The speed boats of the Jaguar class (naval designation: Class 140/141 ) were the first warships of the German Federal Navy to be newly developed after the Second World War . They were named after the first boat that was put into service, the Jaguar (S 1). Their main area of application was the Baltic Sea .
With this type, the experience of speedboat construction from the war was further developed. The boats were constructed very lightly from an inner light metal frame with wooden planking . The drive by four diesel engines gave them speeds of over 40 knots (about 80 km / h). The torpedo speedboats were characterized by good seaworthiness and long range and could therefore not only have been used for coastal defense, but also offensively in the open sea. However, the boats with their crew of 39 could only stay at sea for a few days without interruption, since practically no sleep breaks were possible during deployment trips under combat conditions. In addition, their armament with four unguided torpedoes was obsolete soon after their commissioning.
Of the class 140, 20 boats were built, which were in service from 1957 to 1975 in the 3rd and 5th Schnellboot Squadrons . The class 141 was identical except for the engine. The ten boats built in this class formed the 2nd Schnellbootgeschwader from 1958 to 1976. They were initially regarded as the second group of the Jaguar class, but later also referred to as the Seeadler class, also named after the first boat of this series. After the decommissioning, the German Navy mainly gave the boats of class 140 to Turkey and replaced them with boats of the Tiger class (148). The boats of class 141 were handed over to Greece and replaced by those of the Albatros class (143). The last boats were taken out of service there in 2005. Eleven largely identical boats were built for export to Indonesia and Saudi Arabia.
The Lürssen shipyard in Bremen-Vegesack designed the Jaguar class for the German Navy based on experience from the Second World War and built 22 units themselves. Another eight boats were built under license from the Kröger shipyard in Schacht-Audorf near Rendsburg.
After the Second World War, the Lürssen shipyard initially built speedboats for the Federal Border Guard according to the last construction plans of the war (later referred to as herring gull class (149)). After the founding of the Bundeswehr, they served in the Schnellbootlehrgeschwader (later 1st Schnellbootgeschwader) of the Federal Navy to train the crews and test engines and equipment for the later Jaguar boats. From the mid-1950s, Lürssen built the Plejad class for the Swedish Navy, a significantly larger type of speedboat with armament comparable to the Jaguar class, but with a motorization still corresponding to the war boats.
The Jaguar- class boats finally developed by Lürssen as Type 55 represented a further development of the speedboats of the Second World War. Their displacement was almost twice as large as that of the war boats and they were accordingly heavily armed, both offensively and defensively. Although they did not receive the adjustable rudder rudders that produced the " Lürssen effect " and which had contributed to the excellent performance of the war boats, they achieved even better values with a fourth engine.
When it was introduced, the Jaguar class was initially only officially listed under the class number. Unofficially, however, they were soon referred to as the “predator class”, before the usual procedure for ships also prevailed for boats to designate the class after the first unit put into service. Jaguar , after which the class was later named, is listed as the Navy's first ever post-war new build.
With the Jaguar class boats , the German Navy procured a robust type of ship for its reconstruction , which provided good service for some time, but was already out of date in terms of weapons when it was commissioned. Attacking combat ships with short-range torpedoes running straight ahead was already an outdated tactic at that time. From 1960 onwards, speedboats with anti -ship missiles were introduced into the Soviet Navy, beginning with the Komar class , an armament that was far superior to the torpedo for fighting larger targets. In this respect, the relatively early decommissioning of the Jaguar class boats, which are still in good condition, and their replacement by missile speedboats were logical consequences.
In addition to the German Navy, eleven boats were built for export, roughly equivalent to Class 140. Eight were delivered to Indonesia , half of which received steel hulls, and three more boats went to Saudi Arabia . In the early 1960s , boats based on the Jaguar class were also developed for the Israeli Navy . Due to political problems, the French shipyard Constructions Mécaniques de Normandie finally carried out the construction in 1967/68 . From this design, the La Combattante classes , which were very successful in exports, were further developed in France , which were finally acquired by the German Navy as the Tiger class. The twelve boats built in France for Israel were almost 2.5 m longer, had modified deck structures and were put into service as the Sa'ar class . At the beginning of the 1970s, the conversion to the Sa'ar- 2 class and later the Sa'ar- 3 class was carried out by arming it with Gabriel anti-ship missiles . As such, they were the first missile speedboats in the western world.
Use in the German Navy
See also the main article Schnellbootflotille .
When the squadrons were set up, the core of experienced personnel consisted of veterans who had returned to the service of the Navy, as well as personnel from the “ Schnellbootgruppe Klose ” and the integrated maritime border protection . The crews were trained by the equipment manufacturers during construction. Some of the machine personnel was sent to training courses at Daimler-Benz and Maybach, and the crews gave construction supervision (or construction instruction ) at the shipyards . After delivery, these crews also carried out the acceptance and running-in of the machines within the ship test command (SEK).
The boats were given a serial number preceded by "S" and the name of animal species that have been performed on signs at the bridge construction, they also performed a NATO -Kennnummer the fuselage with the letter "P" for "Patrol" ( patrol vehicle ) and a four-digit Number (see also the overview of the boats). Until 1973, the speedboats were painted in a very light gray, unlike other naval units.
The Schnellbootgeschwader were (apart from minesweeping squadrons ) the first fully deployed combat units in the Navy, which is why they were immediately subordinated to NATO in order to be integrated into the international command structures and to practice the interaction of the staffs. The pressure to build units quickly was so great that the first boats of the 3rd S-Squadron were put into service without cannons or radar. The Jaguar-class speedboats have visited many ports in neighboring NATO countries over the years. Often these were the first visits by the German armed forces to other European countries after the war. The 5th Schnellbootgeschwader was deployed to NATO readiness and as such undertook long journeys for NATO maneuvers , for example to northern Norway, the Biscay and the Mediterranean.
The squadrons in the Baltic Sea always parked at least one boat for so-called "tactical close-up reconnaissance", which was at sea in the Baltic Sea exit and observed any movements of the ships in the Warsaw Pact and, for example, Soviet submarines - which could not dive here - when passing through " shaded ”. Another boat was ready to serve as a replacement in the event of technical problems. Especially in the first years there have been repeated officially mostly unreported incidents involving units of the Warsaw Pact, as provocatively close and quick passing through to driving, "accidental" bombardments, escape assistance from DDR inland ports and the like.
The close cooperation and the dense coexistence of all ranks and careers promoted a special relationship within the crews and with the Schnellboot weapon system. Many officers of the German Navy also received their first command experience on speedboats, as the boats with a relatively low rank made it possible to have their own command. The Jaguar boats established a special reputation for speedboats in the German Navy.
Soon the Bundeswehr was thinking about improvements to the boats. Individual boats were practically constantly in use to test new systems. The squadrons were subject to strict secrecy. For example, Pelikan was parked to test new radar and anti-radar systems and at times was equipped with an oversized fire control radar , such as is used on destroyers. Thus the hit results of the flak were excellent, but the boat looked top-heavy . Geier temporarily received a completely different deck structure and a telescopic mast for the radar to test NBC protection systems . Together with Pelikan , the boat was given a plastic coating to reduce radar reflections, but this turned out to be unsustainable. Kormoran carried out trials of new torpedoes, including the wire-guided " DM 2 A1 " that was later introduced for the subsequent classes . For this purpose, two rear- facing torpedo tubes were installed. Dommel had to carry out extensive engine tests, including a 1000-hour "endurance test".
The numbering of the squadrons of the Federal Navy says nothing about the time of the formation; rather, squadrons with an even number are traditionally stationed in the North Sea and those with an odd number in the Baltic Sea. So the 3rd Schnellbootgeschwader was set up before the 2nd. In 1970, however, all speedboats were concentrated in the Baltic Sea, so that the assignment of numbers and locations was no longer applicable to the Schnellbootgeschwadern. In the following, only the period of the individual Schnellboot squadrons in which Jaguar- class boats were in service is outlined .
3rd Speedboat Squadron
The 3rd Schnellbootgeschwader was set up on October 1, 1957 in Flensburg - Mürwik (see Naval Base Command Flensburg-Mürwik ) under Corvette Captain Haag. The first boat to be put into service 16 days later was Jaguar (S 1). The other nine boats followed by July 7, 1959. All boats were given names of land predators. As early as October 1958, the boats that had existed until then took part in the first maneuver. There were visits abroad mainly in Sweden (Visby), France, England, Norway, Denmark. To prepare for the conversion of the squadron to Tiger- class boats (148), the four best-preserved boats ( wolf , polecat , tiger , lion ) were handed over to the 5th squadron in 1971 , and the four boats ( heron , harrier , penguin ) came from there , Crane ), which should first be retired with those of the 3rd Schnellbootgeschwader. The crews were changed so that they remained in their respective squadrons. From the end of 1972 to the beginning of 1974, the Jaguar class boats of the 3rd Schnellbootgeschwader were taken out of service.
2nd Speedboat Squadron
The 2nd Schnellbootgeschwader was set up on June 1, 1958 under frigate captain Meyering in Wilhelmshaven . The first boat Seeadler (S 6) arrived in Wilhelmshaven on September 3, 1958. By November 1959, the remaining boats ran to. All boats were given names of bird species. On November 1, 1970, the company was transferred to the 5th Schnellbootgeschwader in the Baltic Sea to Olpenitz . From April 1975 to December 1976, the Seeadler class boats were decommissioned. It was replaced by boats of the Albatros class (143).
5th Speedboat Squadron
The 5th Schnellbootgeschwader was set up on October 1st, 1959 in Neustadt in Holstein under Corvette Captain Klaus-Jürgen Thäter . Weihe (S 15) was the first boat to be put into service four weeks later . In February 1961, Dommel (S 21) was the last boat to join the squadron. All boats in the squadron were given names of bird species. At the end of 1961 the squadron was subordinated to NATO. This was followed by annual participation in maneuvers and various trips abroad to Belgium, Denmark, France, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Norway, Ireland and Spain (sometimes several times). On February 1, 1968, the squadron was relocated to Olpenitz. In 1971 there was an exchange of boats with the 3rd Squadron (see 3rd Schnellbootgeschwader). From the middle of 1974 to the end of 1975 the Jaguar boats were decommissioned and replaced by boats of the Tiger class (148).
- When driving at high speed in dense formation, there were repeated collisions. In most cases, the damage to the bow and stern of the boats involved was rather minor. So collided
- 1959 Panther with wolf , the former being so badly damaged amidships that three sections filled up and threatened to sink
- 1961 Albatross with vulture , in the same year also condor with a target ship
- 1965 Geier again, this time with a civilian cargo ship in the Kiel Canal
- 1966 also wolf again, this time with lynx
- 1969 penguin with alcohol
- 1970 Consecration with heron
- 1974 Elster with Dommel , so that the latter was taken out of service prematurely.
- In 1964 the engine room burned down on Kormoran .
- On April 25, 1967, Kondor, accompanied by sea eagles and sparrowhawks of the 2nd speedboat squadron, transferred the coffin of the late Chancellor Konrad Adenauer from the state ceremony in Cologne Cathedral for burial in Königswinter / Rhöndorf .
Over the years sponsorships have been concluded between different speedboats and locations throughout the Federal Republic of Germany. The initiative mostly came from individuals who had a personal relationship with the speedboats or, conversely, with the localities. As a rule, there were visits by crew members in the sponsored cities and return visits by delegations on the boats. Visits to the boats themselves in the sponsored cities were not possible because they were inland locations. The sponsorships were tied to the (unofficial) names and not to the official boat numbers and were transferred to the successor boats of classes 148 and 143 with the same name. They only ended after some more than 40 years of existence with the decommissioning of the last bearers of the name. During the service of the Jaguar class in the German Navy, the following sponsorships arose:
- in the 2nd speedboat squadron
- in the 3rd Schnellbootgeschwader
- in the 5th Schnellbootgeschwader
Overview and whereabouts of the boats
After the boats were taken out of service from 1972 to 1976, several of the boats remained in the naval arsenal for some time. Then most of them were handed over to NATO partners, where some of them were in service longer than with the German Navy. Some boats were also sold to private companies and converted for civil use. Many of the boats had been in use for over 30 years, some of them even over 40 years ( Seeadler 46 years) - a very long service life in view of the light construction and the performance-optimized engines.
Decommissioned German speedboats were used repeatedly for drug smuggling with South America, allegedly those of the sable class (142). Since none of these boats were sold to civilian buyers, it cannot be ruled out that they were actually converted Jaguar boats.
After decommissioning from 1972 to 1975, ten boats were given to Turkey as part of NATO military aid. Seven of the boats were put into service there as Firtina class in the First Assault Boat Flotilla. Three boats were only used to carry spare parts. Turkey put the last two boats out of service in 1993. VEBEG sold eight boats directly to private companies. Most of them were converted by the Eberhard shipyard in Arnis for civil use as motor yachts. The ultimate fate of some boats is unknown. Another boat was delivered to France as a target ship and finally sunk there. The crane was part of the exhibition at the German Maritime Museum in Bremerhaven until 2006 , when the completely neglected boat was sold by VEBEG to a Danish scrapping company.
|Surname||_ Commissioning _||Decommissioning||Whereabouts|
|P6059||S1||jaguar||November 16, 1957||June 22, 1973||Conversion to a yacht (Lina III) by Eberhard-Werft, Arnis.|
|P6058||S2||Polecat||December 19, 1957||January 31, 1975||Target ship , then to the Turkish Navy as a spare part carrier|
|P6062||S3||wolf||February 12, 1958||March 21, 1975||Turkish Navy P335 Yildiz (Yıldız) until June 17, 1993|
|P6061||S4||lynx||March 27, 1958||1st December 1972||initially to the Kusch company, Hamburg; then conversion to a yacht by Eberhard-Werft, Arnis (broken off there according to other sources)|
|P6060||S5||leopard||May 20, 1958||May 28, 1973||initially to the Hirdes company, Kiel; then (after 1987) conversion to a yacht (Heli I) at Eberhard-Werft, Arnis.|
|P6065||S 12||lion||5th February 1959||April 25, 1975||Turkish Navy P332 Kalkan , until July 20, 1981|
|P6066||S 13||Fox||March 17, 1959||July 13, 1973||Eberhard shipyard, Arnis for demolition|
|P6067||S 14||marten||July 7, 1959||June 2nd 1972||Kusch company, Hamburg; then conversion to a yacht by Eberhard-Werft, Arnis. Native to the Mediterranean, also used as a refugee ship between Lebanon and Cyprus|
|P6082||S 15||Consecration||October 28, 1959||5th July 1972||still partly cannibalized in Germany. Then handed over to the French Navy as a target ship. Was in Toulon until 1986, then sunk|
|P6083||P. 16||crane||December 19, 1959||2nd November 1973||Museum ship in the German Maritime Museum in Bremerhaven until 2006 , then broken up|
|P6085||S 17||stork||March 12, 1960||March 29, 1974||Turkish Navy P331 Tufan , until February 24, 1988|
|P6087||S 18||jay||April 5, 1960||15th December 1974||Turkish Navy P333 Mizrak (Mızrak), until June 17, 1993|
|P6088||S 19||magpie||July 8, 1960||July 19, 1974||Eberhard shipyard, Arnis|
|P6089||S 20||heron||August 15, 1960||August 21, 1973||Turkish Navy as a spare part carrier|
|P6091||S 21||Dommel||4th February 1961||March 22, 1974||Converted to a yacht by Eberhard-Werft, Arnis; today probably at home in the Persian Gulf|
|P6090||P. 22||penguin||March 28, 1961||December 14, 1972||briefly as BWB 6090 with civilian crew at test site 71, then Turkish Navy P336 Kilic (Kılıç), until December 31, 1988. After that, presumably converted to the yacht "Sea Star".|
|P6063||S 23||tiger||October 15, 1958||20th December 1974||Turkish Navy P334 Karayel , until July 20, 1981|
|P6064||P. 24||Panther||December 12, 1958||March 1, 1973||Eberhard shipyard, Arnis|
|P6084||P 29||Alc||January 14, 1960||August 6, 1974||Turkish Navy as a spare part carrier|
|P6086||P. 30||pelican||March 30, 1960||May 31, 1974||Turkish Navy P330 Firtina (Fırtına), until 1985|
Periods of temporary decommissioning e.g. B. for repairs after accidents are not considered in this and the following table.
The boats were decommissioned in 1975 and 1976 and handed over to Greece . Seven boats were put back into service there. Three units were only used to replace material. The last two boats were decommissioned in 2005. The other boats were gradually cannibalized as spare parts suppliers for the still active boats and the hulls were sold to scrapping companies.
An attempt by a private initiative to buy back the type boat for museum purposes after it was decommissioned failed due to the severe deterioration of the hull and the insufficient funds for a return transport in 2006.
|Surname||_ Commissioning _||Decommissioning||Whereabouts|
|P6068||S6||White-tailed eagle||August 29, 1958||July 30, 1976||Greek Navy , P50 (until 1980: P196) Esperos (ΕΣΠΕΡΟΣ) from 1977 to 2004|
|P6069||S7||Albatross||January 27, 1959||19th December 1975||Greek Navy as a spare part carrier|
|P6070||S8||condor||February 24, 1959||July 25, 1976||Greek Navy, P54 (P228) Lailaps (ΛΑΙΛΑΨ) from 1977 to 2004|
|P6071||S9||Gripping||March 3, 1959||1st December 1976||Greek Navy, P53 (P199) Cyclone (ΚΥΚΛΩΝ) from 1976 to 2005|
|P6072||S 10||Falcon||April 14, 1959||September 26, 1975||Greek Navy, P51 (?) (P197) Kataigis (ΚΑΤΑΙΓΙΣ) from 1976 to 1981, burned down in 1979|
|P6073||S 11||vulture||June 3, 1959||June 27, 1975||Greek Navy, P56 (P230) Tyfon (ΤΥΦΩΝ) from 1976 to 2005|
|P6074||P. 25||buzzard||March 21, 1959||November 28, 1975||Greek Navy, as a spare parts carrier|
|P6075||P 26||hawk||June 21, 1959||September 24, 1976||Greek Navy, P52 (P198) Kentavros (ΚΕΝΤΑΥΡΟΣ) from 1977 to 1995|
|P6076||P 27||Sparrowhawk||July 1, 1959||February 27, 1976||Greek Navy, as a spare parts carrier|
|P6077||P 28||cormorant||November 9, 1959||November 26, 1976||Greek Navy, P55 (P229) Scorpios (ΣΚΟΡΠΙΟΣ) from 1977 to 1995|
The task of the German Schnellbootgeschwader was to monitor and defend the coastal apron in the North and Baltic Seas as far as the Norwegian coast. In the event of war, they should have performed three main tasks in cooperation with other naval units.
- Prevent the Warsaw Pact naval forces from moving units between the Baltic Fleet (Baltic Sea) and the Northern Fleet (Atlantic) (area of responsibility comnavbaltap ).
- Securing sea access to the German ports via the North Sea, especially for reinforcements and supplies from the USA (area of responsibility comgernorsea ).
- Defend the coasts of Germany, Denmark and Norway against hostile landing operations.
According to the NATO concept of maritime forward defense , the boats should have attacked enemy forces on the approach in the further coastal apron. The threat situation, especially from the Soviet Baltic fleet and NATO planning for the use of the German navy, changed over time, so that the three goals mentioned above were given different weight at different times and were to be achieved in different ways, but basically they remained however exist.
Initially, the aim of the Baltic Sea was to achieve maritime control in the western Baltic Sea. This should succeed at least up to the level of Rügen , at least temporarily even up to Bornholm , in order to cover own amphibious operations and largely prevent enemy shipping here, but also beyond that the enemy’s shipping should be disrupted and forces tied up there. Since the enemy air superiority was expected in this area, it was seen as not possible to advance with larger units such as destroyers. This task should have been taken over entirely by submarines and speedboats. Support from NATO partners was hardly expected in this area. That is why the boats received anti-aircraft armament that was strong for their size. Since the possibility was seen that this goal could not be achieved and one would have been pushed back in the Baltic Sea, the mine-laying capacity of the boats was intended in this case, in cooperation with other mine-laying forces, to protect their own coasts and access routes intensively by means of mine barriers to be able to.
As early as the 1960s, however, the Warsaw Pact's Baltic fleets were so clearly predominant that the goal of maritime domination seemed increasingly unrealistic and only blocking access to the Baltic Sea and covering one's own coastline seemed achievable. The speedboats of the Jaguar class were now assigned as an essential task to combat the eastern missile speedboats, which were recognized as a major threat to the western naval forces. The laying of mine barriers, especially in the Gedser Narrow (→ Kadetrinne ), remained an important additional task. At times, NATO no longer considered essential maritime attack operations of the Warsaw Pact in the area of the Baltic Sea to be at all probable and thus classified the area of operation of the speedboats as an insignificant sideline. From the mid-1960s until the replacement by missile speedboats, ensuring the specified tasks by the Jaguar- class speedboats and the ten boats of the sable- class was increasingly viewed critically.
In the area of the North Sea, the need was seen to be able to protect the northern North Sea as an important access route largely independently, as the Norwegian Navy was considered too weak for this. For this purpose, ocean-going units such as destroyers and frigates were intended, but speedboats should be able to support them. Given their technical inferiority, the speedboats in the Baltic Sea were increased in number and merged there. From 1970 onwards there were no more speedboats stationed in the North Sea.
For a torpedo attack, the boats should approach their targets in close formation at top speed so as not to display any identifiable individual signatures on the opposing radar. The formation would only have been opened shortly before the target in order to eject the unguided torpedoes from the shortest possible distance (<5500 m). The radio and radar had to be kept silent.
For attacks on defended targets such as larger, heavily armed warships, the approach of several boats up to squadron strength (7-10 boats) was provided, which would have shot torpedo compartments at the target from different directions . It was up to the division and squad leaders to maneuver their boat groups synchronously into the firing position. Shot courses and torpedo settings were calculated in the direct attack with the help of the torpedo target column on the bridge. From 1964 this was supplemented by the so-called “torpedotactic disk rule”, with which each boat determined the most favorable distribution for its position in the attack formation in the possible evasive areas. The attack plans were laid out in such a way that the target could not escape from the area of the torpedo runways even by evasive maneuvers. This meant that some boats had to deliberately aim wrong. With less heavily armed targets, such as dropships , a squadron could have attacked multiple targets in close proximity at once. Depending on the target, the torpedoes were set to a certain running depth and, if necessary, course changes. The fan-shaped arrangement of the pipes caused the torpedoes to be distributed and would have increased the probability of hits - even if the attacked ships had to evade.
Since the boats had no armor worth mentioning , they had to counter enemy defensive fire by surprise, changing courses and high speed in order to make it difficult for the enemy to aim his guns. The darkness offered the best conditions for attack, if optical target acquisition by the enemy would not have been possible. The experience of the Second World War showed that daylight attacks on protected units would have resulted in high personal losses. In view of the developing radar technology and in particular radar-controlled fire control, the darkness offered hardly any protection.
The Jaguar- class boats were grouped into three squadrons of ten boats each. Each squadron also included one or two support ships (tenders) and the squadron staff . The squadron commanders were disciplinary superiors at the level of a battalion commander , their intended rank was frigate captain .
Since almost always individual boats were parked for testing or had been in shipyards, a squadron effectively had eight or nine boats in action and was divided into two divisions, which in turn could be divided into groups of two boats each. The squadron and the first division were led by the commander, the second division by the deputy squadron commander and individual squads by the senior commander in the squad . In close association, the commanders could hardly leave the bridge to get a picture of the situation in the plot room. The task of assessing the situation and planning operations for the squadron was taken over by the commander. He was supported by radio, radar and signaling staff from the respective guide boat.
Initially, the boats only had a navigation radar, a tactile radio and a two-way radio to guide them . The so-called plot room served as the situation center. In the course of time, this equipment was supplemented by further UHF radio devices and a semi-automatic Nedinsko plotting table for course calculation and position display .
Communication within a boat took place via an electrical intercom system (level crossing network), which was initially incomplete and then extended to all stations.
The tenders of the Rhine class (class 401) that were added to the squadrons from 1962 played an important role in the use of the boats. During maneuvers outside the bases, the supply and accommodation of the crews was a significant problem until then. The tenders were not only a supply platform, but were also intended to fill gaps in the armament of the boats to protect the formation at the supply point. To this end, they had two 100-mm gun turrets , 40-mm anti-aircraft guns and a sonar system for submarine - tracking . Initially, it was planned to pull the squadron tenders into the combat zones as a command platform, but this was quickly discarded and combat exercises were conducted from a boat (guide boat). Nevertheless, the tenders, with their more powerful radio systems, represented an important link between the naval command in the fleet command and the squadron at sea.
The tactical use as well as the technology of the boats placed high demands on the training level of the crew, almost half of which consisted of officers and NCOs. Until the early 1960s, the crew ranks were also exclusively temporary soldiers and beyond that, the proportion of longer-serving crew ranks on speedboats remained high.
A lieutenant captain was intended as a commander, but in fact officer ranks from lieutenant at sea to corvette captain were commanders of the boats. Mostly it was a lieutenant at sea. The commanders had the disciplinary power of a company commander .
The STAN manning has changed only slightly over time. The crew originally consisted of (here using the example of the commissioning crew of S 21 Dommel from 1961):
- 3 officers : Commander, 1st officer on watch (I WO), 2nd officer on watch (II WO, often ensigns for training)
- 2 boat men : Engineering ( " Lead ") Deckboat Mann ( " schmadding ")
- 12 mates : 4 × engines (T1–4), 2 × deck, electrics, bridge, radar, artillery, torpedoes, radio operator
- 21 crews : 4 × engines, 4 × deck, 3 × artillery, 2 × torpedo, 2 × electric, 2 × bridge, radar, radio operator, signal, cook
Later a ship's technical officer (STO) was added, and the previous “chief” in the bosun's rank became “section leader engines” ; instead the II WO was dropped. However, there was a constant lack of appropriately trained officers that could not be remedied, even after the introduction of the career of " officers of the military technical service ". Therefore, often nothing more could be achieved than assigning each squadron division an STO with the rank of lieutenant. The other posts were occupied by high-ranking boatmen. Overall, the lack of qualified personnel in other areas on speedboats, which occurred from the end of the 1960s, could only be compensated for with difficulty, since it was hardly possible to represent missing personnel within a boat.
The accommodation of the crew on board the Jaguar boats was tight but comfortable, with wooden paneling, among other things. The crews were not supposed to sleep on board in the home port, but until the move to the new base in Olpenitz in 1970, the accommodation situation on land was often insufficient. On the frequent maneuvers, visits abroad and as a guard boat (see below), the crew had a total of 39 berths available. The tenders added to the S-boat squadrons from 1962 onwards improved the operation and supply of boats and crews in action, during maneuvers or stays abroad, where it was then also possible to take a shower.
In the forecastle there was the plot room with six fixed berths and four berths for hanging (no hammocks ) for NCOs, as well as a toilet room (approx. 2 m²) and two small chambers with two berths each for the officers and sergeants. The commanders' chamber was equipped with its own washbasin and desk and a double bunk (floor). The second bed there was for the squadron commander when he was on one of the boats. In the starboard bridge chamber there was still a bunk and small lockers as an infirmary ("Geschwader-Reiseschlunz") and a possible place to sleep for the squadron doctor or paramedic who boarded a boat. In the bow there was accommodation for crews ("decks gasten ") with twelve bunks ("hero cellar"), accessible from the deck via a spherical bulkhead . The accommodations in the stern were also only accessible from the deck via a spherical bulkhead. There was next to a room with six berths for the crews of the machine (" heater "), the galley with an electric stove (in submarine size) and a refrigerator, which was large for the time, a non-commissioned officer 's bedroom ("four man's chamber") with two bunk beds and one another small toilet room.
The speedboats were designed as so-called “one-guard boats”, which is why, unlike on larger ships, there were no changing shifts (“ guards ”). Almost the entire crew was required for deployment trips under combat conditions and there was no longer any possibility of relieving the post. Rest breaks were carried out internally as needed and possible in the area of responsibility. With uninterrupted use of up to 72 hours, the psychological and physical stress was often at the limit of what was reasonable. The commander mostly stayed on the bridge from casting off to docking.
Outside of formation or maneuvering trips under combat conditions or during overpasses or canal trips, not all stations (like the guns) were manned and a mate, for example, could operate the machines alone. Rest breaks and thus longer stays at sea were possible for the crew members who became free. The front crew compartment was blocked as a possible collision area during operation (this area was particularly at risk in the event of a collision) and the crew members essentially had to share the ten rear berths.
Daytime operations at the berth on board included all meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner), plus Seaman's Sunday on Thursdays . In addition to the normal meals, the so-called “ middle guard ” was added at midnight when the sea was operating . This meant that the cook ( Smut ) was fully occupied. During the journey he was provided with an assistant from the crew. In return, the smut belonged to the torpedo station during combat exercises, and he was also the on-board medic. Uncovering and covering was carried out by the daily changing bakers . Peeling potatoes (“ turning potatoes ”) was an “all-man maneuver” in which the commanding officer even took part from time to time (when in a good mood). We ate in the rear crew quarters and in the plot room.
Outside of the mission trips, the boats were secured in the port in accordance with the applicable watch regulations . The watch on board the individual boats consisted of " NCOs on duty " (UvD), "Sailors on duty" (MvD) and "Stokers on duty" (HvD) (later "Schiffssicherungsgast vom Dienst" (SvD) )). She was responsible for the regular flow of the on-board routine such as wake-up calls, flag parade , shore leave regulations and supervision, rest in the ship, condition of the crew and operating rooms . The "UvD" had to make a round through the boat at night and report the condition of the boat to the " security officer " (OvWa).
If up to three boats were lying together, an armed guard was also provided by one of the boats as a "small guard" outside. It set the standard "NATO zero". The outside guard consisted of a “mate of the guard” on watch, a “Posten Pier”, a “Posten Seeseite” and the “OvWa”. The officer on watch was responsible, among other things, for running the watch routine.
A so-called "Great Guard" had to be provided for four or more boats. Then a boat had to be assigned to watch with the entire crew on board. In the alarm state, the guard boat was ready to sail quickly.
The basic technical data are shown in the info box at the beginning of the article. The specified displacement increased to 210 t or 221 t when loaded. The draft increased accordingly to 2.34 m in the class 140 and due to the higher basic weight in the class 141 up to 2.39 m. If, for example, reserve torpedoes or mines were carried, this could still be exceeded. This also reduced the top speed. The achievable speed could of course also be limited by the sea. The specified range of the boats was also dependent on the load, but even more so on the selected speed. The range fell to around 500 nm at 39 kn, but increased to around 1000 nm at only 32 kn. The specified performance data of the motors represent the maximum values that were not achieved in continuous operation. The maximum permanent speed was set at 39 kn with a power output of 10,000 hp from the engines.
Like almost all German speedboats, the speedboats of the Jaguar class were classic round-frame boats with a transom stern driven by diesel engines . They were in a composite structure with wooden planking as double diagonal carvel-built on light metal frames executed. A 0.7 cm thick Camballa diagonal layer was glued between two layers of mahogany, each 2.5 cm thick (according to other information, the mahogany layers were 3 and 2 cm thick). As a result, the boats were light, torsion-resistant and largely insensitive to magnetic mines . The boats were divided into ten watertight transverse bulkheads to increase safety against sinking . The eleven departments thus formed were numbered from back to front. The few superstructures were made of light metal, only the bridge and the gun posts were lightly armored with 1 cm sheet steel.
As so-called displacement boats, they did not rise out of the water at high speed, in contrast to so-called gliding boats, which glide along the surface of the water. Although this limited their top speed, it made the boats relatively insensitive to heavy seas, so that they could also be fully deployed up to a strength of 6 sea .
The hull was designed so favorably and the propulsion system was designed in such a way that the classic formulas for calculating the hull speed of displacers were overridden and allowed speeds up to the cavitation limit of the propeller, i.e. 40 to 45 knots in these boats depending on the load . It also improves the overall driving characteristics. A storage wedge and the spoiler lip at the stern as well as the flow flow were coordinated in such a way that the immersion of the stern and the height of the stern wave as well as the "suction effect" known from other hull shapes were effectively reduced. In addition, the hull proportions in the underwater hull were designed in such a way that, together with the arrangement of the waves and the aforementioned flattening of the stern wave, the wake of the bow wave and the advance of the stern wave did not influence each other.
The wooden construction turned out to be very robust, but was expensive to maintain. When there was ice, the use of the boats was limited because even relatively thin ice could damage the wooden hull.
The boats of the 140 and 141 series differed only in the motorization, whereby the motors used initially had the same output of 3000 hp each. The four high-speed, turbocharged four-stroke diesel engines were started with compressed air. The motors appeared in the Class 140 each have a flanged step-down gear and a clutch , and in the Class 141 each have a clutch and a gearbox on the waves. The shafts rotated in opposite directions and were each aligned 2 ° from the center line (the middle inward, the outer outward). The three-bladed fixed propellers had a diameter of 1.15 m on most boats. Three boats had propellers 1.12 m in diameter. The exhaust gases were discharged from the side of the fuselage. At a high speed, the outlets were below the surface of the water and thus significantly reduced the driving noise outside the boats. The engines showed considerable exhaust and soot development in the starting phase, so that during the test in the harbor seawater was sprayed between the boats by means of attached hoses in order to prevent soot deposits and to protect the hulls of the boats lying next to them from the heat of the exhaust gases. The men involved sometimes wore gas masks in order not to have to breathe the oil-laden air unprotected.
In the so-called maintenance level 5, the engines were replaced and sent to the manufacturer for overhaul. For this purpose, the deck above the engine rooms was designed to be removable. In the course of such maintenance, there was also an exchange for more powerful engines on the boats of class 141 (see class 141 ).
Class 140 ("Mercedes boats")
The class 140 boats were equipped with four 20- cylinder V-engines of the type Mercedes-Benz MB 518 B, each with an output of 3000 hp. The engine blocks were made of the seawater-resistant light metal alloy Silumin and had other special design features to save weight. The cylinders were made of special steel with a cylinder base and antechamber made of solid material. The inlet and outlet channels and the sheet steel cooling jacket were welded on and supported on an intermediate floor in the crankcase . If repairs were necessary (e.g. piston seizure ), the entire block described could be pulled up and the piston exposed up to the underside of the piston skirt. The dry weight per engine was 4800 kg. This made the engines considerably lighter, but caused some problems in the first few years. At first, their lube oil consumption was too high. The measures to remedy this then led to increased mechanical problems. This could largely be remedied by various measures, but the engines remained more maintenance-intensive and more prone to failure than those of class 141.
The motors had mechanical supercharging fans and flange- mounted reduction gears (1: 1.72). For the reverse drive, the motors were stopped and reversed so that they then ran in the opposite direction of rotation. However, this was only possible when the boat was at a standstill or moving slowly.
Class 141 ("Maybach boats")
The first eight boats of class 141 were equipped with four 16-cylinder V-engines MD 871/30 made of gray cast iron from Maybach (later MTU ). Each engine had two exhaust gas turbochargers and also delivered an output of 3000 hp. The dry weight per engine was 6,690 kg, due to this and the heavier ancillary units required for these engines, the class 141 had a total weight about 12 t higher and thus initially achieved a top speed about 3 kn lower. The last two boats were equipped with MD-872 engines with 3600 hp each (a total of 14,400 hp), which slightly exceeded the top speed of the "Mercedes boats". At the end of the 1960s, all boats were converted to the more powerful engines. This more than compensated for the speed disadvantage, but at the cost of higher fuel consumption and therefore a lower range. The Maybach motors were not reversed for reversing, but had a reversing gear. Here, too, this process was only possible at a low speed.
- Two three-cylinder diesel generators with 96 HP (70 kW) each were on board to generate electricity. These each generated 65 kVA three-phase current at the voltage of 440 V at 60 Hz defined as a NATO standard . 220 V, 115 V and 24 V were also generated for certain consumers via transformers . The latter also for charging various accumulators, e.g. for starting auxiliary machines, for lighting, position lights, etc.
- Two electrically driven three-stage compressors were used to generate compressed air . The boats needed compressed air to start the engines, fill the torpedoes and eject the torpedoes from the tubes.
- It was controlled by an electric rudder system on two spade rudders.
- A dinghy with a firm bottom and outboard motor was carried as a dinghy.
- In addition to personal life jackets, three inflatable life rafts were available as life- saving equipment.
The main armament of the boats consisted of four torpedo tubes (ToRo M 1) of British production ( Saunders-Roe ) with a caliber of 533 mm. These were arranged 10 ° (front) and 15 ° (rear) to the direction of travel and ejected the torpedoes forward using compressed air. The shooting courses were determined with the help of a torpedo column ( Hagenuk MK 8) on the bridge and, from 1962, additionally with the " torpedotactic disk rule".
A torpedo was normally carried in each tube, and three reserve torpedoes could also be stored on the loading benches behind the tubes. Only one additional torpedo could be carried aft because the reserve torpedo rested on the rotating frame with the cable winch for unloading the pipes.
Remnants of the German G7a torpedo with a range of 6 km at 44 kn and the British Mark VIII with a range of 4.5 km at 45.5 kn were used. The torpedoes were unguided, which means that after they were ejected they could no longer be influenced by the boat and they also did not locate their target automatically. However, they had built in depth steering and a steering mechanism that preset simple course changes. In most cases, this compensated for the inclined position of the torpedo tubes, so that, for example, the front port torpedo changed course by 10 ° to starboard after submerging, and then walked straight ahead in the direction of travel of the boat. Sharp shots were practiced in Norwegian fjords.
The two Bofors rapid fire cannons 40 mm / L70 were set up in open positions (single marine gun (MEL 58)) on the foredeck and between the stern torpedo tubes. They were primarily intended to serve air defense , but were also suitable for anti- naval targeting. The boats had 3168 rounds of self-destructing flak ammunition (DM 31) in two ammunition bunkers on board. The front ammunition room, which was also the armory for other weapons, was located in Division VIII below the bridge structure , while Division II contained the ammunition for the aft gun.
When they were delivered, the guns could only be aimed locally. Later, an optronic artillery control station ( OGR 7 from the Italian manufacturer "Officine Galileo") was retrofitted behind the control station, with which the guns could be aimed synchronously. The results of the radar location could also be transferred to this target device. The 1st Officer on Watch (I WO) was employed as an artillery officer. With the help of electric directional motors, the weapons were automatically aimed and centrally fired according to the specifications of the artillery command post. The gun crew only had to reload. However, each gun could still be operated completely under local control. The guns were practically unusable at night because the boats had no fire control radar .
The guns had a relatively strong caliber for vehicles of this size , which would have given the boats a superiority in combat with other light forces. Comparable speedboats of the Warsaw Pact in the Baltic Sea mostly only had 15 mm to 37 mm guns.
Mine-laying was a secondary task of the boats. They should be used where mine-layers and minesweepers, whose main task would have been the mining of endangered coastal areas, could not have been used due to the risk situation. The rear torpedo tubes could be removed with little effort and exchanged for two rails on which, depending on the type of mine, up to 36 ground mines or up to 34 anchor mines could be carried. When fully loaded with anchor bolts, however, the rear gun could no longer be used. As fast forces with good self-defense, formations of jaguar boats would have been able to close gaps in mine barriers even under threat from the enemy.
On the side of the rear torpedo tubes there were two holders for depth charges (one holder can be seen in the picture above above the spherical bulkhead on the beltline). However, as these had to be dropped without any underwater location (e.g. sonar ) and the mostly shallow waters of the area of operation often caused damage to the boats, the speedboats were only suitable for the use of depth charges to a limited extent. These were usually not carried.
Initially there were only several pistols of the P1 (P38) model and a K98 carbine for guard duty on board . The latter was also used to destroy floating mines. By the mid-1960s, the K98 was replaced by the G3 rifle . Furthermore, the submachine gun MP2 and a machine gun MG3 (initially still in the version as MG42 ) as well as hand grenades came on board. These weapons and the associated ammunition were kept in the front "Mun chamber" (Section VIII).
The following handguns were on board until the decommissioning:
The weapons should except for guard duty for the so-called "Enter roles", that is, the boarding or the defense of beaching, are issued to the crew.
Communication and sensors
The equipment with electronics was very limited. In addition to optical means, the boats initially only received a tactile radio and a radio for external communication. Two more radios and a radio direction finder for navigation purposes were added later.
An electrical on-board intercom system (BÜ network) was installed on board. For this purpose, sockets were available at every combat station, through which those responsible for this station, equipped with headphones with a microphone or special helmets, could integrate themselves into the system and thus receive instructions or submit reports.
The initial equipment of sensors was limited to a DECCA navigation radar device. The radar was limited in its resolution and its range due to the low height of the boat mast. Attempts to improve this with telescopic masts, for example, did not lead to satisfactory results. The installation of a fire control radar was also not pursued after tests.
Gradually, a navigation echo sounder, a torpedo target column, an optical alignment column for the artillery, an improved radar system from Kelvin-Huges and a radar warning receiver were retrofitted with which opposing radar devices could be located.
- Hans Frank (Hrsg.): The German speedboats in action - 1956 until today . Hamburg / Berlin / Bonn 2007, ISBN 978-3-8132-0880-1 .
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- holdings of the S-Squadron in the Federal Archives ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (found December 7, 2008)
- Hendrik Killi: The speed boats of the Federal Navy. Mittler & Sohn, Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn 1997, ISBN 978-3-8132-0528-2 , p. 115 f.
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- Hendrik Killi: The speed boats of the Federal Navy. Mittler & Sohn, Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn 1997, ISBN 978-3-8132-0528-2 , p. 43
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- Zvonimir Freivogel: The speed boats of the Jaguar class. Düsseldorf 2008, p. 35.
- Hans Frank (ed.): The German speed boats in action - 1956 until today. Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn 2007, ISBN 978-3-8132-0880-1 , pp. 35, 47.
- Hendrik Killi: The speed boats of the Federal Navy. Mittler & Sohn, Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn 1997, ISBN 978-3-8132-0528-2 , pp. 125 ff.
- Hans Frank (Ed.): The German speed boats in action - 1956 until today. Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn 2007, ISBN 978-3-8132-0880-1 , p. 96.
- Hans Frank (Ed.): The German speed boats in action - 1956 until today. Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn 2007, ISBN 978-3-8132-0880-1 , pp. 103, 107 f.
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- addition and for the following: Central Service Regulations (ZDv) 10/6 " Guard duty in the Bundeswehr "
- Zvonimir Freivogel: The speedboats of the Jaguar class. Düsseldorf 2008, pp. 24 f., 30 f., 47.
- Zvonimir Freivogel: The speedboats of the Jaguar class. Düsseldorf 2008, p. 23 f.
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- Theodor Viehweg: Jaguar type speed boat. Verlag Franz Mrva, 4th ext. Edition, Bendesdorf o.J.
- Hans Frank (Ed.): The German speed boats in action - 1956 until today. Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn 2007, ISBN 978-3-8132-0880-1 , p. 35 f.
- Mercedes-Benz building instructions for speedboat diesel engine MB 518 B Edition A, Stuttgart-Untertürkheim 1958.
- Zvonimir Freivogel: The speed boats of the Jaguar class. Düsseldorf 2008, p. 30 f.
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- Hans Frank (Ed.): The German speed boats in action - 1956 until today. Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn 2007, ISBN 978-3-8132-0880-1 , p. 34 f.
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- Zvonimir Freivogel: The speedboats of the Jaguar class. Düsseldorf 2008, p. 33.
- Zvonimir Freivogel: The speedboats of the Jaguar class. Düsseldorf 2008, pp. 33, 35.
- Hans Frank (Ed.): The German speed boats in action - 1956 until today. Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn 2007, ISBN 978-3-8132-0880-1 , p. 154.
- Weyer's Flottentaschenbuch 1959, Munich 1959
- Hans Frank (Ed.): The German speed boats in action - 1956 until today. Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn 2007, ISBN 978-3-8132-0880-1 , p. 44.