|State :||Czech Republic|
|Region :||Ústecký kraj|
|Area :||233.1448 ha|
|Geographic location :|
|Residents :||513 (Jan. 1, 2019)|
|Postal code :||411 01|
|License plate :||U|
|Railway connection:||Řetenice – Lovosice – Česká Lípa – Liberec|
|Mayor :||Alena Vacková (as of 2007)|
411 01 Žalhostice
Žalhostice (German Czalositz , also Tschalositz ) belongs to the North Bohemian region of Ústí nad Labem (Aussig on the Elbe) with 494 inhabitants (2004). The area of the municipality is 233.15 hectares.
The Czech name means "a place where sorrow tends to be guests". In the past, different forms of writing were used, such as: Tschalositz, Cžalositz, Cžahostitz, in dialect spoken "Tschales". The community lies in a landscape that has already been inhabited prehistorically . It was first mentioned in 1319, when Pesco von Schreckenstein sold the village to King John of Bohemia and Heinrich von Kamaik. The place came from the Kamaik family to Peter Kameitzky von Elstiborz and was in his possession until 1620. After the battle of the White Mountain, the property was confiscated by the royal treasury . In 1626 the rule of Groß Tschernosek , to which Czalositz belonged, was sold to Count Wilhelm von Wrschowetz and Doubravská hora . The place was probably desolate in the following years and was repopulated by the owners. In 1650 the rule of Tschernosek changed to the von Haysenstein family and in 1667 to the Counts of Nostitz-Rhinek. Czalositz remained with the latter owners until 1852. Administratively, Czalositz belonged to the judicial and political district of Leitmeritz until 1938 after the lordship was dissolved, and from 1938 to 1945 to the Leitmeritz district. After the Second World War, Czalositz remained in the enlarged Leitmeritz district and has been part of the newly created, administratively superordinate region of Aussig since 2002. Czalositz was affected by the great Elbe flood in 2002, but the community, with around 30 affected houses, got off relatively lightly. The then flooded island near Czalositz was formerly called "Wedda" in German. This name comes from the dialect pronunciation of the Old High German word " Werder ".
Wine has been grown on the slopes of the Elbe towards Leitmeritz and on the lower slopes of the Radobýl ( Radobil ) since the 11th century . In 1843 almost 125 Joch vineyards were cultivated, about a third of the area of the municipality. Besides arable farming, there is also fruit growing. A lot of fine fruit, including apricot trees, are kept here. Fishing was also practiced until the end of the 19th century .
The first industrial companies settled there at the end of the 19th century , when the structural requirements were created with the construction of the Austrian Northwest Railway (Vienna – Mittelgrund) and the North Bohemian Transversal Railway (Teplitz – Reichenberg).
In 1893 the large leather factory of the Taussig brothers started production. Around 200 employees worked here in 1938. In the 3rd Reich, the Nazi rulers expropriated the Jewish owner Dr. Friedrich Neuburg. The Linhart company from Rehau (Northeast Bavaria) took over the business in 1939. A few years after the political change in 1989, the factory stopped production. The fish canning and vinegar factory C. Warhanek AG was established as the second large factory at the turn of the century . Several families migrated from Zauchtel in Kuhländchen and the surrounding area as special workers, as there was already a branch of the Vienna headquarters there. After the First World War , the A. Lanna AG repair shop (headquarters in Prague) was set up for Elbe barges. After the annexation to the German Reich in 1938, the systems and tools were transported in around 60 railway wagons for reconstruction to Lysá nad Labem in early 1939 .
Quarries already existed on the Radobýl in earlier times, which later operated as Basaltwerke GmbH in Leitmeritz. In 1932, the company went bankrupt and was now producing cement products and prefabricated building materials. After the resumption, the dismantling came to an end in 1939.
State Road 261 connects with Žalhostice Usti nad Labem ( Aussig ) in the north (about 20 km) and to the east with the 4 km Litoměřice ( Leitmeritz ). The Žalhostice station is on the North Bohemian Transversal Lovosice ( Lobositz ) - Litoměřice - Česká Lipa ( Böhm Leipa. ). The route is operated by regular rail bus traffic. Located on the right Elbe railway line Děčín ( Tetschen ) - Kolín (formerly Austrian Northwest Railway ), Žalhostice is connected to the Velké Žernoseky stop . The route is used for freight and passenger traffic.
In the community there are some houses with traditional wooden structures (half-timbered, balcony, gable). On the village square are the oldest houses, which were built from well-fortified, massive stone blocks as part of the rebuilding after the Thirty Years War . You can enjoy a long view from the local mountain, the Radobil (Czech. Radobýl ). Czalositz is the starting point for excursions into the charming landscape of the Bohemian Central Mountains and is also the local recreation area of Litoměřice.
At the time of the census of subjects in 1654 ( tax role ) the population presented itself as a mixed population. At that time there were 12 landlords living in the village. In the recording of the Theresian cadastre (TK) in 1714, the majority of Germans emerged stronger. 13 landlords lived in the community. The statistics of the Josefinic cadastre (JK) 1785 shows 31 house numbers. In 1843 the stable cadastre counts 36 houses.
Since the language border was not far away, there were always influx of Czech-speaking people who adapted to the German colloquial language. Czech immigration increased faster than German immigration at the end of the 19th century with the settlement of industrial companies. The Czech population level leveled off at around 25-30% of the population.
In 1938 several Czech families escaped the political climate of the Nazi dictatorship. After the capitulation of the 3rd Reich, the German population was expelled in 1945/1946 ( Beneš decrees ).
Comments on the area:
- 1) 387 yoke 1130 fathoms
- 2) No information
- 3) 224 ha
- 4) 233 ha
- Státní archive v Litoměřicích: Průvodce po archivních fondech . Archivní Správa Ministerstva Vnitra Praha, 1956.