Dirk Bittner: Great illustrated history of the German South Pacific colonies . Melchior Verlag, 2013, ISBN 3-944289-22-6 .
- Hermann Mückler : The Marshall Islands and Nauru in German colonial times. South Sea islanders, traders and colonial officials in old photographs. Frank & Timme, Berlin 2016, ISBN 978-3-7329-0285-9 .
- South Sea Protected Areas , German Colonial Lexicon , Frankfurt University Library
- German Historical Museum :
- Jürgen Ritter: Global Player of the Imperial Era einestages.spiegel.de
- Jürgen Ritter: The Munchhausen of the South Seas . In: one day .
- ↑ Hermann Joseph Hiery on the German colonization of Samoa ( Memento from September 27, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- ^ Karl Sapper: Kaiser-Wilhelms-Land , in: Deutsches Kolonial-Lexikon, Vol. II, Leipzig 1920, pp. 144 ff.
- ↑ Duke of York Islands , in: Meyers Konversationslexikon, Vol. 5, 4th edition, Leipzig and Vienna 1885-1892, p. 201
- ↑ Hermann Joseph Hiery: Introduction - The Germans and the South Seas
- ^ German New Guinea . In: Heinrich Schnee (Ed.): Deutsches Kolonial-Lexikon , Volume I. Leipzig 1920, p. 315 ff.
- ^ Sebastian Conrad: German colonial history . CH Beck, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-56248-8 , p. 33.
- ^ SG Frith: The New Guinea Company, 1885-1899: a case of unprofitable imperialism. In: Historical Studies. 15, p. 316
- ↑ German Colonial Society: Small German Colonial Atlas. Verlag Dietrich Reimer, Berlin 1899. Penultimate page (unnumbered)
- ↑ a b Bernd G. Längin : The German Colonies - Schauplätze und Schicksale 1884-1918 . Hamburg / Berlin / Bonn: Mittler, 2005, p. 254, ISBN 3-8132-0854-0
- ↑ Maximilian Krieger (Ed.): New Guinea. (Series: Bibliothek der Länderkunde. ) Alfred Schall, Berlin 1899. p. 237.
- ↑ Gustav Meinecke (ed.): Colonial Yearbook 1895. Carl Heumanns Verlag, Berlin 1896. P. 127.
- ↑ Erimahafen, in: German Colonial Lexicon . Vol. I, Leipzig 1920, p. 575.
- ↑ Maximilian Krieger (Ed.): New Guinea. (Series: Bibliothek der Länderkunde. ) Alfred Schall, Berlin 1899. p. 238.
- ↑ Bernd G. Längin: The German Colonies - Schauplätze und Schicksale 1884-1918 . Hamburg / Berlin / Bonn: Mittler, 2005, p. 254, ISBN 3-8132-0854-0 .
- ↑ Battle of Bita Paka (Eng.)
- ↑ a b c d e Bernd G. Längin: The German colonies - scenes and fates 1884-1918. Hamburg / Berlin / Bonn: Mittler, 2005, p. 254, ISBN 3-8132-0854-0
- ↑ Kieta . In: Deutsches Kolonial-Lexikon , Volume II. Leipzig 1910, p. 293
- ↑ Karl Sapper : Karolinen . In: Deutsches Kolonial-Lexikon , Vol. II. Leipzig 1920, pp. 237 ff.
- ↑ Dietrich Köster: Micronesia - Forgotten Island World in the Pacific ( Memento of the original from September 14, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ^ Heinrich Schnee: Our colonies. Quelle and Meyer, Leipzig 1908, p. 168.
- ↑ Mariana Islands . In: Deutsches Kolonial-Lexikon , Volume II. Leipzig 1920, p. 503 ff.
- ^ Mariana Islands - 6. European companies and administration, in: Heinrich Schnee (Ed.): German Colonial Lexicon. Volume 2, Leipzig 1920, p. 503 ff.
- ^ Krauss: East Carolines . In: Deutsches Kolonial-Lexikon , Vol. II. Leipzig 1920, pp. 690f.
- ^ Krauss: West Carolines . In: German Colonial Lexicon . Vol. III. Leipzig 1920, p. 704ff.
- ↑ Palau Islands . In: German Colonial Lexicon , Volume III. Leipzig 1920, p. 3
- ^ Roy M. MacLeod, Milton James Lewis: Disease, medicine, and empire: Perspectives on western medicine and the experience of the european expansion, 1988, ISBN 0-415-00685-6
- ↑ Christian Grotewold: Our colonial system and its economic importance. Ernst Heinrich Moritz, Stuttgart 1911, p. 208 ( online at the State and University Library Bremen ).
- ↑ Jörg M. Karaschewski : The flag of the Ralik Islands ( Memento from April 15, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- ^ Marshall Islands ( Memento of March 3, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ Jabwor, in: Meyers Great Conversational Lexicon. Volume 10, Leipzig 1907, p. 121. (Online at Zeno.org ).
- ↑ Detailed map of Jabwor (1893)
- ↑ Krauß: Jaluit, in: Heinrich Schnee (Ed.): German Colonial Lexicon. Volume II, Quelle & Meyer, Leipzig 1920, p. 121.
- ↑ Nauru . In: Deutsches Kolonial-Lexikon , Volume II. Leipzig 1920, p. 621 ff.
- ^ Renato Perdon: The German Philippines that never was. ( Memento of the original from October 6, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (engl.)
- ^ Wilfried Westphal: History of the German colonies . Bindlach: Gondrom, 1991, pp. 304f., ISBN 3-8112-0905-1
- ↑ Samoa . In: Deutsches Kolonial-Lexikon , Volume II. Leipzig 1920, p. 214 ff.