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Coat of arms of Přebuz
Přebuz (Czech Republic)
Paris plan pointer b jms.svg
Basic data
State : Czech RepublicCzech Republic Czech Republic
Region : Karlovarský kraj
District : Sokolov
Area : 2978.8893 ha
Geographic location : 50 ° 22 '  N , 12 ° 37'  E Coordinates: 50 ° 21 '57 "  N , 12 ° 37' 13"  E
Height: 886  m nm
Residents : 73 (Jan. 1, 2019)
Postal code : 357 06
License plate : K
Status: city
Districts: 1
Mayor : Martin Bruoth (as of 2018)
Address: Přebuz 7
358 01 Kraslice
Municipality number: 560596
Website : www.prebuz.cz
Location of Přebuz in the Sokolov district

Přebuz ( German  Frühbuß ) is a town in the Sokolov district (Falkenau district) in the Czech region of Karlovy Vary . Přebuz is the smallest city in the Czech Republic in terms of population.


Geographical location

The locality is located in West Bohemia at a height of 886  m nm in Westerzgebirge on a high surface on Erzgebirgskamm. It is six kilometers north to this. The Hirschenstander Pass leads over the ridge at 943  m above sea level. NHN to Saxony .

The place is affected by the here still small stream Rolava ( Rohlau ) in the northern district of the same name. It rises near the protected high moor Großer Kranichsee . The Rotava ( Rothau ) seeks its course from the small pond on the southern outskirts .

Přebuz is surrounded by several mountains:

  • Čertova Hora ( Hartelsberg ) 981 m
  • Jelení Vrch ( Oehsen Mountain ) 960 m
  • Rolavsky Vrch ( Postel-Berg ) 950 m
  • Smrčina ( Frühbußer Kronesberg ) 946 m
  • Milíře ( hut fire ) 941 m
  • Vlči Hora ( Wolfsberg ) 929 m
  • Kameniště ( Steinberg ) 928 m
  • Skalisko ( Steinl ) 913 m
Panorama of the village
Parish Church of St. Bartholomew
Signpost in the district of Rolava ( Sauersack )

City structure

No districts are shown for Přebuz. Basic settlement units are Chaloupky ( Neuhaus ), Přebuz ( early penance ) and Rolava ( Sauersack ). The municipality is divided into the cadastral districts Chaloupky u Přebuze, Přebuz and Rolava.

While there were 79 houses in Chaloupky in 1930, there were only three in 1955, which were also demolished a little later. Since then, the area has been deserted , as have the Mlýnské Chalupy ( mill houses ) and Břidlová ( slate huts) on the Přebuzer corridors . At the moment only the district of Přebuz, which is laid out as a continuous longitudinal settlement, is permanently inhabited. The local town hall is located here next to the church.

Neighboring communities

Dump hammer Eibenstock
Stříbrná (Silberbach) Neighboring communities Nové Hamry (Neuhammer near Karlsbad)
Šindelová (Schindl Forest) Vysoká Pec (blast furnace near Neudek)

Direct neighbors include the small town of Jelení (deer stall), which is a few kilometers northeast of Nové Hamry (Neuhammer near Karlsbad), and the village of Vysoká Pec (blast furnace) in the southeast, which belongs to the Nejdek (Neudek) administrative community . Both places can be reached via narrow paved roads.

The Saxon Carlsfeld on the opposite northern side of the Erzgebirge ridge can be reached by following Frühbusser Strasse over the Frühbusser Pass via Weitersglashütte . This crossing is closed to public vehicle traffic.


14./15. century

Ore prospecting and settlement

The landscape of Frühbuß and the surrounding villages were made accessible by ore prospectors from the Harz Mountains, Thuringia, Saxony, Franconia and Bavaria. In addition to tin, wolframite , cobalt, arsenic, bismuth and later uranium were also found. According to local history, Přebuz was founded as a housing estate. The original German name Frühbuß is derived from the mining term of Zubuße . The reason for the permanent settlement of the area was in particular the rich finds of tin ore, which was initially mined in soaps near the day . At that time the settlement belonged to the Falkenau rule of the Lords of Plick.

Donation from the Elbogen district

In 1434 the Roman-German Emperor Sigismund von Luxemburg gave his Chancellor and later Imperial Count Kaspar Schlick the entire Elbogen District , which included the Schönlind estate and the area around early penance.

16th to 18th century

Mining under the silt first flourished

Under the rule of the Schlicks, tin mining, which was now predominantly underground, reached its preliminary peak between 1530 and 1560. The village of Frühbuß was first mentioned in a document in 1542. According to the court book of 1543, the village experienced a boom during these years thanks to tin mining. In 1553, Viktorin Schlick I gave early penance to town and miner liberties from the Bohemian crown , d. H. the rights of a mountain town . And in 1556 the Schlicker Bergherren founded a mining authority under the supervision of Joachimsthal.

Due to the depletion of the near-day tin ore deposits, the area around Early Penance fell into a crisis towards the end of the 16th century. With the division of the estate in 1582, Frühbuss went as part of the Schönlind estate to Viktorin Schlick II, the eldest son of Abundus Schlick, who in turn was the son of Viktorin Schlick I. After the death of his father Abundus Schlick in 1589, his wife Agnes bought Schönlinder Share and brought in the knight Niklas von Globen as governor of Schönlind and Heinrichsgrün to support the property management .

He married Susanna Schlick, a daughter of Viktorin Schlick II, and in 1602 took over the landlord Schönlind and the mountain town of Frühbuss. On October 1, 1606, Niklas von Globen appointed Master Adam Zephelius from Falkenau to the preaching office of Frühbus and Schönlind.

The Bohemian-Saxon border dispute over the Mutstall (Mothstall)

Disputes files show that after Niklas von Globen acquired the Schönlind estate with the bailiff von Schwarzenberg, which belonged to the Electorate of Saxony , disputes arose over the common border north of Frühbuss, which lasted for several years. It was about the border at the Großer Kranichsee between the Hirschberg and Frühbußer Straße. In this inhospitable area there were disputes between Pichern (pitch scrapers) from Eibenstock, who scratched the spruce trees in the swampy area of ​​the Mutstall area around the Großer Kranichsee in order to gain bad luck, and the Bohemian charcoal burners of the numerous hammers of the Rothautal valley, who set up their kilns there.

Although neither side was actually dependent on this forest area, the dispute even called the respective sovereigns on the scene, on the one hand the electors of Saxony and on the other hand the Bohemian kings and at the same time emperors of the Holy Roman Empire Rudolf II and Matthias . A small quarrel between two trades turned into a political issue, which was now primarily about the reputation and honor of the sovereigns. It was not until the Thirty Years' War that the dispute temporarily ended.

Second boom of mining among the Nostitzers

In the course of the Counter-Reformation, on July 31, 1627, an imperial Reformation patent was issued that required the nobility to either become Catholic or leave the country within six months. Niklas von Globen decided to emigrate and on November 28, 1628 sold his Gut Schönlind together with early penance to Freiherr Otto von Nostitz, who had already become his neighbor through the acquisition of Heinrichsgrün in 1627.

The turmoil of the Thirty Years' War, several famines and plague epidemics caused the population to shrink. In addition, the Counter Reformation promoted by the Nostitzers after 1652 drove numerous miners and resident glassmakers across the border to Kursachsen . As a result of exiles from the Bohemian early penance, the Saxon Friebus was created 20 kilometers further west, northeast of Markneukirchen .

Nevertheless, early penance under Johann Hartwig von Nostitz flourished again, not least thanks to the great demand for tinplate in the second half of the 17th century. All the pewter mined in Frübuß had to be melted in the stately smelter and sold to the stately pewter house in Rothau. There and in Schindlwald it was processed into tinplate.

As a result, early penance was granted new mining privileges in 1638, 1670, 1683 and 1698 . As in the past, most of the mines were located southwest of the city on Hartelsberg. All tunnels have now become hereditary tunnels . For example, the hereditary tunnel of St. Elisabeth was driven to a depth of over 46 m. In 1672, early penance also received a new coat of arms and in 1677 its own jurisdiction.

Up to 1760 there were up to 20  stamping mills for ore processing here.

19th century until today

Hard times without mining

Due to the exhaustion of the easily accessible tin deposits and the ever-deeper depths that became necessary , the costs for drainage and the wooden tunnel construction rose steadily towards the end of the 18th century. As a result of inadequate maintenance of the tunnel, the pits began to deteriorate at the beginning of the 19th century. In 1815 they were finally abandoned. The impoverished population now undertook numerous mining operations for tin, silver, manganese and iron ores, but without any great success.

After the drastic increase in the price of firewood around 1812, peat was also cut to a large extent . This was used as fuel on site until the middle of the 20th century. In 1828 the citizens of Frühbuss founded a peat mining company and a community brickwork. A lace school was added later . As everywhere after the decline of mining in the Ore Mountains, people tried to earn a living by farming and working at home, in particular by embroidering tulle or by making mother- of- pearl buttons and gloves.

The town hall was also destroyed in a major fire in 1869, so that many documents from the early days of early penance were lost. At that time, the parish chancellery housed a ceiling painting with the parish coat of arms from the year it was founded in 1347.

Housing stock 1961

Third prime of mining

Before the First World War , the municipality became part of the Neudek district . The first investigations into the area began in 1905. During the prospecting work in 1909, new tin veins were discovered north of the Hartelsberg. Then the depth of the Karlschacht (later Ritterschacht ) began. The Essen-Berlin bank Laupenmühlen, which also owned large shares in mines for potash salt and hard coal, as well as the Deutsche Tiefbohr-Actiengesellschaft , acted as investor . With the beginning of the First World War, the work progressed only slowly. With the fall in tin prices after the war, all work was stopped in 1919. In 1928 a new operator of the mine was found. The kept Karlschacht was opened again. The work was stopped a short time later due to lack of money. In June 1930, workover work began again. The new owner also took over the mining rights of Count Nostitz-Rhieneck on the Hartelsberg. A new shaft, the Otto shaft, was sunk here. The shaft was named after the mining authority inspector Otto Spinzing from Clausthal-Zellerfeld . He played a leading role in the search for financially strong investors. In 1933 the tin union Dreikönigszeche was founded. With the takeover of the Sudetenland on October 1, 1938 by the German Reich and the formation of the Reichsgau Sudetenland on April 15, 1939, the raw material deposits in the Sudeten area were also tapped as part of Germany's self-sufficiency drive.

On January 1, 1940, the Zinnwalder Bergbau union of the Sachsenz Bergwerksgesellschaft mbH took over the Otto shaft and Ritterschacht mine fields from the Dreikönigszeche tin union and integrated them into their operating system as the early penance department . The purchase price stipulated in a sales contract was 380,000 Reichsmarks . The entire daytime facilities have been rebuilt, modernized and expanded. In addition to the wet mechanical processing , a flotation was also built for processing . Since the 60 m deep Otto shaft no longer met the new conditions, the knight shaft was sunk to the 120 m level and a blind shaft was driven through for days. This became the new main shaft of the mine. Arsenic and tin concentrates were produced. While the tin concentrate was delivered to the Zinnhütte in Freiberg , the arsenic concentrate went to Goslar to the Borchers AG brothers .

After the end of World War II

According to the Munich Agreement , in which the integration of the Sudetenland into the German Reich was agreed under international law, from 1938 to 1945, Frühbuss belonged to the district of Neudek , administrative district of Eger , in the Reichsgau Sudetenland .

After the end of the Second World War , early penance remained temporarily unoccupied. The mine operated without disturbance until May 6th. After that, operations had to be shut down as the employees no longer came to work.

Most of the German-Bohemian population was subsequently made Frühbuß sold . On May 24, 1945, the operation was fully operational by the state mining company Rudné doly Příbram ( ore mines Pribram ). In addition to tin, research work has now been carried out on uranium deposits. As a result, further shafts were sunk and the area declared a restricted area. After the final cessation of mining in 1958, Přebuz sank into insignificance due to its border location.

Since June 22, 2007 Přebuz has again city rights. With less than 100 inhabitants, it is considered the smallest city in the Czech Republic.

Population development

Population development until 1945
year Residents Remarks
1830 1,207 in 177 houses
1847 1.313 in 179 houses
1869 1,322
1880 1,300
1890 1,344
1900 1,478 German residents
1910 1,587
1921 1,464
1930 1,396
1939 1,319
Population since the end of the Second World War
year 1950 1961 1 1970 1 1980 1 1991 1 2001 1 2011 1
Residents 134 202 115 100 56 73 69
1 Přebuz with Chaloupky and Rolava

Culture and sights

Parish Church of St. Bartholomew

The late baroque parish church of St. Bartholomäus was built in 1783/84. Inside there is an oil painting above the main altar with Jesus crucified and a massive Gothic baptismal font. The richly decorated church bell dates from 1565 and was cast from pewter extracted on site. Opposite is the small Přebuz cemetery. Its graves testify, among other things, to the German-Bohemian past of the once great mountain town.

Mining landscape

Even today, clear traces of earlier mining can be found in the city and the surrounding area. The early testimonies from the 16th and 17th centuries include primarily the Erzwäschen , such as:

  • the big laundry on the right bank of the Rolava near the desert Chaloupky ( Neuhaus )
  • the soap on the right bank of the Jelení potok ( Hirschbach )

More soap washes can be found on the road to Stříbrná ( Silberbach ) and Chaloupky and at the Elisabeth Erbstollen. There is also a row of pings on the Hartelsberg . These deep breaks in the terrain also have their origin in the underlying tin mining.

A so-called hereditary trench from the same period is also noteworthy. This artificial moat is more than five kilometers long. He carried process water from the Lučiny area via the Rolava area around the Smrčina mountain to the pewter washes and stamp mills in Přebuz. A second artificial ditch drained water from the Rolava near Chaloupky and over eleven kilometers to the Erzwäschen near Rudné ( Trinksaifen ) between Přebuz and Nejdek.

In addition to the early modern relics, we also find ruins from the third heyday of mining in the 19th century. Of particular note here is the mighty ruin of the systems above ground on the main shaft from the 1940s.

Due to its unique history with numerous testimonies from medieval (14th / 15th century), early modern (16th to 18th century) and modern mining activity (20th century), the mining landscape of Přebuz is a selected site for the proposed candidacy for UNESCO World Heritage Ore Mountains Mining Region .

Přebuz Nature Park

The nature reserves belong to the Přebuz Nature Park, founded in 1992

  • Malé jeřábí jezero (German Little Crane Lake )
  • Velké jeřábí jezero ( Great Crane Lake )
  • Malý močál ( Little Moor )
  • Velký močál ( Great Bog )
  • Přebuzské vřesoviště ( Early Penitentiary Heath )

After most of the peat has been exploited, you will find numerous heather areas here and in particular the westernmost occurrences of the dwarf birch ( Betula nana ) in the Czech Republic. The nature reserves can be reached via marked hiking trails and some can also be reached with an off-road bike or, in winter, on skis.

The areas around the Großer and Kleiner Kranichsee are located directly on the Ore Mountains ridge on both the Czech and German sides at an altitude of 930 to 950 m. The two most important protected high moors in the entire Ore Mountains are also located here; they are not allowed to be entered.

Plateau on Frühbusser Straße behind Rolava ( Rohlau )


sons and daughters of the town

People related to early penance

  • Niklas von Globen († 1639), Bohemian nobleman, captain, occasionally owner of early penance
  • Adam Zephelius (1586–1642), Lutheran theologian and master's degree, from 1607 to 1610 pastor in early penance
  • Georg Abraham Löbel (1604–1685), mountain master von Frühbuß, councilor and court advisor in Johanngeorgenstadt
  • Theophil Richter (1636–1699), schoolmaster, customs collector, court clerk, mountain clerk and mountain master
  • Daniel Joseph Mayer von Mayern (1656–1733), pastor and missionary in early penance, later Archbishop of Prague
  • Wenzel Krisch († 1803), mountain and court clerk, city judge, treasurer, school teacher, sacristan and cantor
  • Johann Baptist Rölz (1815–1884), occult miracle doctor, mine owner, musician and organist


  • Ulrich Möckel : Early Penance. From the eventful history of the former mountain town on the Ore Mountains ridge. Self-published, Schönheide 2006, DNB 1016248571

Web links

Commons : Přebuz  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. http://www.uir.cz/obec/560596/Prebuz
  2. Český statistický úřad - The population of the Czech municipalities as of January 1, 2019 (PDF; 7.4 MiB)
  3. http://www.uir.cz/zsj-obec/560596/Obec-Prebuz
  4. http://www.uir.cz/katastralni-uzemi-obec/560596/Obec-Prebuz
  5. UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Ore Mountains Mining Region: Přebuz ore deposit ( memento from June 29, 2011 in the Internet Archive ). Website of the Most Museum.
  6. Christine Obermeier: The life of the knight Niklas von Globen . Christine Obermeier's website on family history research in Bohemia.
  7. ^ The Friebus settlement on the website of the city of Markneukirchen ( Memento from December 10, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
  8. Tin stone mining in Přebuz . Website of the Karlovy Vary tourism portal.
  9. Yearbooks of the Bohemian Museum of Natural and Regional Studies, History, Art and Literature . Volume 2, Prague 1831, p. 200, item 7).
  10. Johann Gottfried Sommer : The Kingdom of Bohemia . Volume 15: Elbogner Kreis , Prague 1847, p. 75, paragraph 16.
  11. ^ Meyer's Large Conversational Lexicon . 6th edition, Volume 7, Leipzig and Vienna 1907, p. 183 .
  12. ^ A b Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. Neudek district (Czech. Nejdek). (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
  13. Historický lexikon obcí České republiky - 1869-2015. Český statistický úřad, December 18, 2015, accessed on February 14, 2016 (Czech).
  14. ^ Region Nové Hamry: Přebuz . Website of the Nové Hamry information center.