The German mother and her first child
The German mother and her first child is the title of an educational guide for baby care , written by the doctor Johanna Haarer (1900–1988) and first published in 1934. With this, as well as with her publications Our little children and mother, tell about Adolf Hitler! Haarer wrote the most famous educational books in the time of National Socialism and shaped the education of this time and an entire generation . The adults belonging to this generation are summarized in Germany under the term war children .
After the war , Haarer's books were banned by the Allies . Under the title The Mother and Her First Child , her most successful book was later reissued in a revised version and without reference to the first edition, the last edition in 1987. Numerous scholars from various disciplines have dealt with the question of how these guides still influence child-rearing today. Among her publications, the book by Sigrid Chamberlain entitled Adolf Hitler, the German mother and her first child has received particular attention.
After Johanna Haarer (1900–1988) had passed her state examination as a doctor at the age of 23, she worked in her profession for the next ten years. Their first marriage failed. In her second marriage, she gave birth to twins in 1933 and later had three more children. With the birth of the twins, she gave up her medical profession and began to write - columns and books on infant care and child rearing. She did not have any pedagogical training. Among other things, she published in the Völkischer Beobachter . In 1937 she joined the NSDAP . In 1945 she was imprisoned and spent a year in three different American internment camps . In 1946 her second husband took his own life. All five children later became "mentally ill in some way," said Sigrid Chamberlain.
After the war, Haarer was not allowed to set up as a doctor in her own practice. Until her retirement in 1965, she worked in various health authorities in Bavaria . She died at the age of 88. Anna Hutzel, one of her daughters, said in a telephone conversation with Susanne Blumesberger from the University of Vienna in November 2000 that a conversation with her mother about the Third Reich was "never possible". Her mother did not give up her National Socialist attitude until her death. Conflicts within the family have been "resolved by force". The children had suffered from their mother's “cold feeling”. Anna's sister Gertrud published in 2012, almost 25 years after the mother's death, both her autobiography and her own, in which she confirmed the information provided by the sister.
The documentary filmmaker Gabriele Dinsenbacher - born in 1952 herself and the daughter of a teacher couple - visited Gertrud Haarer in Italy and had the daughter, born in 1942, tell about her life. In September 2019, Bayerischer Rundfunk published the documentation on its YouTube channel. It had previously been broadcast in the series Lebenslinien under the title My German Mother .
The German mother and her first child became a bestseller . By the end of the war alone, 690,000 copies had been sold. The journalist Anne Kratzer wrote about it in the weekly newspaper Die Zeit in 2018 :
“'The child is fed, bathed and drained, but otherwise completely left alone,' advised Johanna Haarer at the time. She described physical aspects in great detail, but ignored everything psychological - and warned against 'ape' affection: 'Showering the child with tenderness, even from third parties, can be perishable and must in the long run effeminate. A certain thrift in these things is certainly appropriate for the German mother and the German child. ' [...] instead of using “ridiculous childish language”, the mother should speak to him exclusively in “reasonable German”, and if it screams, one should let it scream. That strengthens the lungs and hardens them. "
Sigrid Chamberlain, who subjected Haarer's educational guide to a detailed social and political-scientific analysis and dedicated an entire book to her, summarized Haarer's advice in an interview with Barbara Tambour as follows:
“The child should be in a quiet room to himself, day and night. The separation of family and child begins right after the birth: As soon as the baby is washed, swaddled and dressed, it should be left alone for 24 hours. Only then should he be brought to the mother to breastfeed. So from the first minute of life everything was done to encourage the inability to have a relationship. Everything that promoted relationship was forbidden. Because the main goal was not to let the relationship between the mother or parents and the child arise in the first place. Haarer's demands not to spend any time together except for feeding, changing diapers, getting dressed, and bathing serve this purpose. For this, however, exact time periods were given. Bottle feeding should never last longer than ten minutes, and breastfeeding should not last longer than twenty minutes. If the child “strolls” or “dawdles,” feeding or breastfeeding should be stopped. There is no food again until the next scheduled meal. If the child is hungry by then, firstly, it serves him well and secondly, he learns that he has to hurry up next time. "
According to Haarer, adults "should have been allowed to make fun of the children's mistakes and weaknesses and mock them," added Chamberlain and mentions contemporary witnesses who reported how they were embarrassed and exposed, not only by their parents but also by teachers . The consequences of such an upbringing include, among many other things, the difficulty of being “loving, sensitive and warm-hearted” with one's own children, but also, for example, of “furnishing one's own apartment nice and cozy,” says Chamberlain. In addition, there is a great longing for recognition and belonging .
Many children were never hugged by their mother long after the war. Physicality was limited to training in cleanliness , otherwise for Haarer "skin contact [...] was undesirable".
Haarer's advice was given a “modern and scientific touch” and was well received, but it was wrong, and that, according to Kratzer, was “already known then”. Regardless of this, and because they carried the prevailing ideology into the nursery, they were promoted by the National Socialists and taught in the so-called Reichsmütterschulungen - for example in the Reichsmütterschule in Wedding . By April 1943, three million women had already taken part in such training courses for the Nazi women's group . Haarer's advisor was also the basis of education in kindergartens and homes.
Kratzer describes Haarer's advice to mothers to “deliberately ignore the needs of their babies ” as downright “ perfidious ”, because this recommendation in particular promotes transgenerational transmission : “If an entire generation has been systematically brought up not to build bonds with others, How can she teach it to her children or grandchildren? "Children who are" seducible, do not think and do not feel "are, according to the attachment researcher Karl Heinz Brisch ," practical for a warrior nation ".
After 1945 the book - "cleared of the coarsest Nazi jargon", with a slightly different title and in other publishers - was published again until 1987, but without any reference to the title and year of the first publication in the post-war editions. Overall, the book achieved a circulation of millions.
Traces in the GDR
In the GDR , which was founded in 1949 , Haarer's book was not published. The author Annette Schlemm , born in the GDR in 1961, went on a search for clues in 2015, researched her book inventory and found a book with the title Small Encyclopedia published by a VEB publishing house in the year of her birth . The woman . It emphasizes that when it comes to baby care, “in addition to“ the utmost cleanliness ”,“ regularity ”is particularly important”. She quotes: “Even the baby has to learn that he cannot force his wishes to be fulfilled by screaming, no matter how vigorous” - and acknowledges this quote with the remark “Johanna Haarer sends her regards”. With another quote she refers to the not only atmospheric similarity of the two educational guides: “Through the educational measures, the child should learn, while fully developing his personal characteristics, that he has to adapt to his environment and that living in community is not only advantageous, but also Brings with it duties and renunciations that the child must not reluctantly but willingly and happily undertake. "
The Haarer book was first published by Julius Friedrich Lehmann (1864–1935), who founded his publishing house in September 1890 and gave it the company name JF Lehmanns . This publisher was to develop into an important specialist medical publisher - not only, but also because of its anatomical atlases.
Mario Heidler, who traced the history of the publishing house in the Bavarian Historical Lexicon in 2006 , described how the publishing house "has increasingly published military science as well as racial and racial hygiene publications" since the First World War . From 1929 Lehmann promoted the NSDAP and published medical, ethnic and racist works, including medical advice, which helped to spread the ideology he preferred. He had also bought the publishing house of the journal Münchener Medizinische Wochenschrift (MMW), which was later renamed MMW-progress of medicine and published by a subsidiary of Springer Medizin Verlag . This new acquisition consolidated its dominant position.
After Lehmann's death, Friedrich Schwartz essentially headed the publishing house, which received several awards in the Third Reich and, as Heidler writes, was classified as "vital to the war effort". Therefore, unlike other publishers, he did not have to cease operations.
The Allies banned the publishing house in 1945. The medical program was bought up in 1946 by the Urban & Schwarzenberg publishing house . The publishing house was re-established in 1950 and continued its tradition - with its range, but also politically with its proximity to the Society for Free Journalism . In 1979 the publishing house was dissolved without having regained its former importance. The original company name remained for a medical bookstore until 1997, when it was renamed Lehmanns Fachbuchhandlung and - later - Lehmanns Media .
In 1988, Ute Benz published an initial critical analysis of the Haarer Guide in the fourth volume of the Dachauer Hefte, entitled Breeding sites of the nation , which was devoted to medicine in the Nazi state .
Thirty years later, Rose Ahlheim spoke in an interview about the inner soul consequences of the pedagogy represented by Haarer. In the same year, Anne Kratzer, in her essay in Zeit Online, explored the question of why this lasting influence came about. Sigrid Chamberlain described Haarer's counselor and the late effects of this upbringing in more detail than anyone else.
Under the title Nazi Education and the Consequences: Johanna Haarer's Long Shadow , an interview with child and adolescent analyst Rose Ahlheim was published on YouTube in September 2018 . She is editor of the autobiographies of Johanna Haarer and her daughter Gertrud, published in 2012. At the beginning of the interview, which conveys factual information supplemented by anecdotes , she corrects a common mistake: Haarer is often mistaken for a pediatrician, but was actually a pulmonologist.
Ahlheim describes some of Haarer's advice at first as "smart" and "medically well founded", but "there are always interwoven elements from National Socialist ideology". She takes up recommendations from Haarer's commentary, and partly cites them from the 1938 edition. For example, newborns should not be given anything to drink for the first 24 hours of their lives. Education should begin on the day of birth and a mother should not concern herself with her child without "reasonable" reason. So that the child does not become a “domestic tyrant”, it is important to “break” his will at an early stage. This is important for character formation and later lifestyle, said Haarer. She was convinced that children later did not remember this early education and that they were only able to feel emotions when they were around two years old . On the other hand, however, she believes that the child has a “need for power” much earlier, according to Ahlheim.
Much of their advice had precursors and a long tradition. Some of this was represented by paediatricians, who were concerned about the high infant mortality rate at the time , to protect children, reports Ahlheim. The first pediatrician in Germany was Adalbert Czerny . He gave a series of lectures at the Charité in Berlin called The Doctor as Educator of the Child .
Haarer worked her way up from a humble background and was one of the first women to study medicine. It was “not easy” for her in the male-dominated academic environment. With the so-called seizure of power , a law was passed to combat high unemployment , which prohibited the employment of married couples in the public sector. This explains to Ahlheim that Haarer gave up her job with her first pregnancy. As an energetic woman, she was probably looking for a job and therefore wrote her first small articles on baby care. The Völkischer Beobachter introduced a women’s website on which Haarer's contributions appeared. They were well received and so she accepted the suggestion to write a book.
Ahlheim mentions Ute Benz, a lecturer at the Technical University of Berlin and wife of the anti-Semitism researcher and historian Wolfgang Benz . In 1987, in her essay German Superwoman in the weekly newspaper Die Zeit, she drew attention to the historical background of this still popular guide and considered the creation of the book to be an act of "revenge" with which Haarer wanted to take revenge for it Birth of their children to be thrown back on the home and hearth.
The second part of the interview is devoted to the traces that such an upbringing leaves behind and which are usually not remembered. Nevertheless, the so-called body memory stores the “affective and emotional memories”. The child is dependent on someone else and if it is left alone, it is afraid . That could increase to the "fear of annihilation". The child can calm down when someone is there to talk to him. Often a glance is enough for the child to feel the presence of someone else. Empathy with the panic is important: “Yes, there is, but I am there.” If the child remains alone with his pain and fear, the idea of something evil that is in him develops and persecutes him. Because the mother always brings the good, a "parallelism of two states" arises in the child. In one person it feels safe, comfortable and warmed by a "friendly person", in the other it feels "something cold, hostile, painful". The initially rather diffuse conditions would take shape over time and something like an inner figure developed. Hence the metaphor of the good and the bad mother who is carrying the child. The child has to connect this “sometime” to a real person who has both sides. If this connection succeeds, the ability to ambivalence has developed. Because these experiences of diffuse states are stored in a pre-linguistic time, an insecurity can develop from them later, which can often be observed in young mothers. In any case, you can “often really not understand your child” and then a “recipe” simply seems to “push the child into a room” in which it is to itself. This means that the child has to bear the burden. But the mother exonerated it and she could refer to advice from a qualified mouth. Mothers are repeatedly plagued by insecurity, "some more, some less", but as an adult one should expose oneself to the uncomfortable fact of sometimes not understanding one's child and not blame it on the child.
The Haarer family after the war
In the third part of the interview, the question arises as to how things went in the family after the Nazi era. The subject was one of several taboos, says Ahlheim. Even worse than the baby care guide is the children's book Mother, Tell About Adolf Hitler! Nobody should have known that this book existed. Daughter Gertrud later confirmed that she only found out about this book after her mother's death. Another taboo was the suicide of the husband and father. There was no discussion in the family. Hitler only appears in Johanna Haarer's biography as someone who gave her an oil painting, was an art lover and was interested in architecture. Otherwise he is not mentioned.
Ahlheim was touched by the fact that daughter Gertrud, whom she met personally and who thinks she is a “smart woman”, was a school failure as a child. That led to "arguments, accusations and sermons" at home. Gertrud was unable to study and had writer's block for a long time as an adult . Her learning disorder in childhood was the "only protection" to defend herself against the fact that there was so much that she was not allowed to know. Often Gertrud was asked about her mother's book at school and then always "defended her stubbornly" - with the same tenacity as her mother's and with which she refused to study herself. Gertrud is the only one of the five children who tried to deal with the mother. She did not allow a conversation, "ripped out her hearing aid" and was indignant that her "life would have been in vain". At the hour of her death, the mother said something to her, but it was "so intimate" that she wanted to keep it to herself. As an old woman, Johanna Haarer was addicted to alcohol and tablets and suffered from "severe fears". Gertrud was the only one who could look after her mother in old age. Ahlheim says that she also learned from other families that children who were unable to deal with their parents' National Socialist past were often unable to look after them in old age.
The Haarer biographies
The end of the interview began with the question of what moved her to take on the editing of these two difficult biographies. That came "unexpectedly". A publisher friend and childhood friend of Gertrud Haarer asked her for advice. With over a thousand pages, the manuscript is too long and it is a delicate undertaking to publish such biographies nowadays. She read it, shortened it, provided it with an introduction and recommended taking the risk.
Ahlheim was moved by the fact that there was a lot of advice from Haarer “in all industrialized countries”, but the “loosening up” and the realization that it was a matter of “interpersonal relationships” and an “echo” came about “much earlier in other countries than in West Germany ". She connects this phenomenon with the fact that this advice in this country is “too closely interlinked with thinking in terms of ruling and being ruled”, as it is “anchored in the National Socialist image of society”. This combination probably leads to it being “burned so deeply” here.
The final question of what Ahlheim thinks about advice that modern educational guides disseminate - such as every child can learn to sleep - she answers with the conviction that you can actually get your child to sleep with it, but you don't know “at the price what fears ”or what anger . The child cannot develop any fantasies in infancy and therefore there may be a “storm of affects” and it stays “somewhere”.
In her review of the Haarer biographies, the psychoanalyst Sibylle von Eicke describes Johanna Haarer as a “talented author”. She recognized the "early mother-child relationship [...] in its basic meaning and charged it with (political) meaning". She let her memories end in 1933 and wrote in such a way “that not the slightest thing about what made the early texts so effective can be heard”. Namely, they would have "conveyed hope - for the future, for belonging and security in a large nation". In the book Women in National Socialism published by Ute Benz, Benz placed Haarer “in a row with prominent Nazi women”, “who answered the 'women's question' across the board and in line with the prevailing ideology,” wrote von Eicke. In conclusion, she quotes Haarer's daughter Gertrud: "Life in our house was not a drive."
Psychologist and journalist Anne Kratzer began her analysis of the upbringing under the swastika in 2018 with the remark that the grandchildren were still suffering from “broken relationships” through an “upbringing that was supposed to bring about cold soldiers” and followers . It preferably refers to the results of attachment research, which are summarized in attachment theory .
Kratzer refers to the still current bestseller by Annette Kast-Zahn , which the behavior therapist wrote together with Hartmut Morgenroth under the title Every child can learn to sleep in 1995 and which appeared in its sixth edition three years later. It gives advice as it is known from the Haarer books. If the child cannot sleep, even if he is crying, he should not be picked up and hugged. Otherwise, the “relentless domestic tyrant […] is finished,” Kratzer quotes Haarer's assertion from 1934. But unlike in Haarer's time, there is resistance nowadays, and by no means only in academic circles. The women's magazine Brigitte, for example, described the book by Kast-Zahn as "controversial" and mentioned a petition to the publisher on the occasion of the new edition in 2013 demanding that it be taken off the market - but without any mention of the historical roots of such advice.
Klaus Grossmann , who completed his habilitation in psychology and behavioral biology , pointed out that the harmfulness of such an education had long been known to psychoanalysts and attachment researchers, but was "ignored" in public. Mirjam Gebhardt puts it more sharply: "The hostility to children is a tradition in this country."
Kratzer names numerous phenomena, some of which are disease-related, which doctors and psychologists bring “with the trained lack of attachment and numbness”, but the “influence of Haarer can only be traced in individual clinical cases”. Then, for example, “ disgust for one's own body, strict eating rules or inability to have relationships” would be characteristic symptoms. She mentions a patient of the psychoanalyst Hartmut Radebold . This patient's mother left a record of her son's development in which she meticulously noted "weight, height or frequency of bowel movements - but not a single word about feelings."
On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research , the sociologist and psychoanalyst Ilka Quindeau examined the generation of war children from 2009 to 2013 . According to Kratzer, she had to change the research design because in the interviews not only - in line with the research objective - the long-term effects of bombing and escape were discussed, but also family experiences were shared so often that they could have been neglected. For this part of the research results, “a pattern of noticeably strong loyalty with parents” was found. In addition, according to Quindeau, “nowhere else in Europe” is there such an intense discourse on childhood at war as in Germany, although there was destruction and the associated experiences elsewhere as well.
To understand why mothers follow such advice in the first place, Kratzer consults Radebold. He recalls two groups for the success of Haarer's books. One was "identified particularly strongly with the Nazi regime" and a second was provided by young women, who not infrequently came from broken families due to the First World War and who therefore lacked the experience of a "good relationship". Anyone who was “alone, overwhelmed and insecure” could have been “particularly susceptible to Haarer's educational propaganda”. It also reminds of the strict upbringing that the Prussian virtues were supposed to bring about long before .
Attachment researchers differentiate and describe four types of attachment of the child , including securely and insecurely attached children. Some can fall back on a stable experience of reliable relationships with their parents, others cannot. For their research, they use the so-called strange situation test, among other things . If a small child notices when the parent figure leaves the room and the child is exposed to a separation for a short period of time, it is irritated or cries, but can calm down again very quickly, it is considered "securely bound". Insecurely attached children behave completely differently, who either do not react at all or cry and then can no longer calm down. In the course of his intercultural research, Grossman discovered that in Germany the child's lack of reaction to the separation was interpreted as a positive sign of desirable independence. That was not the case in other, also western countries.
Grossmann, a former professor at the University of Regensburg and retired since 2003 , and his wife Karin initiated a longitudinal study on the development of attachment in children in 1974 , in which numerous researchers have participated over the years. Of the many publications that this study produced on its results and the counseling concepts based on them and suggestions for suitable therapeutic interventions, a small part by Grossmann and his wife can be found in a conference proceedings from 1988 under the title The Importance of Early Mother-Child Relationship . They found that in 80 percent of the cases the attachment behavior of the children corresponded to that of their parents. According to Kratzer, the transmission of attachment behavior over generations was confirmed in a meta-analysis from 2016 by a research team led by Marije Verhage from the University of Amsterdam . How this happens is largely unknown, but biological factors appear to be involved in these processes as well.
Sigrid Chamberlain is a sociologist and political scientist born in 1941 . She became known through the book she wrote Adolf Hitler, the German mother and her first child . It is an anthropological non-fiction book, first published in 1997 and sixth edition in 2016.
Chamberlain, whose parents were staunch National Socialists, had, according to Barbara Tambour in her interview, “spent a large part of her life on the subject of upbringing”. She came u. a. to the following knowledge:
“A child who is subjected to a National Socialist upbringing from the beginning of his life grows up with a deep and always unsatisfied longing for being connected, which he has never known. This always virulent longing for something unknown makes it susceptible to bondage relationships and symbiotic entanglements; it is predestined to succumb to the allegedly magical or hypnotizing eyes of a person who pretends to understand it and promises to let it rise in a larger community, for example the national community . "
Adolf Hitler, the German mother and her first child
Chamberlain's book deals with educational methods during National Socialism and the early post-war period . It describes not only the goals striven for at the time, but also both the immediate and the later consequences of this upbringing, which were formative for the children born at this time.
Chamberlain essentially refers to the two educational guides from Haarer, but occasionally also uses the children's book to substantiate their theses . Your book is one of a large number of scientific and popular scientific publications that have dealt with the inner soul legacy of the National Socialist dictatorship from different perspectives, especially since the 1990s . It is time, so the blurb , to grapple with the fact “that the majority of those born in the Third Reich and in the post-war years were released into life with early National Socialist influences, without ever being aware of this fact and its possible consequences be".
“Chamberlain wrote an illuminating piece of work on the mother cult. [...] Her work is particularly worthy of the fact that she does not want the image of women under and in National Socialism to be understood as being narrowly understood as believers in the Fiihrer, BDM girls or war widows who had to end their life novels on May 8, 1945. Above all, the author's gaze opens up a perspective on what is now - for example, recently in a Journal der Zeit - so succinctly and incorrectly counts as zero hour , but above all on the years after. "
He quoted Radebold: “The war was not over with the end of the war.” Chamberlain's study “depressingly powerful” proves that the “morality of National Socialism” retained its validity. He described Haarer's books as "almost obscene advice literature - a guide to cold-heartedness and poor relationships, formulated with the gesture of the reasonable, modern".
In March 2006, Katharina Schäfer wrote on the Internet platform Future Needs Memory : What Chamberlain brought to light "does away with the legend that there was a family apart from Auschwitz in Germany".
The German mother and her first child
In its first edition, the book comprises a total of 297 partly illustrated pages. A separate section contains 75 notes, the bibliography 200, almost without exception scientific sources. Chamberlain headlines the first four chapters with quotes from Haarer (pp. 15–174). This is followed by reflections on the “National Socialist type” (pp. 175–184), the “attempt at a dispute” on the question of whether “convinced Nazis could be 'loving' parents” (pp. 185–192), some “ Notes on Adolf Hitler ”(pp. 193–204) and finally an afterword by Gregor Dill (pp. 205–208).
In her opening lines in the introduction, Chamberlain quotes Adolf Hitler :
"He (the state, dV) has to divide his educational work in such a way that the young bodies are treated appropriately in their earliest childhood and receive the necessary tempering for life."
A little later, as in her book several times, she opposes the formation of a legend : the assumption that “Hitler was an individual” and the ubiquitous denial after 1945 that National Socialism “corresponded to the feelings of many people”.
Despite the years that passed, Haarer's books have "hardly been really critically analyzed", although the propagated educational practices were occasionally taken into account. However, this was mostly done in the context of psychoanalytic considerations. For example, she quotes the psychoanalyst Lutz Rosenkötter from 1979: "Of particular pathogenic importance is the identification of mothers with a worldview of hardness and intransigence towards the weak."
For the research on her book Chamberlain looked for the children of functionaries and staunch National Socialists via newspaper advertisement . It was difficult to place ads. Refusals were in part justified by the fact that their topic was "too hot an iron [...]".
In her theoretical considerations, Chamberlain prefers to use the results of infant and toddler research and the findings that are summarized in attachment theory . It supplements with excerpts from the case histories of their interviews and thus illustrates the researchers' results on individual cases.
Chamberlain admits to be partisan. Her book is also lacking in “balance and completeness”. She wanted to find theses and help to become aware of part of "the destructive elements that have been passed on over the decades, both underground and unconscious".
"Everything we do, we do for the child in the end"
In its first chapter, which is larger than any other, Chamberlain develops the attitude with which mothers would have to treat their children according to Haarer in order to achieve the goal of unconditional obedience . The child should escape its imperfection and come closer to the National Socialist ideal of perfection .
A mother should have four children and pay attention to “healthy genetic material” when choosing a husband. A “race-conscious married couple” corresponded to the ideal. Haarer could not ascribe any value to a child. The mother "gave it to the Führer". Because the children were not valued as a person and remembered the shameful past after the war “through their very existence”, not a few of them had developed an urgent feeling of “having to constantly apologize” without knowing what for. Children who were not ready to adapt were placed in institutional care - even after the war and then almost always in the hands of the same staff as before.
Haarer's recommendation to separate mother and child for 24 hours after the birth has serious consequences for both. The newborn, in dire need of tactile stimuli, runs the risk of dying. The sucking reflex , which is most pronounced about 20 minutes after birth, subsides if the baby is not suckled and so it can develop difficulties in feeding. In addition, infant researchers have found that a newborn baby is in a special state of "quiet attention" for about an hour about an hour after birth, in which it makes contact with the mother and then goes into a deep sleep of about three to four hours to fall. If this phase - similar to an imprint - is not used, it will not remain without consequences for the relationship between mother and child. In the mother's case, early application promotes milk production . In addition, it has been shown that mothers who were separated from the child after birth did not react very sensitively to the child later.
Haarer's instructions on how to carry the infant - namely as far from the body as possible - aim to prevent the physical contact between mother and child , which is so important for both physical and mental development, as far as possible. For the mother it is "annoying", for the child it is "harmful". Chamberlain contrasts this conviction of Haarer with the findings of the attachment researcher Daniel Stern , who generally pointed out the vital function of body contact and in particular stated that direct stomach contact can best calm and comfort a troubled child. Hugs that Haarer reject because they serve to soften things would, according to Stern, “limit the world” for the baby, reassure it of its own limits again and again, give it support and orientation and constitute it as a person. According to Chamberlain, what Haarer withheld from the child “prepares a type who, due to its own insecure boundaries and the always fragmentary self, will never be able to allow the other, let alone the stranger, to exist”.
Crying is "the most important signal" a baby can send. It is devalued by Haarer exclusively as "shouting" which - provided there are no "care mistakes" by the mother - only serves to "pass the time" or a "test of strength", which should not be given in, because otherwise the child will become a tyrant develop. The fact that a baby could cry because it is “perhaps worried, frightened, disturbed, lonely, sad or in need of consolation” is not mentioned at all by Haarer. Since the child should be left alone in such cases, it is exposed to a " fear of death" from the beginning of its life, as the Swiss family therapist Franz Renggli described in his book Angst und Geborgenheit .
The techniques used to raise the child into a person who would later integrate into the national body without disruption included specific instructions to refuse relationship and communication . In this context, Chamberlain deals with the subjects of eye contact , speaking , gestures and the baby's smell .
For the baby, the eyes are "the window to the mother's soul", writes Chamberlain, referring to Stern, who described the mother's eyes as the "true spark of life". The mother's gaze becomes a mirror for the child , without which it cannot perceive itself as a person and find a good self-esteem . Stern calls it the “expertise” of the child, with which it learns from the beginning of its life to “decipher other people's feelings and intentions”. Haarer, on the other hand, had made something threatening out of the mother's eyes, which was supposed to control and direct and thus serve submission. If eye contact is denied, the child plunges into despair and hopelessness. The psychoanalyst Arno Gruen reported that "in infants who succumbed to sudden infant death , the 'eye dance' between mother and child as the fundamental act of exchange between them and as a result the child's self-assurance failed".
The voice of the mother is a "preference" for the newborn and is already known to him from the womb. Children's language , rejected and mocked by Haarer, produces “soft speech” and is used by parents “normally quite intuitively”. Stern assumes that the " evolutionary process shaped parental behavior" in such a way that "it adapts to the auditory preferences of the child". Only when the mother adjusts to the child's hearing needs - Eva Jaeggi speaks of the child's “request for resonance” in this context - she stimulates a dialogue and then the baby also answers - with “cooing sounds”, gestures and facial expressions . In this way, according to Stern, the child begins to learn the “principle of speech and counter-speech” as a “fundamental rule” for a conversation. But that, says Chamberlain, shouldn't a child raised according to Haarer learn, that they have nothing to say, but to respond to orders with obedience. Nor should it address its mother with the endearing word Mama , but rather say Mother to her. Since speaking influences the course of human movements, the baby moves in the context of imitation in one case "soft, round and flowing", in the other case "tight and jagged". The lack of dialogue between the war children and their parents was not due to this language education alone, but Chamberlain is convinced that it contributed to it.
The toilet training have Haarer given more space in her book than any other subject. Cleanliness requirements would be rationally justified with the hygiene and health of the baby, but Chamberlain assumes that Haarer is disgusted with the "naturally unclean" baby. That is fatal because the baby feels that the disgust is for him. Haarer "cannot smell children," claims Chamberlain, and numerous examples can be found, including: a. in the categorical but false assertion that a "properly cared for child does not smell". The mother, for its part, recognizes the baby by its odor by the fifth day of life. As always, Haarer demanded fixed times for diapering and later for getting used to the pot . A meeting should "not last longer than ten minutes". Here too, according to Chamberlain, “the power of the fittest” triumphs.
In this context, the cultural theorist Klaus Theweleit spoke of a “drainage mill” which leads to “where other people have their skin”, a child treated under these circumstances would “grow a shell”. Theweleit had described in detail the characteristics of a "fascist type [s]" in his two-volume work, Männerphantasien, which comprised more than a thousand pages .
Because Haarer's fear of vermin - especially lice - and venereal diseases was systematically stoked and an occurrence was assessed as a "personal failure", both one's own body and that of other people are alien and potential to the children and later often also to the adults influenced in this way remained threatening. A healthy and uninhibited body feeling was often not able to develop in this way.
Finally, Chamberlain devotes himself to Haarer's demands in connection with eating and the urge to move in small children. For Haarer, too, the focus is not on the baby and its needs, but on the mother and her educational mandate. Like other topics, these are also dealt with in terms of punctuality and regularity, again with strict time constraints.
Breastfeeding should last no longer than 20 minutes, bottle feeding no longer than 10 minutes. When Haarer writes about breastfeeding , her language sometimes changes and becomes downright " pathetic ". But if the child does not eat properly and causes difficulties, it is important to “break the resistance”. Then it should starve. Under Haarer, food degenerates into a "power tool" and is used to subjugate the child. Stern, on the other hand, describes hunger as an "overwhelming experience" that changes everything for the child and puts him in a chaotic state. If the child learns to adapt, its “inner compass” increasingly loses its directional function, so that as an adult it runs the risk of becoming susceptible to manipulation.
If the child crawls and later begins to walk, according to Haarer, it is in good hands in the stable , which is best placed far away and in such a way that the child does not disturb the mother. In this way it can be left alone for a long time without worrying. These recommendations completely ignored the fact that not only the child's urge to move is restricted, but that they are also prevented from taking important developmental steps. With the acquisition of the ability to move independently, the child is able to move away from the mother at will or to approach her again. His curiosity helps to let go of the mother and to explore his surroundings. This presupposes a secure bond and the confidence to find the mother in the place where she left her. Under these conditions, confidence and self-confidence could gradually develop. Prevented from doing this and again exposed to “maternal arbitrariness” with “long periods of being alone”, the child is thrown back on feelings of being lost. As a result, "apparently so sensible [...], undemanding" and yet "in truth deeply resigned children" can be observed. They are better suited for integration in organizations “in which initiative and independence are not required”.
Since Haarer's educational guide aimed to make children fit for the system and at the same time unsuitable for personal relationships, Chamberlain includes an excursus into the differences between comradeship and friendship .
“Friends are in a direct relationship with one another. Comrades, however, don't do that. They are not directly connected to one another but via an ideology, a leader, an idol or symbols to which each individual is symbiotically chained, without which he is nothing. "
In National Socialism, comradeship was a "highly valued, holy word". It had encouraged clan liability as well as exposing a person to punishment by the group - for example a so-called waddling fight . Comradeship did not serve mutual help and support during this time, but was used to "force complete submission of the individual". Friendship, on the other hand, was frowned upon and was deliberately destroyed because it could have "become a smallest subversive unit".
Chamberlain devotes her final section in the first chapter to the question of the consequences of a lack of space for children . Numerous authors have pointed out its psychological and social significance , both literally and figuratively. Chamberlain once again takes up the little stable in which children should not only stay for a short time, but, according to Haarer, “half days and longer”. For infant researchers, leeway is the place where the child can “freely follow his attention and interests” and “take initiatives and observe their effects” in a balanced state. If the child is not free from external constraints and its own instinctual needs , it could, according to Martin Dornes , "be the result of a development [...] in which the scope for the free development of the self was too small". He had the leeway defined as a private room where the child "not from inside or outside determined will." Since Haarer wants the baby's daily routine to be strictly regulated and the child is also to be hindered spatially in its development, there is no room for free development of its personality. Haarer is delighted when the "haphazard fiddling around", as she calls the child's game, finally gives way to copying by the adult.
"Every child is a battle"
Haarer experienced the child as an enemy . The traits most often attributed to a baby or toddler were "unclean or impure, unsteady, destructive and greedy," said Chamberlain. In addition, it is driven by bad intentions. Ultimately, all children are difficult to educate and they cannot do without a fight. In this context Chamberlain again quotes Adolf Hitler: "If you want to live, you fight, and if you don't want to fight, you don't deserve life".
According to Chamberlain, Haarer stirs up the fantasies of mothers about their children, who have an "immensely creative power" for the mother-child relationship. She quotes Dornes: "The pressure of fantasies reshapes perception and makes the mother unable to read and respond to the signals of her child in a differentiated manner." The maternal fantasies, which are conveyed non-verbally , are perceived by the baby and shape the image that the child gradually makes of himself. Ultimately , his self-image has an impact on his personality development. But if the child is used as a projection surface by the mother , it runs the risk of identifying with the projection .
“We have already pointed out that very often there are formal tests of strength between mother and child at an early stage. To pass it in the right way is the secret of all education. [...] Even the screaming and reluctant child must do what the mother thinks necessary and, if it continues to behave naughty, is in a way 'put in the cold' [...] "
In this context, Chamberlain reminds us of the importance that it had for a child, especially during or shortly after the war, because Haarer recommends that the child be "spent" in a dark room if necessary so that they can allegedly calm down locked in a dark room and left alone with one's fear. That must have awakened memories of the “panic in dark bomb cellars, in dark train wagons on the run or when hiding in dark forests, in dark attics and in dark corners when the 'enemy' troops marched in” and “reactivated old war fears”.
The child was only able to achieve the required submission performance in the long term if it learned self-control . It should have been brave and mother and child could have been proud of that. The child should also learn to “swallow”, “not just unloved food and pain, fear or anger”, but also “indignation over unjust treatment”. Hitler demanded "to endure injustice in silence," and that also means, according to Chamberlain, to be silent about injustice inflicted on others.
Staying healthy was a duty and illness was a sign of failure. Therefore, children would have been afraid to show when they felt sick, with the consequence of increasing alienation from their own body. Haarer had asked the mother to take care of the child's health, but on the other hand, “not every life is worth preserving”.
Finally, Haarer polemicized against the grandmothers, who “are no longer able to follow the new times”. With them children sought refuge in their misery, but only acquired “bad habits” through their intervention. Mothers had to fight with them too. They should destroy the relationship with the grandmother so that the child remains fixated on the mother alone. That "opened up the rifts between the generations".
"In freedom people feel easily abandoned"
Johanna Haarer wanted to prevent a child from developing into an independent individual and at the same time encourage adaptation to the national community. That is why Chamberlain deals specifically with the developmental aspects of autonomy and individuation . Haarer falsely claimed that the baby made no distinction between the mother and other caregivers and could not even tell them apart in the first six months of his life. In fact, attachment occurs much earlier. From birth, the baby recognizes the mother's smell and voice, and at three months her face.
Every adult is okay with the child, Haarer maintained and often referred to their own children. In doing so, they fail to recognize that children with whom this is the case have already developed disorders. The Grossmann couple found in their research that "it is precisely the insecurely bound children who do not show that they miss the absent mother". They have already learned to hide their real needs and desires from their mother. Securely bound children, on the other hand, would indicate when they lacked a mother.
The Grossmanns found it “interesting” that, in contrast to many other western countries, especially in Germany, the behavior of young children was positively impressed, and they had to be described as disturbed in the sense of an insecure bond. It is wrongly interpreted as a sign of particular independence.
In a special way, Haarer argued against physical contact between mother and child, which was "annoying, harmful, inexpedient and consequently to be avoided as far as possible". “Countless children of this generation” would have suffered an “extreme lack of physical contact” in this way and passed on corresponding fears - without being aware of it. Passing it on to the next generation could have corresponded to one's own treatment or its opposite, so that some parents would have practically imposed themselves on their children.
Children brought up in Haarer's sense would often have been left to their own devices for a long time. If they were rarely spoken to - following Haarer's advice and not in baby language - it was often too harsh, too loud or in the wrong tone. It is important to give the baby both stimulation and protection against irritation, but this is only possible if the mother is ready to receive the baby's signals and understands how to interpret them correctly. Haarer's advice, on the other hand, would have led to either under- or over- stimulation .
Infants would imitate adults from an early age , and parents would imitate their babies too. This creates a conversation-like interaction , which would be early “precursors of identification processes ”. However, if the infant's signals and his search for closeness were consistently overlooked, “something in him dies” and not just certain abilities, but “vitality in general”. Hospitalism damage could develop as a result.
“The child gets into a vicious circle: Denied closeness leads to clinging, clinging provokes rejection and further refusal, which in turn increases the child's unsatisfied longing for closeness. In this way, the child becomes increasingly susceptible to ominous symbioses. "
Chamberlain quotes Dornes, who has described how the search for symbiotic closeness replaces the development of a healthy self-confidence that could not develop under the conditions demanded by Haarer. This requires a mother who not only trusts herself, but also her baby. If moments of “most intimate relatedness” were described as symbiotic, it was “possibly a misleading use of language”. Pronounced symbiotic wishes and fantasies would be the result of "a disturbed parent-child relationship that excessively restricts the child's self-regulation ability," said Dornes.
A child raised according to Haarer had to experience early on that it could not have independence and solidarity at the same time. In this way the child grows up unrelated and therefore withdraws into symbiosis. It had to choose between the mother and its own ego, and since the ego cannot grow stronger under these conditions, the child gives up. There is no other possibility.
"Young people are there to die"
A socialization in the sense of Haarer called for the striving for autonomy to be destroyed as early as possible, beginning “with the rejection of the one-year-old's first saying NO, the beating of obedience, the strict demands for cleanliness or the physical coercion and the dictation of the clock getting used to the pot ”. According to Haarer, the baby had to be shown that everything it brought with it in terms of impulses, needs and abilities was wrong. This resulted not only in a deep distrust in the world, but also in oneself. Chamberlain differentiates between the coercion exercised in connection with defecation , which she calls anal compulsion, from what is known as oral compulsion, which clamps the child while feeding and forces it to open its mouth if the mother wants it.
Curiosity, critical thinking and independent gathering of experiences were undesirable and accordingly Haarer's educational advice was turned out, which propagated bans on thinking and speaking . Existing intellectual capacities could not be exhausted in this way, as the Grossman couple pointed out. The psychoanalyst André Green came to a similar conclusion - talents cannot be used, life experiences do not mature. Hitler called for the school curricula to be cut in favor of athletic training: "The völkisch state ... has to focus its entire educational work primarily not on pumping in mere knowledge, but on growing perfectly healthy bodies."
Haarer makes fun of children several times and that means embarrassing them . She calls it humor , but she doesn't know the difference. The aim of the attacks on self-esteem was every sign of weakness. In addition, the children could not turn to their mothers in case of distress. That was considered sneaky and frowned upon. They should fight back, but they would never have learned that, so Chamberlain. However, Hitler repeatedly demanded that the "German child" should learn to strike. This, in conjunction with the ban on sneaking, meant that children were exposed to some tribulations by the elderly without protection.
For the people, the "faster and more decisive strike" is important, so Hitler, and that should "be practiced at an early stage" so that it can lead to "decisive popular will". Those who are too weak or cowardly have to take “deservedly” blows. In this context Chamberlain quotes Hermann Rauschning with “perhaps the most famous quote from Hitler about his educational ideas”:
“My pedagogy is tough. The weak must be hammered away. A youth will grow up in my monastic castles, of which the world will be terrified. I want a violent, imperious, intrepid, cruel youth. Youth must be all that. She has to endure pain. There mustn't be anything weak or tender about her. "
From this, mothers derived the concern that their children should learn to assert themselves so that they would have an easier time in life, but as a result children were more likely to come to the realization that their life and their integrity were not worth much. In the sense of a National Socialist upbringing, which should serve to "stimulate" and "heat up", babies were already chronically kept in a state of tension, so that they hardly knew a state of relative freedom from tension or not at all. Their feelings, sensitivities, needs and abilities experienced "a complete disregard", whereby the children learned not to take them into consideration later on.
Since the child was punished with more hunger when hungry and the child crying in pain was punished with beatings, over time it tried to "kill off" the perception of internal states as completely as possible. She was exposed to fear of death at an early stage and since the mother also felt threatened by the child, a difficult mother-child relationship had arisen, characterized by danger. The killing of a loving relationship should serve the willingness to develop “love for the national community, for the Führer, the flag and the fatherland” and “to go to death” for it. What was required was “total internal and external self-surrender up to the willingness to die”.
To summarize the consequences of this upbringing, Chamberlain referred to her own experiences and observations in the last section of her book relating to Haarer's books and based "consciously on no literature", especially since there were "very few". As part of her research, she conducted numerous interviews with members of the affected generation that she could fall back on.
Many of these former children had a hard time living as adults, and some reported that their siblings were “completely destroyed”. Almost everyone would have the feeling of not being able to bond, often also towards their own children. There are reports of frequent changes of place of residence and relationships and the difficulty of settling in somewhere. Some would have sold all their belongings once or even several times in order to start over in another place. In addition, Chamberlain met people who reported the "apparent opposite" - long-lasting relationships, often abandoning their own interests and "holding on to situations that had actually become unbearable for too long". Both have "probably the same root: fear of being abandoned".
Chamberlain had heard quite often of the inability to make himself comfortable and cozy. Because of the repeatedly reported difficulty in remembering or trusting their own memories, many have developed the desire to find people who could fill in the gaps. Physical closeness is difficult to endure for many. Because it is a particular problem to touch one's own mother, it is "difficult or impossible to care for the mother" when she gets old. Some would not feel their own body, even "if they really should be in pain". It could happen that they do not register when they get sick or even seriously ill. Complaints are "permanently" ignored. Many would hide their feelings because otherwise they would perceive it as defeat and fear "triumph in the eyes of the other". They often fail to comfort a crying child. Should the experience of violent feelings become inevitable, they would often feel “nothing but an empty rigidity”. In objectively dangerous situations, these people often reacted sensibly, cleverly and deliberately; on the other hand, some report panic attacks, for example when driving a car.
"Insomnia, nightmares, or waking up at night with feelings of panic for no apparent reason" were reported as common symptoms to get used to. Some would sleep "as if they had to constantly watch and be on guard". They couldn't let themselves go. It is difficult to say no, some would avoid the word I. There are people who experienced war and flight as children and still have no memories of them. “A relatively large number of them are unable to work, unable to work, or have 'consciously' left their training and career,” said Chamberlain. Many had several attempts with psychotherapy behind them "to free the buried life".
According to Chamberlain, many of those born between 1931 and 1951 would have suffered a "primary disorder" which, in their experience, did not develop. Fortunately, however, some people would have had other experiences that would help "encapsulate" this damage.
About the National Socialist type
Towards the end of her book Chamberlain left the concrete discussion of Haarer's educational guide and added three chapters of a more general nature. National Socialist education was suitable for producing a specific type of person, which Chamberlain describes in its characteristics.
Because the child socialized in this upbringing also tries later as an adult to escape his lack of ties, these people are predestined to “seek refuge in ominous symbioses”. This makes this type susceptible “to blurring with the formed mass”, because in it an experience of being apparently connected to others becomes possible.
The National Socialist type tended to “uniformize appearance”. Because in childhood he could not experience the limits of his own body and could not occupy the body with relish - in experience he "remained virtually without skin [...]" - he could not experience the skin as a contact organ. That is why his own body limits are insecure, and that makes him “susceptible to the desire for the uniform, the armor from the outside”. That give him stability. Uniform, “jagged movements” that create uniformity and nourish the illusion of community would also hold things in place. In the desire for uniformity, "falling out of the prescribed framework [...] is absolutely unimaginable".
Feeling was systematically withdrawn and over time led to the death of the emotional life, "to inner deadness". That belongs “indispensable to the National Socialist type” in order to avoid compassion or even frowned upon pity . Having feelings of one's own hinders availability. Inner emptiness, however, should not arise because it conjures up the danger of collapse, and therefore “pseudo feelings in the form of sentimentality , pathos and states of excitement have been generated”. Common indulgence in sentimentality makes "the masses feel incredibly united", but at the same time makes them "extremely manipulable".
The National Socialist type is less obedient than conditioned. This also includes loyalty, possibly even into death. And despite the deceptive feeling of togetherness, his longing ultimately remains unsatisfied and lonely and threatened by otherness as an individual as well as in a group.
Could convinced Nazis be loving parents?
Before Chamberlain turns to the person of Hitler, she inserts under this question the “attempt at an argument”, which she considers necessary because during her research she also learned something other than complaints about her parents:
“Again and again, especially by women, it is vehemently and aggressively denied that there was an education like the one described here by mothers at all. It is occasionally said that it was a matter of isolated cases, that Haarer was a sick woman, the influence of her books should not be overestimated. "
First, she deals with the hypothesis that there were splitting phenomena in the context of which “Nazi fathers did the most cruel things during their 'working hours' […] and […] were loving […] family fathers at home”. She juxtaposes stories of perpetrators, such as the end of Joseph Goebbels , with stories of victims, and cites a suicide note from Rose Schlösinger . In the end, Göbbels only thought of himself, Schlösinger tried to give her daughter something good to take with her in the hour of near death. It reminds her of Jochen Klepper , who took his children with him to death, but - quite unlike Goebbels - in humility and deep connection with them.
Chamberlain does not deny that there were “Nazi fathers and mothers” who did not beat their children and looked after them properly, but she now considers the parents described as “loving” by “some scientists” to be exceptions. She quotes the psychotherapist Jürgen Müller-Hohagen as saying that this is a legend that serves to cover up. Judith Kestenberg said in the foreword to the German edition of the book Children of Victims. Children of the perpetrators shared that many children "were afraid of their fathers and felt abandoned by their mothers". Lutz Rosenkötter reports in the same book that there may have been convinced National Socialists who committed themselves to a “worldview of hardness and cruelty” and at the same time were loyal fathers, but this type is not characteristic. Instead, "the research results of Adorno and colleagues on the authoritarian personality " from 1950 are often confirmed.
The consequences of the upbringing by these parents are "profound and can still be felt not only in individuals but also in society as a whole," said Chamberlain. But rather than accepting responsibility for their own actions, the "cohorts still eligible for this [...] would see themselves as victims of Hitler". To forego this would mean rethinking what happened and what responsibility each individual had for it, but "that is exactly what many people in our country still do not want to do". Ultimately, Chamberlain leaves its readership alone with the question asked at the beginning, without giving a final answer.
Notes on Adolf Hitler
Because the lack of attachment ability was at the center of the consideration of a National Socialist upbringing, Chamberlain devotes his last chapter to the question of the attachment ability of Adolf Hitler. She mentions some writers who looked at his biography and how it was possible for him to develop such levels of destructive powers. However, she does not want to comment on the present Hitler interpretations, but instead devotes herself to an aspect that has hitherto been neglected, which she defines in the question of his mother's ability to bond.
Klara Hitler married a relatives man who was 24 years older than him and who “hit the child a lot and hard, without the mother being able to protect it adequately”. The mother lost her first three children - including a newborn - who died of diphtheria within a few weeks . Without enough time to process these losses, she would soon become pregnant again. That is why Hitler was confronted from the start with a mother whose "ability to bond with another child was not restored". She “carefully looked after her child”, but couldn't really turn to him inside. That is why there was an "identification with the mother's emptiness", which, in combination with other factors, had fatal effects. Chamberlain quotes Albert Speer , who wrote about his last meeting with Hitler that he appeared “almost insubstantial”, but perhaps he “always remained the same”.
Chamberlain devotes a little more detail to the concept of the “dead mother” by André Green . This metaphor does not mean their actual death, but a depressed mother who is not present inside, who has withdrawn to herself with the result that children of these mothers, even with good care, grow up feeling deeply lonely, in need of their mother cling and detachment from it usually does not succeed.
The mother's inability to bond had neither enabled the son to break away from her nor to escape his own inability to bond.
Gregor Dill, who himself published on National Socialist infant care, deals in his afterword with the history of the Haarer books in the Third Reich and after the end of the war.
Johanna Haarer was "authoritative [...] authority" in this field, her publisher "primarily a political fighter and not a businessman". Because mother training was "popular", mother schools were set up in large cities and " hiking teachers " carried the "uniformly planned courses to the most remote areas of the country". By April 1943 alone, the courses had been "attended by three million young women". Without the publisher Lehmann, Haarer's advice could not have achieved this level of awareness. He said that he freed his authors from “material worries” if they were willing to show him “ loyalty to his ideological standpoints” in their writings . He boasted “that every work published in his house was the result of his own personal suggestion”.
When Haarer's book appeared, there was "no shortage of literature on infant care." A comparison of her book with previous writings from the 1920s and early 1930s shows that Haarer's book, however, broke new ground, both “in terms of its political commitment” and “in terms of its scientific content”. In this respect, it was known "in the professional world" that the new recommendations ran counter to the healthy development of the infant.
After the ban, the rights to Haarer's first work in 1949 were sold to the Lätare Verlag in Nuremberg , where it reappeared with a slightly different title. "Nobody took offense". In 1951 the rights came back to Munich - to Gerber Verlag . Her second book was also published again, only a new edition of her reading book had been dispensed with.
The psychologist Jürgen Müller-Hohagen, who has been dealing with the Nazi era and its effects since 1983, published a detailed review of Chamberlain's book in 1999 in the journal Psyche . Haarer's books are not only educational guides, but also form "a precisely calculated component of the National Socialist educational policy".
Chamberlain's analysis recommends Müller-Hohagen "urgently for reception". With her “competent [...] selection of quotations” she provides “a comprehensive insight” into Haarer's publications. Exposing oneself to the “specific atmosphere” of the original could convey the effort it takes to “evade the persuasiveness of this 'medical authority'”. Even educated in the pedagogy advocated by Haarer, in order to be able to write this book Chamberlain had to do what he calls "distancing work" with which she could gain distance from her own experiences and devote herself to scientific observation. For her expertise , she used the findings of psychoanalytic infant research and attachment theory, such as those presented by Daniel Stern or Martin Dornes.
Because Chamberlain, in addition to processing scientific knowledge, also conducted numerous interviews with those affected, the “massive imprints” and “actual dimensions of that pedagogy” would not only reveal themselves intellectually. The chapters of her book have headings that refer not only to the following content, but also to "how much, despite some overlaps, the National Socialist education was different from other authoritarian education ". It was an "education through lack of attachment to inability to attach" and this aspect has been "largely ignored", quotes Müller-Hohagen Chamberlain. Much of it continues to have an effect today and that makes "Chamberlain's analyzes visible in gratifying clarity".
In 2006 Katharina Schäfer wrote a review in the journal for the sociology of education and socialization . She juxtaposes Chamberlain's book with that of the theologian Christa Mulack , which was published in 2005 under the title Klara Hitler - Muttersein im Patriarchat . One obscures the view, the other sharpens it. While Chamberlain took the side of the children, Mulack stood by the side of the mothers - "like heavenly beings, always good, mostly misunderstood". So she had to describe Klara Hitler as “a loving, devoted mother”. Chamberlain, on the other hand, sensitizes to the harmful consequences of an upbringing in the sense of Haarer. It helps to understand oneself and others better and to be able to examine modern advisors for their ideological content. In her final chapter, Chamberlain had convincingly worked out "how Hitler's inner emptiness arose in frustrating contact with a severely traumatized mother who had already lost three children before he was born." According to Schäfer, his relationship disorder had increased in the National Socialist society.
In his review from 2010 the theologian Thomas Bohrmann takes the view that the book deals “not only with the Nazi era, but also with the beginning of feminism in the 1980s”. He considers it “must read for anyone who wants to assert themselves in the father's policy of the day”.
- Ute Benz: breeding grounds of the nation. “The German mother and her first child” or the continued success of an education book . In: Barbara Distel, Wolfgang Benz (ed.): Medicine in the Nazi state. Perpetrator, victim, henchman . No. 4 . Verlag der Dachauer Hefte, 1988, ISSN 0257-9472 , p. 144–163 ( zvab.com [accessed August 5, 2019] on behalf of the Comité International de Dachau ).
- Gudrun Brockhaus: Mother power and fear of life. On the political psychology of Johanna Haarer's educational guide . In: José Brunner (ed.): Maternal power and paternal authority. Parent images in the German discourse (= Tel Aviver yearbook for German history . Volume 36 ). Wallstein, Göttingen 2008, ISBN 978-3-8353-0244-0 , p. 63-77 .
- Sigrid Chamberlain: Adolf Hitler, the German mother and her first child. About two Nazi education books (= psychosocial edition ). 6th edition. Psychosozial-Verlag, Giessen 2016, ISBN 978-3-930096-58-9 .
- Gregor Dill: National Socialist Infant Care. An early education to become a mass man . Enke, Stuttgart 1999, ISBN 3-432-30711-X .
- Miriam Gebhardt : The fear of the child tyrant. A History of Education in the 20th Century . German Verl.-Anst., Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-421-04413-6 .
- Johanna Haarer : The German mother and her first child . Lehmanns, Munich / Berlin 1938 (266th – 307th thousand).
- Johanna Haarer: The mother and her first child . Completely revised and expanded edition, 1222. – 1231. Thousands of the total print run. Gerber, Munich 1987, ISBN 978-3-87249-158-9 (original title: The German mother and her first child . First edition: Lehmanns, Munich 1934, without reference to the first edition).
- Johanna Haarer: Our little children . 6th edition. Lehmanns, Munich / Berlin 1940.
- Johanna Haarer: Mother, tell us about Adolf Hitler! A book to read aloud, retell and read yourself for children of all ages . Lehmanns, Munich / Berlin 1943 (79th – 96th thousand).
- Johanna Haarer, Gertrud Haarer: The German mother and her last child. The autobiographies of the most successful Nazi education expert and her youngest daughter . Ed .: Rose Ahlheim. Offizin, Hannover 2012, ISBN 978-3-930345-95-3 .
- Anna Kemper : Gertrud Haarer. "I stood before her like a judge" . In: Zeitmagazin 39/2019, September 18, 2019 ( zeit.de ; PDF p. 41. )
- Marianne Rauwald (Ed.): Inherited wounds. Transgenerational transmission of traumatic experiences . Beltz, Weinheim / Basel 2013, ISBN 978-3-621-27932-1 .
- Marianne Rauwald, Ilka Quindeau : Mechanisms of the transgenerational transmission of parental trauma . In: Marianne Rauwald (Ed.): Inherited wounds. Transgenerational transmission of traumatic experiences . Beltz, Weinheim, Basel 2013, ISBN 978-3-621-27932-1 , pp. 66-76 .
- Michaela Schmid: Educational guide in the first half of the 20th century. A comparative analysis. Continuity and discontinuity in the image of the mother and in (early) child care and upbringing in selected educational guides from the Weimar Republic and the Nazi era . Weißensee-Verlag, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-89998-123-0 .
- Forum child analysis: Nazi education and the consequences. Johanna Haarer's long shadow on YouTube , September 15, 2018, accessed on July 30, 2019 (interview with Rose Ahlheim, editor of the autobiographies of Johanna Haarer and her youngest daughter Gertrud. (44:49)).
- The communications in this article are based on the first edition from 1997. It uses the old spelling.
- See also: Helmut Lethen : Behavioral teachings of the cold. Life attempts between the wars (= Edition Suhrkamp . Volume 884 ). 2nd Edition. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 1994, ISBN 3-518-11884-6 .
- See also comradeship in the time of National Socialism
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