National Jurij Fedkowytsch University of Chernivtsi
|National Jurij Fedkowytsch University of Chernivtsi|
|founding||4th October 1875|
|place||Chernivtsi , Ukraine|
The Chernivtsi Yuri Fedkovich National University ( Ukrainian: Чернівецький національний університет імені Юрія Федьковича ) is a university in Western Ukraine . It was founded in 1875 as the Franz Joseph University (Francisco-Josephina) in the easternmost crown land of Austria .
Today, 16,817 students, who are taught by 1,316 teachers, study at the university (as of 2020).
The Bukovina was 1774/75 the Habsburg monarchy came. The Austrian government gradually raised the school system. Sufficient schools with German as the language of instruction were created for the German colonists who, along with the Austrian civil servants, formed the leading stratum in the country. The German state high schools in Czernowitz and Suczawa and the Greek-Oriental high school in Czernowitz (also with German as the language of instruction) had been set up as higher education institutions by 1875 . Galicia had German-speaking high schools in Lemberg and Brody ; However, their graduates had to go to universities in the western part of the Danube Monarchy when Polish was introduced as the main language at Lviv University . They were lost to the country for years or forever. So gradually the idea of turning the flourishing Czernowitz into a university town took hold.
Franz Joseph University
The establishment of the university in Chernivtsi was mainly due to the Bukovinian Reichsrat Deputy Constantin Tomaszczuk . He had campaigned for them since 1872. In 1874 the House of Representatives (Austria) passed a resolution to the Imperial and Royal Government at its instigation : "The government is invited to submit proposals for the establishment of a new university in the next session". A large number of cities made claims to the founding of a university, and Tomaszczuk was likely to have done important preparatory work with a brilliant speech for a university in the Bukovina, the city of Chernivtsi. Education Minister Karl von Stremayr did not want to commit immediately. In order to give the matter more force and emphasis, the Bucovin State Committee, dispatched by Tomaszczuk, sent a "Petition from the Administrative Committee of the Society for the Promotion and Dissemination of Scientific Education in Bucovina to Create a German University in Chernivtsi" to the Ministry of Education, which was also distributed in Vienna. In November 1874, the Minister of Education, Emperor Franz Joseph I, submitted the “most submissive lecture on the establishment of a university in Chernivtsi”, which was followed by the Most High Resolution of December 7, 1874. It was already communicated to the House of Representatives at the meeting on December 9th and the proposals to be prepared for the implementation of the same were announced. The introduction itself took place on January 27 and February 3, 1875, whereupon the draft laws were raised to a resolution by the House of Representatives on March 13 and by the House of Lords on March 20, 1875.
With regard to the opening date, the Minister of Education made the following suggestion: “In my most submissive opinion, October 4th would be best suited for this as the day of your Majesty's Most High Named Festival. For the new university will have the good fortune, on Your Majesty, not only to venerate the most gracious sovereign, but also its gracious founder, whose name it will bear for all future. […] This special relationship between the new university and its supreme emperor and lord finds a meaningful expression when the day on which the new Franz Joseph University comes into being is the day on which the peoples of Austria celebrate the name of the beloved ruler ”. Thus, October 4, 1875, after 100 years of belonging to Austria, was set as the opening date.
Foundation and importance
Constantin Tomaszczuk was appointed the first rector of the new university in 1875. The fact that the Austrian government had opted for Czernowitz was also due to long-term political and strategic considerations: in 1872 the Lviv University was completely Polonized, so that East Cisleithania no longer had a German-speaking university. The multilingual Austrian crown land thus got a predominantly German-speaking university. Germans , Transylvanian Saxons , Jews , Poles , Ukrainians , Ruthenians , Moldovans and Romanians studied at three faculties:
- the Greek-Oriental ( Greek-Orthodox ) theological faculty with chairs for Old Testament exegesis , New Testament exegesis, dogmatics , moral theology , church history , canon law , practical theology and oriental languages ;
- the legal and political science faculty with institutes of Roman Law , German Law , Canon Law, Austrian civil law , criminal law , civil procedure law , economics , statistics and Heads of State and Administrative Law ;
- the Philosophical Faculty with the subjects Philosophy , History , Classical Philology , German Studies , Romance Studies and Slavic Studies , Mathematics , Geography , Mineralogy , Botany , Zoology , Experimental Physics and Theoretical Physics .
For medicine you had to go to Lviv or to the Jagiellonian University in Krakow . The Faculty of Greek Orthodox Theology was the only one in the whole of Central Europe; Its importance for the formation of a modern Orthodox priesthood was extraordinary not only in Austria-Hungary , but also in Romania and on the Balkan Peninsula for the entire 19th and 20th centuries. Some of their subjects were taught in Romanian and Ruthenian . This also applied to the courses offered by the Chair for Romanian Language and Literature and the Chair for Ruthenian Language and Literature. For the Romanian historian Nicolae Iorga , one of the fathers of Romanian legal nationalism, the FJU was “a German university for the Jews”. A diverse and lively student and corporate life soon flourished in Chernivtsi, which as a cultural and social reflection of the city deserves scientific research. To many contemporaries, however, the city and region, including the university, seemed hopelessly backward and provincial. Mommsen called the university an "kuk penal colony".
During the 44 years of “Francisco-Josephina”, 127 associate and full professors taught at the three faculties . Most of them were provided by the University of Vienna . 14 professors came from Graz, 8 from Prague and 7 from Innsbruck. Ten lecturers and professors from Germany and three from Switzerland followed the call to Austria's “Far East”. 12 private lecturers were appointed to chairs from Chernivtsi itself. 16 professors came from public professional life without having worked at a university. It was a "strange fate" (R. Wagner) that the first and last rectors of the German university - Constantin Tomaszczuk and Basil Tarnawski - were Romanians.
Romania, Soviet Union, Ukraine
After the dissolution of Austria-Hungary at the end of October 1918, Bucovina was gradually occupied by Romanian troops (see History of Bucovina ) and on November 28, 1918 in the residence of the Greek Orthodox Archbishop of Chernivtsi, Basil von Repta , the Bukovina was annexed to the Kingdom of Romania decided. This was promised to Romania by the Triple Entente as early as 1916 in order to motivate Romania to enter the war against Austria-Hungary (the interests of the Ukrainians in Bukovina were only enforced by the Red Army in 1944/45). After persistent disputes, Greater Romania replaced German with Romanian as the language of instruction . Almost all German-speaking professors then emigrated to German-Austria . The university itself was renamed Universitatea Regele Carol I din Cernăuți . In the years 1920–1922, today's university building was built by the Romanian state.
As temporarily to Russia at the beginning of the First World War , Chernivtsi and the university came to the Soviet Union at the end of June 1940 . Back in Romania from 1941 to 1944, the University of Chernivtsi was then renamed Chernivetskyj derschawnyj uniwersytet . In 1989 it was given its current name after the Bukovinian writer Jurij Fedkowytsch (Юрій Федькович). Belonging to Western Ukraine ( Eastern Galicia ) since 1991 , the university received the rank of National University of Ukraine in 2000 .
The ensemble of buildings of the former residence of the Greek Orthodox Metropolitan has been used by the university as the central campus and administrative headquarters since 1955 . The buildings designed by Josef Hlávka have been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2011 .
Relocation debate in the First World War
The Bukovina bordering on Russia and suffered in the First World War under heavy fighting. In the period from September 2, 1914 to December 1917, Chernivtsi was captured six times by Russian troops and won back by the Austro-Hungarian army . The university rectorate was transferred to Vienna under Caesar Pomeranz ; many professors left the city and taught as guests at other universities in Austria-Hungary . The discussion arose as to whether the Franz Joseph University should be relocated to the “more German” west of the empire.
Like the Salzburg university club promoted Kurt Kaser and Hans von Frisch for Salzburg . They pointed to the low level of education in Bukovina; the university produces poorly trained high school teachers and civil servants . In addition, Germanness is on the defensive. In the winter semester of 1913/14, 458 of the 1198 students said they spoke German . Most of them were Jews who felt much less likely to belong to the German ethnic group than in other parts of the monarchy. Eugen Ehrlich was in favor of the move for completely different reasons : The university is preventing young people from turning to economic or technical professions and moving the country forward.
Most professors were against the transfer. Joseph Schumpeter , who returned to Graz in 1911 , Heinrich Singer , who had long since moved to Prague , and - even decades later - the Bukovinian Erich Prokopowitsch all spoke out in favor of the university in Chernivtsi. The German national Raimund Friedrich Kaindl , who was born in Czernowitz, saw a reason to remain in the harassment of the Germans: “The knowledge we imparted is now being used against us as a weapon. The student already thinks he can do without the teacher. Hotspurs want to displace the Germans. ”But it is“ natural that if we fail, other peoples try to take our place in order to break our influence, rush against us ”. And bringing better civil servants and professors into the country is not a solution, because they are not up to the multilingualism of Bukovina. Only a university operating in the country can do that.
The dispute over the relocation remained within the academic framework. He did not reach the university administration and the Imperial and Royal Ministry of Culture and Education . In the background were Salzburg's desire for a university and the realpolitical question of whether a university was needed in the west of the Habsburg monarchy . Gustav Hanausek , who taught in Graz, said no. According to the peace treaty of Brest-Litovsk, the reopening of the Franz Joseph University was planned for the winter semester of 1918, but teaching could already be resumed in June of that year.
On November 22, 1918, at the session of the Provisional National Assembly for German-Austria, the legislative proposal to be implemented on January 1, 1919 to relocate the University of Czernowitz to Salzburg was introduced.
- Applied Mathematics
- Computer science
- Fine arts
- History, Political Science and International Law
- Modern European languages
- Architecture, civil engineering and painting
The German-speaking Center Gedankendach , which is funded by the Goethe Institute and consists of the Center for German-Language Studies and the Ukrainian-German cultural society, is also located at the Jurij Fedkowytsch University .
Franz Joseph University
- Friedrich Johann Karl Becke - Mineralogy and Petrography
- Raban Canstein - Law, Member of the Academic Senate
- Victor Conrad - geography; Climatology and seismology
- Eugen Ehrlich - Law (1899–1914)
- Anton Elter - Classical Philology
- Franz Exner - Criminal Law
- Matthias Friedwagner - Romance Philology (1900–1911) , dean 1903/04, rector 1910/11
- Hans von Frisch - Law (1912–1919) , Rector 1913/14, Dean 1918/19
- Theodor Gartner - Romance Philology (1885–1899)
- Leopold Gegenbauer - Mathematics
- Josef von Geitler - Physics
- Gustav Adolf Gerhard - Classical Philology (1913–1918)
- Alois Goldbacher - Dean of the Philosophical Faculty
- Vitus Graber - Zoology
- Theodor von Grienberger - Germanic Language History and Classical Studies (1906–1919)
- Hans Gross (criminologist)
- Hans Hahn - Mathematics and Philosophy
- Alfred von Halban (1865–1926) - Legal History
- Alois Handl - Physics
- Isidor Hilberg (1852-1919) - Psychology, Rector 1897/98
- Karl Hiller - Austrian Criminal Law; Dean and Rector
- Eugen Herzog - Romance Philology (1918–1928)
- Walther Hörmann von Hörbach - Canon Law (1897–1908) , Rector 1903/04
- Constantin Frhr. v. Hormuzaki - Entomology and Biogeography, 1931 as a new chair (1931–1937)
- Walther Judeich - Ancient History (1899–1901)
- Franz von Juraschek - Statistics and Constitutional Law (1881–1885)
- Julius Jüthner - Classical Philology and Archeology (1903–1912)
- Raimund Friedrich Kaindl - history
- Ernst Kalinka - Classical Philology (1900–1903)
- Emil Kałużniacki - Slavic Studies, Member of the Academic Senate
- Leon Kellner - English Studies and Literature
- Friedrich von Kleinwächter - law, dean
- Alexis Komoroshan - theology, member of the academic senate
- Wilhelm Kosch - German Studies, German Literature Lexicon
- Eugen Kozak - Church Slavonic
- Johannes Kromayer - historian (1902–1913)
- Adolf Lenz - Criminal Law and Criminal Procedure Law (1902–1910) , 1903/04 Dean of the Faculty of Law
- Johann Loserth - history
- Vladimir Milkowitsch - Eastern European History
- Anton Marty - Philosophy
- Ernst Mischler - founder of modern statistical science in Austria
- Basil Mitrofanowicz - founding dean of the Greek Orthodox Faculty, rector
- Ion Nistor - Southeast European History
- Isidor Onicul - theology, dean
- Josip Plemelj - Mathematics
- Constantin Popovici - Greek-Oriental Canon Law
- Eusebius Popovici - Church history
- Richard Pribram - chemistry
- Michael Radaković - Theoretical Physics (1906–1915) , Dean from 1908
- Ion G. Sbiera , the first professor of Romanian language and literature
- Ludwig Schiffner - Austrian civil law
- Friedrich Schuler von Libloy - Law, Rector
- Joseph Schumpeter - Political Economy (1909–1911)
- Carl Siegel (philosopher) - philosophy (1913–1927)
- Stepan Smal-Stozkyj - Slavic Studies
- Joseph Strobl - German literature
- Alexander Supan - geography
- Eduard Tangl - Botany
- Constantin Tomaszczuk - law, founding rector
- Friedrich Heinrich Vering - Roman Law
- Carl Vrba - Mineralogy
- Richard Wahle (1857-1935) - Philosophy
- Anton Wassmuth - Mathematical Physics
- Moriz Wlassak - Roman Law (1879–1882)
- Johann Wrobel - Greek Studies, Vice Dean
- Ferdinand von Zieglauer - Austrian History, Rector
Romanian University (from 1918)
- Gheorghe I. Brătianu (1898–1953), historian and politician
- Constantin Rădulescu-Motru (1868–1957), philosopher, President of the Romanian Academy
- Constantin Narly (1896–1956), educator
- Traian Brăileanu (1882–1947), sociologist
- Dragoș Protopopescu (1892–1948), Anglicist
Yuri Fedkovych University
- The Imperial and Royal Franz Joseph University in Chernivtsi in the first quarter of a century. Festschrift. Chernivtsi 1900 full text .
- Anton Norst : Alma mater Francisco-Josephina. Festschrift for their 25th anniversary. Chernivtsi 1900 full text .
- Kurt Kaser: The establishment of the kk Franz-Josefs-Universität in Chernivtsi in 1875 . Vienna 1917.
- Hugo Gold (ed.): The history of the Jews in Bukowina , Tel Aviv 1958.
- Hans Prelitsch: Student in Chernivtsi. The corporations at Chernivtsi University , Munich 1961.
- Rudolf Wagner (Ed.): Alma Mater Francisco Josephina. The German-speaking nationality university in Chernivtsi. Festschrift for the 100th anniversary of its opening in 1875. Meschendörfer, Munich 1975. 2nd edition 1979.
- Rudolf Wagner (ed.): From the crescent to the double-headed eagle. Selected contributions to the history of Bukovina and the Chernivtsi University "Francisco-Josephina"; Ceremony for the 120th anniversary in 1995 of the Chernivtsi "Francisco-Josephina". Verlag Der Südostdeutsche, Augsburg 1996. ISBN 3-00-000967-1 .
- Anton-Heinz Schmidt: The beech land of Chernivtsi and the German University Franzisco-Josefina . Aigen-Voglhub 1996.
- Ilona Slawinski, Joseph P. Strelka : Splendor and misery of the periphery. 120 years of the University of Chernivtsi . Austrian Institute for East and Southeast Europe, Vienna 1998.
- Hugo Weczerka : The "Francisco-Josephina" in Chernivtsi. A university on the eastern edge of the Habsburg Monarchy . In: Victoria Popovici, Wolfgang Dahmen , Johannes Kramer (eds.): Lived multiculturalism. Chernivtsi and Bukovina . Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main 2010, ISBN 978-3-631-56484-4 , pp. 67-85.
- Peter Wörster , Dorothee M. Goeze: Universities in Eastern Central Europe - between Church, State and Nation. Social-historical and political developments . Munich 2008.
- Website of the University of Chernivtsi
- Historical information about the Franz Joseph University Chernivtsi dt.
- Information about the University of Chernivtsi .
- http://en.chnu.edu.ua/university/facts-history-media/uni-facts. Retrieved June 2, 2020 .
- NN: The corps life at the University of Chernivtsi in Buchenland. Memories of a Chernivtsi Corps student (active 1920–1923) . Einst und Jetzt , Vol. 8 (1963), pp. 151-157.
- Dr. Karl Reifenkugel: The Bukowina Regional Library and the KK University Library in Chernivtsi , history and statistics, self-published by the author, Graz, 1885. < http://booksnow1.scholarsportal.info/ebooks/oca7/12/diekkuniversit00reif/diekkuniversit00reif.pdf > , accessed December 31, 2014
- Communication from Andrei Corbea-Hoișie (May 2014)
- The kk Franz-Josephs-Universität in Chernivtsi in the first quarter of a century. Festschrift, published by the Academic Senate. Chernivtsi 1900, p. 30.
- The kk Franz-Josephs-Universität in Chernivtsi in the first quarter of a century. Festschrift, published by the Academic Senate. Chernivtsi 1900, p. 89.
- The kk Franz-Josephs-Universität in Chernivtsi in the first quarter of a century. Festschrift, published by the Academic Senate. Czernowitz 1900, pp. 96-124.
- Johannes Uray (2011)
- On the general judgment: Andrei Corbea-Hoisie: Czernowitz 1892. The imagological projection of an epoch threshold, in: Wladimir Fischer u. a. (Ed.): Spaces and Borders in Austria-Hungary 1867–1918, Tübingen 2010 (= Culture - Rule - Difference, 11), pp. 35–47, especially pp. 40–42. On the Mommsen quote: Karl Emil Franzos: Memories of Mommsen. In: Neue Freie Presse No. 14095 v. November 22, 1903, p. 1.
- Rudolf Wagner : Alma Mater Francisco Josephina. The German-speaking nationality university in Chernivtsi. Festschrift for the 100th anniversary of its opening in 1875 . Munich 1979.
- Manfred Rehbinder, in: Festschrift for Hans Stoll on his 75th birthday (2001) (PDF; 305 kB)
- Residence of Bukovinian and Dalmatian Metropolitans , World Heritage Center of UNESCO. Accessed February 5, 2016.
- The relocation of the Franz Joseph University from Czernowitz to Salzburg . Deutscher Hochschulwart 12 (1916), pp. 1–8
- On the Salzburg University . Deutscher Hochschulwart 13 (1917), pp. 2-4
- Erich Prokopowitsch: The struggle for the relocation of the Franz Joseph University in Chernivtsi during the First World War . Austrian encounter 4 (1963), pp. 26–37
- The reopening of the university. In: Joint War Edition. Czernowitzer Allgemeine Zeitung / Czernowitzer Tagblatt , No. 216/1918, May 1, 1918, p. 1, center left. (Online at ANNO ). .
- Wire messages from the “Tages-Post”. (...) Reopening of the Chernivtsi University. In: Tages-Post , Sunday edition, No. 141/1918, June 22, 1918, p. 6, center right. (Online at ANNO ). .
- Application by M (agiste) r Gustav Hummer (…) § 1. In: Stenographic Protocols of the First Republic , year 0001, Provisional National Assembly, supplement 38/1918, p. 1. (online at ANNO ). .
- see en: Richard Wahle
- see en: Gheorghe I. Brătianu
- see ro: Constantin Narly
- see ro: Traian Brăileanu
- see en: Dragoș Protopopescu