Holocaust (term)

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Corpses cremated by the Auschwitz-Birkenau Concentration Camp Special Command , August 1944

The term Holocaust comes from the Greek participle ὁλόκαυστος ( holókaustos , as neuter ὁλόκαυστον - holókauston ), which means "completely burned" and has been known for about 2500 years. The associated noun ὁλοκαύτωμα ( holocaútoma ) denoted a burnt sacrifice of animals in ancient times . The Latinization holocaustum went through various Bible translations first in the French ( l'holocauste ) and English ( the holocaust ) vocabulary , from then on into other European languages.

Since the 12th century, holocaustum has also referred to fire deaths of many people as catastrophes or burns. From 1895, English-speaking authors described the massacre of the Armenians as a holocaust . This was the first time that the expression was also used for mass murders of an ethnic group that was legally defined as " genocide " (genocide) after 1945 . Since 1942, first in the UK and mass murders of Nazis on Jews Holocaust called.

Since around 1960 in the United States and since 1978 in many European countries, including the Federal Republic of Germany , “ the Holocaust ” (now also in English with a specific article and capital letter H) is the event that the National Socialists themselves called the “ final solution der Judenfrage “called: the extermination of around six million European Jews during the National Socialist era , which was founded on racial anti-Semitism as a state ideology and organized throughout the state, was systematically carried out using industrial methods and aimed at the extermination of all Jews. Jews in and outside Israel have called this event since 1948 "(the) Shoa" (catastrophe, downfall, destruction). Parts of the western public adopted this name after 1985.

The word Holocaust and its change in meaning became a topic of discussion in Holocaust research and the culture of remembrance of the Holocaust. It was discussed whether it is suitable as a term for the extermination of the Jews because of its origin and whether it should only designate this or also include other Nazi mass murders. Today it is only rarely used for the “totality of the repression and extermination policy of the National Socialists against all groups of victims”. Some historians refer to the Nazi mass murder of the Roma ( Porajmos ) as part of the Holocaust or as the "Roma Holocaust". They recognize this as being on a par with the extermination of the Jews. In contrast, the designation of other genocides or mass killings as the Holocaust is often criticized as playing down and relativizing the extermination of the Jews.

Concept history

Origin from the sacrificial cult

The word Holocaust is a loan word from the Greek adjective holókauston , which, like the associated noun holokautoma, is composed of ὅλος holos ('whole', 'complete') and καῦσις kausis ('fire', 'combustion'). It literally means 'completely burned / burned'. It is first handed down by the Greek historian Xenophon (approx. 426–355 BC) for an animal sacrifice . The term was rarely used in the various contexts of Greek religion .

The around 250 BC The Greek translation of the Bible, the Septuagint (abbreviated LXX), which began in the 4th century BC , used holokautoma and holókauston about 200 times for the words olah (עלה) and kalil (כליל) , which are often next to each other in the Tanach , the Hebrew Bible . These literally mean: 'That which goes up to heaven in smoke'. What is meant are animal sacrifices, in which all parts of the body and innards of a slaughtered and divided sacrificial animal were burned on an altar , as described in Lev 9,12ff  EU . So it says in 1 Sam 7,9  EU :

Samuel took a young lamb and brought it to the Lord as a whole offering [LXX: ὁλοκαύτωσιν ; Accusative]. He called to the Lord for Israel and the Lord heard him. "

In the Tanach olah once describes an unfulfilled human sacrifice , the near- sacrifice of Isaac ( Gen 22.2  EU ):

“God said to Abraham : Take Isaac , your only son, whom you love, and go to the land of Morija and bring him there as a burnt offering [LXX: ὁλοκάρπωσιν ; Accusative] dar on a mountain that I will tell you. "

According to the further text, God prevents the execution at the last moment and instead accepts a ram as a burnt offering (Hebrew olah ).

The Latin translation of the Bible Vulgate from the 4th century Latinized the Greek terms of the LXX holokauston , holokautoma and holokarposis to form the unknown Latin word holocaustum . This penetrated through national language translations of the Vulgate into French and English, and from there into other European languages. The Luther Bible, on the other hand, which significantly pushed the development towards standard German , translated the original Hebrew wording as “burnt offering” or “whole offering”.

Change in meaning since the Middle Ages

Burning of the Jews, Sternberg 1492

In the late 12th century, the English chronicler Richard of Devizes wrote on the accession of King Richard I in London on September 3, 1189, a Sunday :

"On the day of the coronation, around the hour when the son was sacrificed to the father, the Jews began to be sacrificed in London to their father, the devil , although the holocaust could not be brought to an end until the next day."

He transferred the biblical expression (as far as known, for the first time) to a Jewish pogrom and interpreted this as a religious burnt offering, which began at the same time with the sacrificial death of Jesus Christ made present in the Sunday Eucharist . The interpretation justifies the murder of the Jews with anti-Judaistic stereotypes, according to which all Jews are children of the devil and murderers of Christ . These stereotypes were widespread in Christianity at the time and often resulted in pogroms against the Jews, especially on Christian holidays.

Witch Burning, 1555

The Italian lawyer Andrea Alciati (1492–1550) criticized the then widespread cremation of people who were considered witches after torture trials in 1515 as nova holocausta (“new burnt victims”).

Since 1583 (first evidence) the word has sometimes been transferred to large fires with many fatalities or mass murders in the English-speaking world. The English poet John Milton used it pictorially in his tragedy Samsons Agonistes in 1671 for Samson's heroic self-sacrifice . An English bishop wrote in 1711: "Should general flame consume this world, [this would be] a holocaust for the original sin."

In the 19th century, holocaust was used more often for massacres. In 1833 a journalist wrote that in 1142 the French King Louis VII "made a Holocaust" by burning 1,300 residents in a church in Vitry-le-François .

Armenians killed, Aleppo, February 28, 1919

In 1895 and 1896 there was a series of mass murders of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire . The New York Times described it on September 10, 1895 as the Armenian Holocaust . The American Corinna Shattuck described the mass murder on December 28, 1895 in Urfa , in which around 1500 of up to 4000 people were burned alive in a church, in 1896 as "a massacre that turned into a great Holocaust". In 1898 Bernard Lazare described all previous anti-Armenian massacres as holocauste in a Paris magazine . In 1913 the Briton Ducket Ferriman described a massacre of Armenians in Adana in 1909 under the book title The Young Turks and the Truth about the Holocaust in Asia Minor during April 1909 . In 1923, Winston Churchill called all mass murders of Armenians during World War I an "administrative holocaust". With that, the term had taken on the meaning that has been called "genocide" since 1946.

According to this development, the Encyclopaedia Britannica defined holocaust in its eleventh edition of 1910/11 as:

"Strictly speaking, a victim completely destroyed by fire ... The term is often applied today to a large-scale disaster, whether by fire or not, or to a massacre or slaughter."

Furthermore, lossy natural disasters such as the San Francisco earthquake of 1906 , forest fires, volcanic eruptions or war events such as the sinking of the Lusitania (1915) were referred to as holocausts in English . In October 1919, Governor Martin H. Glynn called on the United States to help six million starving Eastern Europeans, including Jews, with the words: "In this threatening Holocaust of human life, all philosophical subtleties are forgotten." The US magazine Newsweek is supposed to Book burning in Germany in 1933 called it a "Holocaust of books", Time called it a "bibliocaust".

Even after 1945, when the Nazi extermination of the Jews had already been called the holocaust , the English term for “mass extermination of human life” remained common: for example in the expression Nuclear Holocaust or in a book title from 1959 for a theater fire in Boston that left hundreds of deaths. The genocide researcher Jon Petrie showed in 2000 that the word was used in English without religious connotations for a variety of mass killings, murders or accidents from around 1892 until the 1970s .

Concentration on the Nazi extermination of Jews

Wagon for extermination transport during the Nazi era - replica, US Holocaust Memorial Museum

The chief rabbis in the League of Nations mandate for Palestine , Isaak HaLevy Herzog and Jacob Meir , proposed by telegraph to Great Britain's chief rabbi Joseph Hertz on November 16, 1938, a worldwide Jewish day of remembrance for the German “Synagogue Holocaust” of the 1938 November pogroms . This first linked the term with the Nazi persecution of Jews. On August 26, 1939, the London Times commented on racist persecution: "The contagious fever that has devoured Germany in recent years threatens a Holocaust, a complete incineration." The London newspaper News Chronicle wrote on December 5, 1942 under the title HOLOCAUST (in capital letters): “ Hitler introduced the word to brutality and terror. […] But nothing […] is comparable to his treatment of the Jews. […] More than half of Poland's three and a half million Jews have already been put to death. ”There are rumors that Hitler was planning the extermination of the Jews. On March 23, 1943, another British newspaper reported: “The Nazis keep killing. […] If their rule could be relaxed, a few hundred, possibly a few thousand, could be enabled to flee from this Holocaust. ”Sir Herbert Samuel described the Nazi mass murders of Jews in 1943 in the British House of Lords as the Holocaust for the first time . The Jewish Palestine Post wrote on June 21, 1944: “The Jewish people today are subject to a process of decimation that has no parallels in history. Is it too much to expect that those who escaped the Holocaust should not be condemned to the same trial ...? "

Others referred to all war victims that way without distinguishing between victims and Nazi crimes. The Jewish religious philosopher Morris Raphael Cohen wrote in the preface to the book Legal Claims against Germany in 1945 : “Millions of surviving victims of the Nazi Holocaust, Jews and non-Jews, will stand before us in the years to come.” In 1947, the Palestine Post wrote about a “Holocaust of the War, with its toll of 30 million victims, six million of whom were Jews ”.

Since 1955, the Holocaust has gradually become the collective term for the Nazi extermination of Jews in the USA. From 1960 onwards, daily newspapers often wrote of "the Holocaust" in reports on the Eichmann trial in Jerusalem; prominent politicians like David Ben-Gurion and authors like Hannah Arendt also adopted this term. So he penetrated the English colloquial language. In 1968 the Library of Congress classified all works on the Nazi extermination under the heading Holocaust-Jewish, 1939-1945 . Since 1972, the Holocaust in the English-speaking area was mostly only used for the Nazi extermination of Jews without an addition and with the capital letter H. The novel The Odessa Files by Frederick Forsyth contributed to this. In 1974 the 15th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica defined Holocaust as a synonym for the Nazi extermination of Jews.

In Germany, Holokaust (um) was already listed as a foreign word for 'completely burned burnt victim' in Jacob Heinrich Kaltschmidt's dictionary in 1834, in Daniel Sanders' foreign dictionary in 1871 and following him in many editions of the Großer Brockhaus until 1969 . But it was not until the US TV miniseries Holocaust from 1978 that the word became known in many European languages ​​and popularized for the extermination of the Jews: this has also been the case since the German-language broadcast in January 1979 in the Federal Republic, where the word was voted Word of the Year 1979 in 1980 .

In 1978 the philologist and literary historian Theo Stemmler described the gradual revaluation of the four original components and references of the term "complete - fire - sacrifice - animal": Instead of the ritual, biblically positive animal sacrifices, holocaust (um) resulted in high human losses already in the Middle Ages Fire denotes, initially large fires or mass murders, later people destroyed in other ways. In this sense of an intended total annihilation, the Holocaust is "a depressingly precise name for the extermination of the Jews carried out by the Nazis".

By 1990, German lexicons and encyclopedias adopted the English term as a synonym for the Nazi extermination of Jews, thereby emphasizing their exceptional status. The term replaced older German expressions for it, including the symbolic word "Auschwitz" that has been used since the Auschwitz trials (1963 ff.).

The Office Commission for the Reform of German Spelling in 1996 rejected the spelling “Holokaust” in 1995. The historian Guido Knopp nevertheless used the older German spelling with k for his television series "Holokaust", which was broadcast in 2000 , to symbolically refer to the German perpetrators. His attempt to establish this spelling in the German-speaking area with the support of Eberhard Jäckel and Walter Jens did not succeed.


Shoa in Hebrew, lettering from a memorial in Austria

During the extermination of the Jews, Jewish contemporary witnesses used the Hebrew noun to refer to them שׁוֹאָה Shoah ("Sho'ah", "Shoah (h)"). In the Bible ( Isa. 10.3  EU ) this describes a foreign threat sent by God to the people of Israel, translated as 'calamity' or 'visitation'. Based on this, it generally refers to historical or natural events that threaten the existence of entire peoples, translated as 'great catastrophe', 'downfall' or 'destruction'.

In 1940 Shoa appeared for the first time in the title of a Jerusalem newspaper article for Nazi mass murders of Jews in Germany-occupied Poland . By 1942, the expression for it first caught on in the Jewish communities of Palestine . Uriel Tal titled a collection of Jewish eyewitness accounts on the murders: "The Sho'ah of the Jews in Poland". Saul Tschernichowski titled a lecture at the Jewish Agency in Jerusalem in 1942: "The teaching of the appalling Sho'ah that comes upon us". A rabbinical conference declared in November 1942, when the mass murder orders of the SS Einsatzgruppen became known abroad: “The Sho'ah that European Jewry is suffering is unprecedented in history.” The Jewish historian wrote in 1943, when people knew about extermination camps Ben-Zion Dinur : The Sho'ah symbolizes "the uniqueness of Jewish history among the peoples".

The Israeli Declaration of Independence of 1948 established Israel's right to exist, among other things, with the Shoah , "which annihilated millions of Jews in Europe". Since then, the term has only been used in Israel to refer to it. This corresponded to a Jewish tradition of designating particularly drastic events in Jewish history with a biblical word and linking it to it: e.g. Gesera (גזירה 'persecution') for the massacre of the First Crusade of 1096 and Wiener Gesera for the planned destruction of Jewish communities 1421 in the Duchy of Austria or Churban (חורבן 'destruction', 'catastrophe') for the destruction of the first (586 BC) and second temples in Jerusalem (70 AD). With such terms, extra-biblical persecutions of Jews were placed in a row with biblical persecution of the Jews and thus classified in overall Jewish history.

Zionists preferred the Shoah over the expression “third churban”: This was also used by Eastern European Jewish communities since 1940 for the Holocaust, today only religiously Orthodox Jews. It did not prevail because the destruction of the temple appears biblically as God's judgment that should not destroy Judaism, so that this analogy does not capture the specificity of the Holocaust.

In 1951, Israel introduced Yom HaScho'a ('Shoah Day') as a national day of remembrance for the persecution of the Jews from 1933 to 1945. The original proposed date, Nisan 14 on the Jewish calendar, corresponds to April 19, when the Warsaw Ghetto uprising began in 1943 . However, due to its proximity to Passover (15-21 Nisan), it was moved to Nisan 27. The holiday is celebrated in a variety of ways in Jewish communities around the world.

The Yad Vashem memorial and research facility, founded in Israel in 1953, translated shoah in the English editions of its regular Hebrew reports in 1955 once as European Holocaust , otherwise as Nazi Holocaust . In 1956 the expression the Holocaust appeared for the first time with a capital H for shoah , from 1957 more often alongside European catastrophe , dominating from 1959.

The 1985 documentary Shoah by Claude Lanzmann made the word popular in Western Europe . Since then it has asserted itself in many other countries as being on an equal footing with the Holocaust . Those who use Holocaust as a generic term for other Nazi mass murders or reject it as unsuitable for the murder of Jews during the Nazi era often prefer Shoah as a synonym for it today .

Israel Gutman said both terms raised concerns with the editors of the Encyclopedia of the Holocaust . The majority of them narrowly decided to use Holocaust for the title of the German edition , because Shoah "comes entirely from the point of view of the victims and, in the opinion of the editors, should not be used in the country of the perpetrators". The former website Shoa.de shared the skepticism:

“But in German it only finds the equivalent of 'catastrophe' or something similar, so it loses its specificity in the translation. In addition, it is questionable to use a term in the country of the perpetrators that has been coined by victims and reflects their perspective. "


Since the term Holocaust was concentrated on the extermination of the Jews, on the one hand it has been asked whether it is appropriate because of its origin and connotations, and on the other, whether it can and should be used exclusively for this. These debates also related to other designations of Nazi crimes and are closely linked to the changes in Holocaust research, comparative genocide research, and history politics during the Nazi era.

In 1988, the linguist and Judaist James Edward Young described how various “ metaphors ” of the Holocaust reflect the memory of it and how they “figure” the knowledge of it and the answers to it by filtering out certain aspects. The contemporary witnesses would initially have interpreted the event with the expressions available to them, later used them to interpret other aspects of it and finally to interpret other events. Each of these designations is involved in the dilemma of language, the unfamiliar in familiar words. This says as much about the event of the extermination of the Jews itself as it does about the particular understanding of those who chose these terms. Naming the event therefore inevitably limits its perception and creates conditions for dealing with it. Annegret Ehmann explained: “The terms and metaphors that we choose to describe historical events say something about our relationship to this story.” Peter Longerich emphasized: “Terms influence and direct the perception of a historical phenomenon; this is especially true when a complex and difficult to imagine event is to be described. "

Religious connotation

In 1978, Auschwitz survivor Elie Wiesel advocated the exclusive use of the word Holocaust to designate the Nazi extermination of Jews. He promoted the acceptance of this designation in the USA. He described Isaac , the biblical ancestor of the Israelites , in 1980 as the “first survivor of the Holocaust” who taught Israel to survive. He understood the biblical "bond" (Hebrew 'Akedah ) of Isaac ( Gen 22  EU ) as a symbol for Judaism, which was destined for destruction without his involvement, selected as a defenseless object and yet ultimately survived.

The Judaicist Zev Garber and the linguist Bruce Zuckerman (USA) explained: Holocaust survivors, whose ancestors often managed their persecution with the help of this Bible text, would have understood their suffering as a necessary consequence of their election to the people of God, whose legal will fight the peoples, i.e. not as Follow a disobedience that God punishes. The unconditional promise of the future of a generation succession of the elect helped them to come to terms with the absolute absurdity and total surrender due to their mere Jewishness in the Holocaust. Even if God appears to be the perpetrator of the Holocaust, it is impossible for them to think that God was far from his people in this suffering; only if he suffered and died with him in Auschwitz could they continue to see themselves as Jews, accept the Holocaust as part of their unique history and keep it in memory for non-Jews as well. Nonetheless, they suggested not using the term any further, as it inevitably arouses false associations and religiously mythizes the real event .

German authors such as Bruno Bettelheim and Eberhard Jäckel also rejected the description of the extermination of the Jews as a Holocaust because of these religious references. Julius H. Schoeps justified this: The voluntary recognition of the biblical total sacrifice and self-surrender as God's will, which Gen 22 implies, is a completely inadequate framework of interpretation for the monstrous and senselessness of the extermination of the Jews. For the Protestant theologian Rudolf Pfisterer , every attempt at a conceptual definition of this mass murder contains “the germ of a justification for this diabolical event”.

For the philosopher Giorgio Agamben , the expression Holocaust contains an “unacceptable comparison of crematoria and altars” and a “history of meaning that was anti-Jewish from the start”. He will therefore never use it; those who continue to use it show ignorance or lack of sensitivity.


In Germany, the foreign character of the English expression was often criticized, for example in 1989 by the historian Gabriele Yonan :

“While the previously used symbolic word, 'Auschwitz', a place name representative of the other extermination camps, still associatively produced a clear connection to the extermination of Jewish people, the introduction of the term 'Holocaust' resulted in a code word that formed the causal chain between The act and naming of the victims interrupts. Like a hermetic block, the foreign word / foreign word encloses the event, the inexpressible horror, without creating a trace of an emotional association. In the Hegelian sense, horror is canceled out in an inaccessible term. "

In 1996, culture editor Peter Dittmar saw the word as a euphemism that encouraged a " banalization of evil ", trivialization and inflation of terms:

“Like the National Socialist euphemism 'Final Solution', the foreign word Holocaust deliberately renounces all connotations of reality that cannot be avoided in the case of 'murder of Jews', 'extermination of Jews', 'genocide', 'extermination of Jews'. 'Holocaust' remains abstract and thus breaks away from the original, very concrete reference to reality. Therefore, 'Holocaust' could degenerate surprisingly quickly into a commonplace word for multiple violent deaths. "

The German-Israeli historian Alex Bein criticized the terms Holocaust and Shoah in 1980 :

“Isn't the use of these words [...] not in a certain sense continued the Nazis' policy of covering up the cruel events and their own barbaric deeds behind anonymous, harmless-sounding words instead of naming them by their less poetic real name? After all, we are dealing here with brutal acts of criminal people, and not with sacred acts of sacrifice, nor with a catastrophe that breaks out by chance and not with atonement for crimes committed [...], but with the systematic extermination of the Jews, their extermination (English : 'Annihilation'). "

The sociologist Detlev Claussen criticized the description of the extermination of the Jews as a Holocaust and its spread in 1987 as a means and symptom of a process of social repression:

“But with 'Holocaust' the magic word was found that made Auschwitz disappear. […] The replacement of the name Auschwitz by the mere word 'Holocaust', which is located in a linguistic nowhere, encodes the paradoxical experience of a world of perfect senselessness. With the 'Holocaust' code communicated by the mass media, a broken world of experience is glued together into a meaningful unit. In the petrified end product, the past that is psychologically unbearable has been transformed into a manageable reality. "

Through this “artefact”, “the incomprehensible that should be understood is no longer recognizable as a topic ... Consciousness is encouraged to forget the demands of the intellectual conscience for mental clarity and to offer what appears to be concrete 'external perceptions' instead of abstract thinking to which the feelings can attach. "

The historian Arno J. Mayer criticized in 1989 that when the “Jewish catastrophe” was called the Holocaust, it was “removed from its secular historical context” and made “part of the providential history of the Jewish people”: “The Holocaust, which is gradually taking shape. Mythology, which has become an idée force, has pieced together a collective, normative memory topos from the haunted and transparent memories of survivors, which does not exactly encourage critical and context-related reflection on the Jewish tragedy. ”Mayer's suggestion, instead, from“ Judeozid ”to speak, was taken up by some specialist authors, but not in colloquial language.

Singularity Debate

Historians who only refer to the Nazi extermination as the Holocaust usually justify this with its so-called singularity: a historically unique peculiarity compared to other genocides and other National Socialist mass murders. Peter Longerich explained:

“The terminology is therefore linked to a basic question of interpretation: Is the Holocaust simply a chapter in a long chain of genocides that runs through human history, or does it differ in a significant way from other massacres, so that it is already conceptually? should be delimited? "

This debate arose in the USA in 1978 from the dispute as to whether the then planned United States Holocaust Memorial Museum under the term Holocaust should only thematize the extermination of the Jews or also Nazi murders of other groups of victims and present them equally. This definition dispute continued as a debate about the "uniqueness" (English uniqueness ) and " unprecedentedness " (English unprecedentedness ) of the Nazi extermination of Jews. Nazi and Holocaust researchers such as Yehuda Bauer , Steven T. Katz , Lucy Dawidowicz , Saul Friedländer , Eberhard Jäckel , Christopher Browning , Deborah Lipstadt , Guenter Lewy and others emphasized this exceptional position with the following main arguments: For the first time, a modern industrial state has the total physical destruction of a certain one ethnic or religious group, justified this with a racist ideology, systematically organized at all levels and implemented with industrial methods as a priority policy goal throughout Europe during a world war. According to this, the term Holocaust also includes the thesis of a breach of civilization and then serves as a benchmark for assessing other, past or future genocides. Yehuda Bauer called the genocide of the Armenians "holocaust-related" based on the criteria of the extermination of the Jews, which was unique to him.

Ward Churchill , activist for the rights of native Americans , criticized the reservation of the term Holocaust for the Nazi murder of Jews as establishing a hierarchy of victims, inevitably reducing other genocides and reverse Holocaust denial . Works by Bauer, Katz, Dawidowicz and other historians are no less pernicious for historical truth than works by right-wing extremist Holocaust deniers because they obscure the challenge of perceiving and ending a tradition of at least 500 years of genocide in Western civilization.

In Germany, too, a singularity debate has been going on in the historians' dispute since 1986. While Ernst Nolte presented the Holocaust as a copy of Soviet mass crimes and a reaction to it, Jürgen Habermas emphasized : Germans could not continue their traditions without "assuming historical liability for the way of life in which Auschwitz was possible". The "unjustifiability of the assumed liability" excludes "leveling comparisons". Nolte's comparisons did not serve to provide historical clarification, but to “set off”.

Other historians criticize the normative use of the term Holocaust and deny the associated singularity thesis: They see total destruction goals and orders, a racist or pseudo-religious ideology and systematic methods of persecution, including in other genocides. Some demanded that some or all of the Nazi mass murders carried out for racist motives, for example of the disabled ( Aktion T4 and others), homosexuals , Roma and so-called Slavs, be designated with this term.

Others dispense with this term and use a different name for genocides against non-Jewish groups of victims. In 2005, Wolfgang Wippermann adopted the Roma term Porajmos ('devouring') for the Nazi mass murders of the Roma. He emphasized that these should be exterminated by the National Socialists and their helpers also and for the same racist reasons as Jews. He rejected a downgrade for these two Nazi victim groups. He preferred the term Shoa for the Nazi extermination of Jews .

Inflation and abuse

As a result of the meaning that the term Holocaust has assumed worldwide since 1978, various authors have referred to other historical mass killings as the Holocaust in the sense of genocide. This striking catchphrase was used in the USA and some European countries to describe abortion , extinction of species , factory farming or the mass deaths of homosexuals from the AIDS epidemic , in order to achieve increased awareness and moral concern. In some cases, the murder of the Jews was intentionally used as a benchmark.

The genocide researcher Jürgen Zimmerer sees this as an attempt “to use the global outrage about the fate of the Jews in the Third Reich to make one's own cause heard”. For the sociologists Daniel Levy and Natan Sznaider , the Holocaust, as a new name for the extermination of the Jews, contributed to a “universal culture of remembrance” that increasingly transcended the “national guilt discourses”, with which the term “final solution”, derived from the language of the perpetrators, was linked. Burkhard Asmuss, on the other hand, stated in 2002 that there was “arbitrariness in dealing with the Holocaust metaphor”, which, like the singularity thesis, did not contribute to the historical explanation of genocides: “More and more nations, threatened ethnic minorities and endangered social groups have adapted the Holocaust term to to draw attention to their painful history and at the same time to secure what is perhaps the most important element of their social memory and their collective identity. ”Because of the inflation of the word Holocaust , Elie Wiesel refused to continue using it for the extermination of Jews since 1995. There is no adequate word for it in human language.

Right-wing extremists and historical revisionists call since the 1960 bombing of the Allies in World War II as a Holocaust , the extermination of the Jews to displace the Nazi era to relativize or deny. Some attribute such allegedly similar crimes to an alleged Jewish collective, i.e. the victims of the real Holocaust, and thus operate a perpetrator-victim reversal. Anti-Semitism researchers refer to this phenomenon as "secondary" anti-Semitism , defense against supposed collective guilt and rebellion against an alleged social taboo. Historians, politicians and, in some states, the judiciary reject right-wing extremist misuse of the word Holocaust as a targeted attack on the human dignity of Holocaust survivors and their relatives: According to the Jews, this attack should also erase memories of their murder and thus weaken the defenses against similar crimes .

Richard Herzinger critically described this abuse in 2005 as a corollary of the inflation of the word Holocaust . Its transfer to many other “mass persecutions” had “eroded” the knowledge of the singularity of the extermination of the Jews and thus endangered the memory of it: “In the end, the unwillingness to grant the Jews a separate victim status begins to turn into aggression against the Jews, who seem to continue to insist on him. The historical revisionists on the right are now making full use of this reflex. [...] You bring the gloomy subtext of the inflated speech about the Holocaust to the logical point - and thus prove to be a true avant-garde. "

Transfers and comparisons

Atomic Holocaust

On March 10, 1945, the New York Times described the number of victims of the firestorm triggered by conventional incendiary bombs in Tokyo as a "holocaust". This word is said to have been used by US Army officers in 1945 for the atomic bombs being dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki .

In the USA, a possible future nuclear war has often been referred to as a "nuclear holocaust" since the 1950s, including in 1961 by Erich Fromm . Through the translation of his English essay, the expression came into German. The peace movement of the 1980s used it as "Euroshima" as a slogan for the fear that one with nuclear weapons led World War III likely to human and other life on Earth will completely or largely destroyed.

As early as August 1945 and later, the Holocaust and the atomic bombs were often compared and brought into a historical and / or moral context: for example with the phrase "Auschwitz and Hiroshima". Such comparisons were also used in Japan to cover up Japanese mass murders during World War II. In the USA, on the other hand, national memorials of the Holocaust were criticized as a means of suppressing their own “atomic Holocaust”.

In Germany in 1964 , Hans Magnus Enzensberger compared the past with a possible future “final solution” to an impending nuclear war. He called the atomic bomb "the present and future of Auschwitz" and asked: "How can we condemn yesterday's genocide or even manage it, who is planning the genocide of tomorrow and carefully, using all scientific and industrial means at our disposal, prepared? ” Peter Krause criticized that Enzensberger had disregarded various historical and ideological contexts, relativized the Holocaust and reduced it to technocratic annihilation.

American Holocaust

Some American historians refer to the gradual displacement and decimation of the Indians over 500 years as the "American Holocaust" or "American Indian Holocaust". In doing so, they summarized land grabbing, destruction of the food base, introduced epidemics, ruthless traffic development, forced reservations, alcohol sales, wars and massacres in terms of their overall consequences for the Native Americans as genocide.

David E. Stannard described America's four hundred years of colonization by Europeans in 1994 as "the worst human Holocaust the world has ever seen" with tens of millions of victims. He also attacked the singularity thesis as an inevitable, racist and violence-inducing denial of all other genocides. In 2003, Ward Churchill described the policy of US governments in the 19th century to “remove” Indians from traditional residential areas as an extermination intention and a direct model for Hitler's habitat policy: Hitler explicitly referred to it in his work Mein Kampf . Lilian Friedberg wrote an explicit comparison of the extermination of Native Americans with the extermination of the Jews.

Guenter Lewy, Jürgen Zimmerer and other genocide researchers reject these theses: Despite all the violent crimes committed by Europeans, up to 90 percent of Indians died of unintentionally widespread epidemics.

Right-wing extremists, on the other hand, took up the theses and often referred to the treatment of the Indians as “the fate of the Holocaust”, as “the greatest genocide ever committed against a foreign race”, carried out “alongside a large number of criminals” by “many Calvinists and Jews”, or as the "unpunished Holocaust of Discovery". For right-wing extremism researchers, this shows an interest in "relativizing the Nazi crimes against humanity" and in "propagandistic neutralization of American criticism of German Jewish policy".

African / Black Holocaust

Entrance to the former America's Black Holocaust Museum in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Derived from the general meaning of the word Holocaust and as a reaction to its concentration on the Nazi murder of Jews, the terms “African” or “Black Holocaust” have been coined in English-speaking countries since around 1970 (cf. Maafa ). Both refer to the mass extermination of blacks , i.e. dark-skinned Africans, in the course of land conquest and slavery in colonialism and slavery in the United States .

A number of mostly American authors used these terms in book titles in the 1990s. Some authors describe the genocide of the Herero and Nama in German South West Africa (now Namibia ) and the later murders of black Africans and African-Americans in National Socialist camps together as the Black Holocaust . You explain these Nazi victims from a German, pre-Nazi racism tradition, which was forgotten due to the later concentration of the term on the murder of Jews. Jürgen Zimmerer has interpreted such publications as an attempt to use a globally understandable cipher to elevate colonialist mass crimes to the rank of genocide and, if necessary, to obtain legal compensation for them.

Others compare slavery in the US to the Nazi genocide of the Jews. Such a comparison was first criticized in the USA in 1959.

The African American civil rights activist James Cameron (1914-2006) founded America's Black Holocaust Museum (ABHM) in Milwaukee in 1984 , one of the first national museums to focus entirely on the history of slavery in the United States. The museum dates the beginning of the Black Holocaust in the United States to the 17th century, when the first English settlements were established in Virginia where black people - and only these - were legally made slaves for life. Cameron wanted to draw attention to the fact that Africans experienced a special Holocaust through the transnational slave trade , slave markets in the USA and racist stereotypes like Jim Crow , and thus help to heal ongoing tensions between the population groups in the USA.

Hunger Holocaust

In 1985, a Ukrainian contemporary witness described the Holodomor , a major famine in Ukraine from 1932 to 1933 , as a "hidden Holocaust" through deliberate starvation. The Ukrainian historian Dmytro Zlepko described the event in 1988 as the "Hunger Holocaust". In doing so, these authors reacted to the long silence of the high number of victims and the agonizing circumstances of this mass extinction, which could only be historically researched since the beginning of the glasnost policy under Mikhail Gorbachev . They portrayed this famine as a targeted genocide by the Soviet leadership, contradicting other historians who viewed the Holodomor as a result of ruthless and flawed politics.

Whether the Holodomor was genocide because of unequivocal orders from Josef Stalin is a matter of debate today. She denies a direct and total intention to exterminate and therefore does not call this genocide the Holocaust .

Mike Davis speaks of the Holocaust in relation to Great Famine.

Red Holocaust

Reviewers described the thesis of Stéphane Courtois in his Black Book of Communism (1997) as the "Red Holocaust" : The crimes of state systems of the 20th century that called themselves or call themselves communist are comparable to those of the Holocaust, but because of its alleged "singularity" has been misjudged. Like the National Socialist “racial genocide”, the communist “class genocide” inevitably resulted from a totalitarian ideology and state structure. Like Ernst Nolte in 1986, Courtois asserted that the Gulag was the model for National Socialist concentration camps , and concluded: “The communists did the same atrocities. In my opinion there is no specificity of the genocide of the Nazis against the Jews. "

With the title component “Red Holocaust”, a collection of essays by Jens Mecklenburg and Wolfgang Wippermann (1998) summarizes the criticism of Courtois' thesis, and a book by Horst Möller (1999) summarizes the debate about it. Another book title by two Swiss authors used the term affirmative. This renewed debate about the singularity of the Holocaust and its instrumentalization is regarded as a late continuation of the West German historians' dispute and a sign of a changed emphasis on Stalinism in the Western European culture of remembrance after the end of the Eastern Bloc .

Bomb holocaust

Dead after air raids on Dresden

In the Nuremberg trial of the major war criminals of the British protocol in 1946 issued a statement of the Nazi state secretary Gustav Adolf Steengracht of Moyland about the "death toll from Dresden", which was called the air raids on Dresden on 13 and 14 February 1945 with holocaust of Dresden again . According to other English-speaking authors, the British history revisionist and later Holocaust denier David Irving also used this expression in his book Hitler's War in 1977 . The leading Nazi legal theorist Erich Schwinge took it over from Irving in 1978 in a book chapter on the Allies' “ aerial warfare ”. In 1981, in his book Balance of the War Generation, Schwinge used the expression in the context of excessive numbers of victims and as a contrast to an alleged Allied "Holocaust campaign" against the Germans. In 1990, Irving gave a lecture in Dresden at the invitation of German neo-Nazis and greeted his audience as "survivors of the Dresden Holocaust". This Holocaust against Germans took place while the Holocaust against Jews in the gas chambers of Auschwitz was an invention. In his 1993 memoirs, the author Hans Leyser described himself as a survivor of the "Holocaust of Dresden".

In 1996, the anti-Semitism researcher Wolfgang Benz named the term “Allied bombing Holocaust” as an example of “usurping the term Holocaust for other historical issues”. In 2002, the Office for the Protection of the Constitution of Saxony registered that German right-wing extremists used "bomb holocaust" for allied bombing of German cities in World War II, especially the air raids on Dresden, and that they denied previous German bombings that were contrary to international law. The NPD state parliament members Jürgen W. Gansel and Holger Apfel used the term with reference to Irving on January 21, 2005 in their speeches in the Saxon state parliament to present the air strikes on Dresden as allegedly long-planned annihilation and to equate it with the Holocaust. They denied that the Allied aerial warfare was a reaction to Germany's war of aggression and illegal city bombing, overthrowing the Nazi regime and ending its crimes. In addition, the NPD state parliamentary group refused to allow a parliamentary minute of silence on the forthcoming “ Day of Remembrance of the Victims of National Socialism ” on January 27, 2005. On the following 60th anniversary of the air raids, around 6500 participants used the term in the “memorial march” organized by the East Prussian Young Landsmannschaft “In Dresden as the main slogan, also on later anniversaries of the air raids. This march was one of the most important annual meetings of German right-wing extremists registered by the German Office for the Protection of the Constitution .

During a visit to Israel at the beginning of February 2005, then Federal President Horst Köhler was asked about the process in Saxony. He then called the Holocaust downplaying comparisons "a scandal that we are opposing". Germany must "aggressively" deal with right-wing extremism and "defend against these tendencies with all available means". Because of this use of the term, other politicians have called for a new attempt to ban the NPD after the NPD ban proceedings that failed in 2003 . Public prosecutors checked whether the statement about the "bombing holocaust" was a criminal offense as hatred of the people , but did not initiate criminal proceedings against Gansel and Apfel because of their indemnity , nor against Udo Voigt (NPD), who had welcomed their statements. Representatives of the judiciary referred to a ruling by the Federal Constitutional Court , according to which it can be assumed that in political conflicts an “intent to defamation is not the primary goal of the argument”. In later criminal proceedings against an NPD member, two courts ruled that his public designation of Allied air strikes on civilians as a “bomb holocaust” did not necessarily downplay the Holocaust and was therefore protected by freedom of expression .

"Bomb Holocaust" was voted third for the bad word of 2005. Historians and the German Office for the Protection of the Constitution reject the term because it tries to relativize the Holocaust as one event alongside others and make it appear as a mere catastrophe and the Germans as mere victims. According to a survey by Infratest dimap 2005, 27 percent of those questioned considered the term “not offensive”. The Dresden Hannah Arendt Institute for Research on Totalitarianism responded to the “unusual provocation” of the NPD with a series of lectures that were easy to understand, for example on the development of right-wing extremism, especially in Saxony.

The genocide researcher Eric Markusen has compared the Holocaust with the "strategic bombing" in different wars without denying its singularity.

Expulsion Holocaust

Right-wing extremists in German-speaking countries describe the flight and expulsion of around 12 to 14 million Germans from former German settlement areas in Eastern Europe between 1944 and 1949, in which around two million people died, as the “expulsion holocaust” . The term is used to isolate these events from their historical causes and other expulsions caused by Germans and to portray them as crimes equal to or worse than the Holocaust. A book with this title published by the right-wing extremist publisher Deutsche Voice stylizes the expulsions of Germans to “crimes of the century” or “millennia” and demands the “return of the German eastern territories and the Sudetenland” as an “all-German demand”. The book The Other Holocaust by Karsten Kriwat, published by Gerhard Frey's right-wing extremist FZ-Verlag, also plays down the Nazi extermination by equating them with expulsions.

The displaced also criticize this misuse of the name as "spiritual devastation". The Federal German Office for the Protection of the Constitution classifies “Expulsion Holocaust” alongside “Bomb Holocaust” and “US Atomic Bomb Holocaust” as examples of a right-wing extremist method of relativising equation, which it found around 2006 in the National-Zeitung .

Abortion holocaust

Words such as abortion Holocaust or embryocaust originate from the environment of conservative Christians of the right to life movement in the USA, who reject abortion under all circumstances, including those permitted by law . They equate abortion in any form with this crime against humanity. Some of their publications place photographs of dead fetuses from hospitals and Holocaust victims from extermination camps side by side in order to suggest the “structural and moral identity” of both processes: this is also the case with the Aktion Leben e. V. in Abtsteinbach / Odenwald.

The Anti-Defamation League is fighting against such comparisons, which are legally permitted in the USA . She also pointed to anti-Semitic tendencies in extreme groups of the pro-life movement after several Jewish doctors were murdered for abortions in 1998. Similarly, the bioethicist Jacob Appel criticized Holocaust comparisons by anti-abortionists in 2009 as a sign of their radicalization and as an indirect invitation to murder people who perform abortions.

In the Federal Republic of Germany, too, opponents of the emergency indication in the newly regulated criminal law paragraph 218 have more often since 1979 equated abortion with NS mass crimes. The CSU Bundestag member Hartwig Holzgartner described this as the “way back to Auschwitz”, the social scientist Manfred Spiecker called the numbers of aborted persons a “Holocaust”, and the European doctors' campaign picked up the expression “embryocaust” from the USA.

The industrial clerk Klaus Günter Annen described the termination of pregnancy on a leaflet in front of a gynecological practice with regard to the “defenselessness of the victims and cremation of their remains” as “Babycaust” and “new Holocaust ”. The Federal Court of Justice ruled on May 30, 2000: “Babycaust” must be generally tolerated as an expression of opinion on the fundamental, publicly discussed question of the protection of the right to life of the unborn according to Article 5, Paragraph 1 of the Basic Law. In 2003, the Karlsruhe Higher Regional Court gave the same reasoning to designate the termination of pregnancy as the “new Holocaust”. In April 2007, the Federal Testing Agency for Media Harmful to Young People added Annens websites to the list of media harmful to young people. In 2020, Annen described the specialist Kristina Hänel , who campaigns against abortion bans, on his website as “degenerate” and placed her photos next to pictures of concentration camp guards. On August 24, 2020, the Hamburg Regional Court sentenced him to a fine, obliged him to delete the two posts and forbade the equation of certain opponents of abortion with Nazi criminals.

In a sermon on January 6, 2005, Cardinal Joachim Meisner compared the Holocaust and mass crimes of Stalin to millions of abortions. After violent protests, he regretted his statement, but did not withdraw its content. In a book published in February 2005, Pope John Paul II traced today's legal regulations on abortion as well as Hitler's election in the Reichstag (March 1933) to parliaments overriding power. Thereupon Cardinal Karl Lehmann ( German Bishops' Conference ) stated after a meeting with Paul Spiegel ( Central Council of Jews in Germany ): The uniqueness of the Shoah should not be relativized by false comparisons with other crimes and should not be mentioned "in the same breath as abortion". Church representatives should also use the word Holocaust more sensitively. In connection with the debate about the Holocaust denier Richard Williamson in 2009, Walter Mixa , then still a bishop, again compared the numbers of aborted persons with the numbers of Holocaust victims.

Animal holocaust

An animal protection group uses the controversial “Holocaust comparison” during a demonstration.

Some animal welfare and animal rights organizations compared certain forms of factory farming , industrial killing and processing of animals into meat, and animal experiments with the Holocaust. Supporters of the Animal Liberation Front described the massive slaughter of animals in 2000 as the "animal holocaust" and compared animal liberation with the liberation of people from Nazi extermination camps. In 2002 Charles Patterson published the lead article The Animal Holocaust and the book Eternal Treblinka . The title comes from a short story by Isaac Bashevis Singer : "When it comes to animals, everyone becomes a Nazi [...] For animals, every day is Treblinka." Patterson describes analogies between animal treatment and the Holocaust and documents how some Holocaust victims and - perpetrators behaved towards animals. In 2002 the organization Peta started an exhibition and an international poster campaign under the motto “The Holocaust on your plate”, which juxtaposes photographs of animal transports and extermination transports during the Nazi era. David Sztybel presented a collection of Holocaust comparisons in the animal context in 2006, established their dissemination in animal rights literature, and proposed their defense. Claire Jean Kim also defended Holocaust comparisons in the animal liberation movement in 2011.

The Anti-Defamation League and other animal rights activists have protested against such comparisons in the USA since 2003 . Roberta Kalechofsky , founder of the group Jews for Animal Rights , agreed with Singer's statement in terms of content, but rejected comparisons of animal exploitation with the Holocaust and other things, as they eliminate the crucial historical differences between these evils and thus prevent the understanding and elucidation of their respective causes. The term Holocaust refers to a long conflict between Christians and Jews to which Nazi racism reacted; this complex story is ignored by comparisons with the suffering of animals.

In 2004, the German section of Peta took over the US poster campaign “The Holocaust on Your Plate”. Helmut F. Kaplan defended her Holocaust comparison with regard to “test laboratories, slaughterhouses, fur farms, etc.” and linked it with a rejection of the singularity thesis. A lawsuit that lasted for years began with a complaint against Peta by the Central Council of Jews in Germany. In 2004 the Berlin Regional Court and in 2005 the Berlin Court of Appeal banned Peta posters because their testimony violated the human dignity of Holocaust survivors. The Federal Constitutional Court did not accept a constitutional complaint from Peta in 2009 , because "there is a categorical difference between human, dignified life and the interests of animal welfare" and "the complainant's campaign ... a trivialization and trivialization of the fate of the Holocaust victims". Here, their general right to privacy should be given "priority over freedom of expression". In contrast, ruled the Supreme Court of Austria ; Despite understandable criticism of it, the 2006 campaign was legitimate advertising in a "overstimulated society". In 2012 , the European Court of Justice dismissed Peta's action against the German judgments filed in 2009 .

Women's Holocaust

Since the 1970s, some authors have compared the Holocaust against the Jews with the early modern witch hunt . Hannsferdinand Döbler (1977) linguistically equated the burning of witches and the Holocaust and traced both processes back to a bureaucratic-sadistic “delusion of cleaning” of “desk criminals”. Gerhard Schormann (1991) described the witch hunt as a "war against witches" and as a centrally controlled "extermination program" of the authorities against an intimidated population. Hans-Jürgen Wolf (1995) paralleled the witch hunt and the Holocaust on the grounds that both were perpetrated by Christians and that Hitler was a Catholic. Specialist historians reject such explanatory models with source criticism as dubious, personalizing and monocausally shortening, without fundamentally rejecting the question of historical models and continuities to the Holocaust.

The radical feminists Andrea Dworkin (1974) and Mary Daly (1978) argued that the "Gynozid" (portmanteau word from Greek . Γυνή Gyné 'woman' and genocide) have up to nine million victims demanded and thus surpasses the Holocaust victim number and duration far . The number of victims is based on an ahistorical extrapolation by the Quedlinburg City Syndic Gottfried Christian Voigt (1740–1791). In her own study (1986), Daly's German translator Erika Wisselinck referred to the persecution of witches as a “women's holocaust” and compared the witch hammer with Hitler's work Mein Kampf .

The numbers mentioned and their sources have been proven to be incorrect. History today assumes that around 40,000 to 60,000 people were killed as witches across Europe.

The German historian Wolfgang Behringer criticizes the fact that Wisselinck also relied on the right-wing esotericist Mathilde Ludendorff from 1934: "New feminism, national women's movement and National Socialist neo-paganism shake hands here." British literary scholar Diane Purkiss sees the numbers as a competition with the result that women during the witch hunt "suffered more than all victims of racism and genocide".


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Web links

Individual evidence

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  61. ^ Peter Longerich: Holocaust. In: Wilhelm Heitmeyer: International manual of violence research. 2002, p. 177 f.
  62. ^ Katrin Pieper: Making the Holocaust a Museum. Böhlau, Vienna 2006, ISBN 3-412-31305-X , pp. 68–78 .
  63. Collection of articles on this: John K. Roth, Michael Berenbaum: Holocaust: religious and philosophical implications. Paragon House, 1989, ISBN 1-55778-187-7 .
  64. ^ Peter Longerich: Holocaust. In: Wilhelm Heitmeyer: International manual of violence research. 2002, p. 180.
  65. Annegret Ehmann: Holocaust in politics and education. In: Susanne Meinl, Irmtrud Wojak (Fritz Bauer Institute, ed.): Boundless prejudices. Anti-Semitism, Ethnic Conflict, and Nationalism in Different Cultures. Campus Verlag, ISBN 978-3-593-37019-4 , p. 41 .
  66. ^ Richard G. Hovannisian: Remembrance and denial: the case of the Armenian genocide. 1998, ISBN 0-8143-2777-X , p. 229 .
  67. ^ Ward Churchill: A Little Matter of Genocide: Holocaust and Denial in the Americas 1492 to the Present. City Lights, 1998, p. 50 .
  68. Jürgen Habermas: On the public use of history: The official self-image of the Federal Republic breaks up. In: The time. November 7, 1986. Quoted from DGDB: The social philosopher Jürgen Habermas on the importance of critical memory (November 7, 1986) .
  69. Examples of different inclusions in Donald L. Niewyk, Francis R. Nicosia: The Columbia guide to the Holocaust. 2000, ISBN 0-231-11200-9 , p. 51 f.
  70. Wolfgang Wippermann: Chosen Victims? Shoah and Porrajmos in comparison. A controversy. Frank & Timme, 2005, ISBN 3-86596-003-0 , p. 7 f. as well as fn. 4 and 5 .
  71. Examples: Ariane Barth (Ed.): Holocaust in Cambodscha. Rowohlt, 1980, ISBN 3-499-33003-2 ; Richard C. Lukas: The Forgotten Holocaust: The Poles Under German Occupation 1939–1944. (1986) Hippocrene Books, 2001; Alexander Ramati: And the Violins Stopped Playing: A Story of the Gypsy Holocaust. Franklin Watts, 1986, ISBN 0-531-15028-3 ; Gabriele Yonan: A Forgotten Holocaust - The Extermination of the Christian Assyrians in Turkey. A documentation. pogrom, 1989, ISBN 3-922197-25-6 ; Iris Chang: The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II (1997) Penguin, 2004, ISBN 0-14-100788-5 ; Raisa Maria Toivo: Witch-Craze as Holocaust. In: Owen Davies, Jonathan Barry (Eds.): Witchcraft historiography. Palgrave 2007, ISBN 978-1-4039-1176-6 , pp. 90-107; Paula Morelli: Trauma and Healing: The Construction of Meaning Among Survivors of the Cambodian Holocaust. Lambert Academic Publishing, 2010, ISBN 978-3-8433-6300-6 ; Casper Erichsen, David Olusoga: The Kaiser's Holocaust: Germany's Forgotten Genocide and the Colonial Roots of Nazism. Faber & Faber, London 2011, ISBN 978-0-571-23142-3 .
  72. Example: John Powell: Abortion, the Silent Holocaust. Resources for Christian Living, 1981, ISBN 0-89505-063-3 .
  73. We throw away creation . In: Der Spiegel . No. 10 , 1990, pp. 240-252 ( Online - March 5, 1990 ).
  74. Example: Gerhard Rieck: Egonomy: civilization in the stranglehold of egomania and economy. AT Edition, 2006, ISBN 3-89781-097-2 , p. 59 .
  75. ^ Larry Kramer: Reports from the Holocaust: The Making of an AIDS Activist. St. Martin's Press, 1989, ISBN 0-312-02634-X .
  76. Thorsten Eitz, Georg Stötzel: Dictionary of "coping with the past": the Nazi past in public use. Olms, 2007, ISBN 978-3-487-13377-5 , p. 342.
  77. a b Jeffrey Shandler: While America Watches: Televising the Holocaust. Oxford 1999, pp. 170 and 239, fn. 3 .
  78. Jürgen Zimmerer: From Windhoek to Auschwitz? Contributions to the relationship between colonialism and the Holocaust. Lit Verlag, 2011, ISBN 978-3-8258-9055-1 , p. 174 .
  79. ^ Daniel Levy, Natan Sznaider: Memory in the Global Age: The Holocaust. Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 2001, ISBN 3-518-41283-3 , p. 132.
  80. Burkhard Asmuss: Holocaust: the National Socialist genocide and the motives of its memory. Verlag DHM, Deutsches Historisches Museum, 2002, ISBN 3-86102-119-6 , p. 235.
  81. Christoph Münz: Giving the world a memory. Historical theological thinking in Judaism after Auschwitz. Gütersloher Verlagshaus, Gütersloh 1995, pp. 103-106.
  82. Gundula van den Berg: Broken Variations: Observations and reflections on characters from the Hebrew Bible in the reception of Elie Wiesel. Lit Verlag, 2001, ISBN 3-8258-5377-2 , p. 22 .
  83. Stephan Braun, Alexander Geisler, Martin Gerster (eds.): Strategies of the extreme right: Backgrounds - Analyzes - Answers. Vs Verlag, 2009, ISBN 978-3-531-15911-9 , p. 610 .
  84. Heike Radvan: Pedagogical Action and Anti-Semitism: An empirical study on forms of observation and intervention in open youth work. Klinkhardt, 2010, ISBN 978-3-7815-1746-2 , p. 81 .
  85. Conrad Taler: The trivialized: on dealing with right-wing radicalism. Verlag Donat, Bremen 1996, ISBN 3-924444-92-7 .
  86. Micha Brumlik , Hajo Funke , Lars Rensmann (eds.): Contested forgetting: Walser debate, Holocaust memorial and recent German historical politics. 2nd, extended edition, Schiler Verlag, 2010, ISBN 978-3-89930-240-0 , p. 127 , 170 fu ö.
  87. Richard Herzinger: Quite normal tastelessness. In: The world. February 5, 2005.
  88. James Carroll: House of War: The Pentagon and the Disastrous Rise of American Power. Houghton Mifflin, 2007, ISBN 978-0-618-87201-5 , p. 95
  89. Volker Zastrow: Holocaust: A word for the nameless FAZ, January 27, 2005.
  90. Erich Fromm: Russia, Germany, China: Remarks on Foreign Policy (1961h-e) ( Memento from January 31, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  91. Brigitte Drescher, Detlef Garbe: It started with Hiroshima. Lamuv, 2005, ISBN 3-88977-665-5 , pp. 9 and 146.
  92. ^ Manfred Kittel: After Nuremberg and Tokyo: Coming to terms with the past in Japan and West Germany 1945 to 1968. Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, 2004, ISBN 3-486-57573-2 , p. 42 .
  93. ^ Richard H. Minear: Atomic Holocaust, Nazi Holocaust: Some Reflections. In: Diplomatic History. Volume 19, edition 2/1995, pp. 347-365 .
  94. Peter Krause: The Eichmann trial in the German press. Campus Verlag, 2002, ISBN 3-593-37001-8 , p. 133 ff.
  95. Examples: Russell Thornton: American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History Since 1492 ( The Civilization of the American Indian Series ). (1987) University of Oklahoma Press, 1990 revision, ISBN 0-8061-2220-X ; Helene Flanzbaum: The Americanization of the Holocaust. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore 1999.
  96. ^ David E. Stannard: American Holocaust: Columbus and the Conquest of the New World. New edition. Oxford University Press, 1994, ISBN 0-19-508557-4 .
  97. ^ David E. Stannard, Uniqueness as Denial: The Politics of Genocide Scholarship. In: Alan S. Rosenbaum (Ed.): Is the Holocaust unique? Perspectives on Comparative Genocide. (1994). 3rd edition, Westview Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0-8133-4406-5 , pp. 163-208.
  98. ^ Ward Churchill: Acts of Rebellion: The Ward Churchill Reader. Routledge, Chapman & Hall, 2003, ISBN 0-415-93156-8 , pp. 56 and 339, fn. 72 .
  99. ^ Lilian Friedberg: Dare to Compare: Americanizing the Holocaust. In: American Indian Quarterly. Volume 24, No. 3/2000, E- ISSN  1534-1828 , Print ISSN  0095-182X , pp. 353-380.
  100. ^ Guenter Lewy: Were American Indians the Victims of Genocide? In: History News Net. January 22, 2007; Jürgen Zimmerer: Colonialism and the Holocaust. Towards to Archeology of Genocide. In: AD Moses (Ed.): Genocide and Settler Society: Frontier Violence and Stolen Indigenous Children in Australian History. Berghahn Books, 2005, ISBN 1-57181-411-6 , pp. 49-76.
  101. Fabian Virchow: Against civilism: International relations and the military in the political conceptions of the extreme right. VS Verlag, 2006, ISBN 3-531-15007-3 , p. 170, fn. 1035 and 1036 .
  102. Examples: Naiwu Osahon: The black Holocaust. Obobo Books, 1994, ISBN 978-186-051-0 ; Lenford Anthony White: Slavery: An Introduction to the African Holocaust - With Special Reference to Liverpool, Capital of the Slave Trade. 2nd edition, Race Equality Management Team, 1997, ISBN 0-9524789-3-5 ; Sam E. Anderson: Black Holocaust For Beginners. 2007, ISBN 978-1-934389-03-4 ; Del Jones: The Black holocaust: global genocide. Hikeka Press, 1992, ISBN 0-9639995-8-3 ; Timothy White: The Black Holocaust. Christian Multi-Service Center, 2010, ISBN 978-0-9708592-3-5 .
  103. Firpo W. Carr: Germany's black holocaust, 1890-1945. Morris Publications, 2003, ISBN 0-9631293-4-1 .
  104. Jürgen Zimmerer: From Windhoek to Auschwitz? Contributions to the relationship between colonialism and the Holocaust. Lit Verlag, 2011, ISBN 978-3-8258-9055-1 , p. 174 .
  105. Laurence Mordekhai Thomas: Vessels of Evil: American Slavery and the Holocaust. Temple University Press, 1993, ISBN 1-56639-100-8 .
  106. ^ What Is The Black Holocaust? , accessed on August 9, 2019.
  107. Patricia Reid-Merritt (Ed.): A State-by-State History of Race and Racism in the United States. Volume 2, ABC-Clio / Greenwood, 2019, ISBN 978-1-4408-5603-7 , p. 959 .
  108. Miron Dolot: Execution by Hunger: The Hidden Holocaust (1985), WW Norton & Company; New edition 1987, ISBN 0-393-30416-7 .
  109. Dmytro Zlepko: The Ukrainian Hunger Holocaust: Stalin's secret genocide 1932/33 against 7 million Ukrainian farmers in the mirror of secret files of the German Foreign Office: a documentation from the holdings of the Political Archive in the Foreign Office. H. Wild, Bonn 1988.
  110. ^ Svetlana Burmistr: Holodomor - the organized starvation death in Ukraine 1932-1933. In: Wolfgang Benz (Ed.): Prejudice and Genocide. Ideological premises of genocide. Böhlau Verlag, Vienna 2010, ISBN 978-3-205-78554-5 , p. 62 .
  111. ^ Andreas Kappeler: Ukraine: Present and History of a New State. Nomos, 1993, ISBN 3-7890-2920-3 , pp. 141 ff.
  112. ^ Nicolas Werth: Soviet famines and the question of genocide (lecture in Hamburg, May 4, 2011)
  113. ^ Late Victorian Holocausts: El Niño Famines and the Making of the Third World. 2001. Dt. Translation: The Birth of the Third World. Famine and mass extermination in the imperialist age. Association A, Berlin / Hamburg / Göttingen 2004, ISBN 3-935936-43-5 .
  114. Stephane Courtois, Nicolas Werth, Jean-Louis Panne (ed.): The Black Book of Communism: Oppression, Crimes and Terror. one-time special edition. Piper, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-492-04664-9 (preface by Stephane Courtois, especially p. 35)
  115. Wolfgang Proissl: The Red Holocaust: Interview with the French historian Stéphane Courtois, the editor of the "Black Book ". In: The time. 48/1997.
  116. ^ Jens Mecklenburg, Wolfgang Wippermann: "Red Holocaust"? Criticism of the Black Book of Communism. Konkret Literatur Verlag, 1998, ISBN 3-89458-169-7 ; Horst Möller: The Red Holocaust and the Germans. The debate about the 'black book of communism'. Piper, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-492-04119-1 .
  117. ^ Paul Rothenhäusler, Hans-Ueli Sonderegger (ed.): Remembrance of the Red Holocaust. Rothenhäusler Verlag, 2000, ISBN 3-907817-11-7 .
  118. ^ Dietrich Seybold: History culture and conflict: Historical-political controversies in contemporary societies. Peter Lang, Bern 2005, ISBN 3-03910-622-8 , p. 80 .
  119. Zeno.org: The Nuremberg Trial. The main hearing, ninety-first day, Tuesday, March 26, 1946, afternoon sitting. ; The trial of German major war criminals: proceedings of the International military tribunal sitting at Nuremberg, Germany, Volume 10. Published under the authority of HM Attorney-general by HM Stationery off. 1946, p. 84; Yale Law School, Avalon Project: Nuremberg Trial Proceedings Vol. 10 (91st day, Tuesday afternoon, March 26, 1946)
  120. David Caldwell Irving: Hitler's War. Volume 2, Viking Press, 1977, p. 852.
  121. Detlef Garbe: In every single case - up to the death penalty: the military criminal Erich Schwinge: a German legal life. Pahl Rugenstein, Cologne 1989, ISBN 3-927106-00-3 , p. 89.
  122. Erich Schwinge: Balance of the war generation: a contribution to the history of our time. Elwert, 1981, ISBN 3-7708-0718-9 , pp. 69 f .; Critical: Fritz Wüllner: The Nazi military justice and the misery of historiography: a fundamental research report. Nomos, 1997, ISBN 3-7890-4578-0 , p. 24.
  123. ^ Robert Jan Van Pelt: The Case for Auschwitz: Evidence from the Irving Trial. Indiana Univ. Press, 2002, p. 93 .
  124. Hans Leyser: Elmsfeuer: War diaries and letters from Russia and Germany. Ermer, 1993, ISBN 3-924653-14-3 , p. 336.
  125. Wolfgang Benz: Enemy and Prejudice: Articles on exclusion and persecution. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 1996, ISBN 3-423-04694-5 , p. 139.
  126. ^ Constitutional Protection of Saxony: Annual Report 2002 (PDF p. 41) .
  127. ^ State Parliament of Saxony: Plenary minutes 4/8 of January 21, 2005 (PDF, p. 460 ff .; 470 kB) ( Memento of January 31, 2012 in the Internet Archive ).
  128. ^ Verfassungsschutz.de: Annual report 2006, preliminary version (PDF p. 51); Constitutional Protection of Saxony: Report 2009 ( Memento from January 16, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF p. 4)
  129. Christoph Schwennicke: Koehler in Jerusalem: Israel calls for a ban on the NPD. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung , February 2, 2005.
  130. Joachim Wolf: The NPD ban debate . Federal Agency for Civic Education.
  131. Right-wing radicalism: "Wine with the Hitler label, that doesn't work". In: Süddeutsche Zeitung , January 28, 2005.
  132. Klaus Parker: No criminal investigation against Apple and Gansel: The surprised decent , on: hagalil.com , January 24, 2005.
  133. ^ No proceedings against NPD boss Voigt because of "bomb holocaust". ( Memento of the original from September 7, 2005 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In: Der Tagesspiegel. April 10, 2005. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.presseportal.de
  134. NPD: OLG follows district court. ( Memento from September 6, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) In: 16 vor, Nachrichten aus Trier. June 16, 2010.
  135. The Unworts from 2000 to 2009. (No longer available online.) In: unwortdesjahres.net. Technical University of Darmstadt, archived from the original on March 25, 2016 ; accessed on March 23, 2016 .
  136. The NPD abuses the victims in Dresden. In: Saxon newspaper. January 26, 2005. (Interview with Reiner Pommerin)
  137. Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz.de: Patterns of argumentation in right-wing extremist anti-Semitism: Current developments (November 2005), Section 6.2 .: Relativization of the Holocaust (PDF p. 19 f.) ( Memento from November 22, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
  138. Andrea Röpke, Andreas Speit (ed.): Neo-Nazis in pinstripes - The NPD on the way to the center of society. 2nd, partially updated new edition, Ch. Links, 2009, ISBN 978-3-86153-531-7 , p. 55 ; see also Heinz Gess: The "Bomb Holocaust". On politics and education after Auschwitz (PDF; 45 kB)
  139. Gerhard Besier, Katarzyna Stokosa: loads dictatorial past - challenges of democratic present. Right-wing extremism today. Lit Verlag, 2006, ISBN 3-8258-8789-8 , p. 7 .
  140. Eric Markusen, David Kopf: The Holocaust and strategic bombing: genocide and total war in the twentieth century. Westview Press, 1995, ISBN 0-8133-7532-0 .
  141. Verfassungsschutz.de: The “National Democratic Party of Germany” (NPD) as a gravitational field in right-wing extremism ( Memento from January 31, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 897 kB).
  142. Rolf-Josef Eibicht, Anne Hipp: The Holocaust of Expulsion. The story of a crime of the century. Publisher German Voice, ISBN 3-9805844-5-3 .
  143. Gabriele Nandlinger, Holger Kulick: The end of a splinter party? A portrait of ex-DVU boss Gerhard Frey. Federal Agency for Civic Education ( Memento from May 20, 2009 in the Internet Archive ).
  144. Karsten Kriwat: The other Holocaust. The expulsion of the Germans 1944–1949. FZ Verlag, 2004, ISBN 3-924309-71-X .
  145. ^ Hans Henning Hahn: Hundred Years of Sudeten German History: A Völkisch Movement in Three States. Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main 2007, ISBN 978-3-631-55372-5 , p. 16 .
  146. Verfassungsschutz.de. Annual report 2006, p. 100 ( Memento of September 29, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 5.1 MB).
  147. ^ John Joseph Powell: Abortion, the silent holocaust. Argus Communications, 1981, ISBN 0-89505-063-3 ; William Brennan: The abortion holocaust: today's final solution. Landmark Press, 1983, ISBN 0-911439-01-3 .
  148. ^ Christian Geißler, Bernd Overwien: Elements of a contemporary political education: Festschrift for Prof. Hanns-Fred Rathenow on the 65th birthday. Lit Verlag, 2009, p. 272 .
  149. Abortion - The New Holocaust? ( Memento of October 26, 2007 in the Internet Archive ); Imprint ( Memento from October 26, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
  150. ^ ADL, January 24, 2006: Letter to The New York Times ( April 11, 2011 memento in the Internet Archive )
  151. ^ ADL, October 30, 1998: Investigation Reveals Strain of Anti-Semitism in Extreme Factions of the Anti-Abortion Movement ( Memento from June 29, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
  152. ^ Jacob M. Appel: Auschwitz Revisited: The Holocaust and the Abortion Debate. In: Huffington Post. December 5, 2009.
  153. Georg Stötzel, Martin Wengeler: Controversial terms: history of public language use in the Federal Republic of Germany. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 1994, ISBN 3-11-014106-X , p. 576, notes 43-46 ; Susanne von Paczensky, Renate Sadrozinski: The New Moralists: Paragraph 218, from the careless handling of a topic of the century. Rowohlt, 1984, ISBN 3-499-15352-1 , p. 71.
  154. ^ CH Beck: Annotated case law, on VI ZR 276/99
  155. AFP Agence France-Presse GmbH (April 23, 2003): Abortion may be called the "new Holocaust" - Court: Abortion doctor has to accept drastic criticism ( Memento of May 10, 2005 in the Internet Archive )
  156. ^ Newsletter of the association (May 2007 edition of Never Again! - News of European Citizens' Initiatives )
  157. ^ André surcharge: Judgment against anti-abortionists: Holocaust settlement prohibited. taz, August 24, 2020; The verdict against the operator of "Babykaust". Press release, Anne Frank Educational Center, August 24, 2020
  158. ^ Controversial sermon: Meisner regrets the Holocaust comparison. In: Der Spiegel. January 8, 2005.
  159. Pope compares abortion with the Holocaust ( memento of February 19, 2005 in the Internet Archive ), on: netzeitung.de , February 19, 2005.
  160. Catholic-Jewish dialogue: “Sensitive use of the word Holocaust”. In: FAZ. February 25, 2005.
  161. Controversial statement: Bishop Mixa speaks of abortions in connection with the Holocaust. In: Der Spiegel. February 27, 2009.
  162. a b Holocaust Imagery and Animal Rights . August 2005 ( Memento from April 1, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
  163. ^ Charles Patterson: Eternal Treblinka: Our Treatment of Animals and the Holocaust. Booklight, 2002, ISBN 1-930051-99-9 , p. 181 ff.
  164. ^ Isaac Bashevis Singer: The Collected Stories of Isaac Bashevis Singer. Penguin Books, 1984, ISBN 0-14-018699-9 , p. 271.
  165. ^ David Sztybel: Can the Treatment of Animals Be Compared to the Holocaust? In: Ethics & the Environment. Volume 11, Number 1/2006, Indiana University Press, E- ISSN  1535-5306 , Print ISSN  1085-6633 , pp. 97-132. Sztybel names the following examples (p. ...): Tom Regan: The struggle for animal rights International Society for Animal Rights, Clarks Summit, 1987, ISBN 0-9602632-1-7 , p. 76 f .; Peter Singer : Animal Liberation: The Definitive Classic of the Animal Movement. (1977; 1990) Harper Perennial Modern Classics, 2009 updated edition, ISBN 978-0-06-171130-5 , pp. 83-85; Michael W. Fox, Cleveland Amory: Inhumane Society: The American Way of Exploiting Animals. (1990) St. Martin's Press, 1992, ISBN 0-312-07808-0 , p. 242; Sue Coe: Dead Meat. (1995) Running Press Book Publishing, 2003, ISBN 1-56858-041-X , pp. 72 f .; Jim Mason: Animal Factories , Crown, 1988, ISBN 0-517-53844-X , p. 48; Deborah Blum: The Monkey Wars. (1994), new edition. Oxford University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-19-510109-X , p. 6; Bernard Rollin: Animal Rights & Human Morality. (1980; 1992) Prometheus Books, ISBN 1-59102-421-8 , p. 216; Mark Gold : Animal rights: extending the circle of compassion (1995) Jon Carpenter Publications, 1998, ISBN 1-897766-16-5 , p. 37.
  166. ^ Claire Jean Kim: Moral Extensionism or Racist Exploitation? The Use of Holocaust and Slavery Analogies in the Animal Liberation Movement. New Political Science, 33 (2011), pp. 311-333, doi : 10.1080 / 07393148.2011.592021 .
  167. Roberta Kalechofsky: Animal Suffering and the Holocaust: The Trouble With Comparisons. Micah Publications, 2003, ISBN 0-916288-49-8 ; Lecture based on Roberta Kalechofsky: Summary of the writing on the publisher's website ( Memento from September 4, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
  168. Helmut F. Kaplan: Animals and Jews or the art of displacement.
  169. Case law report of the Ruhr University Bochum: "The Holocaust on your plate" .
  170. Decision of the BVerfG of February 20, 2009, Az. 1 BvR 2266/04 and 1 BvR 2620/05 .
  171. Decision of the Supreme Court of October 12, 2006, Az. 6Ob321 / 04f
  172. “Holocaust Campaign” does not violate human dignity ( memento of July 10, 2009 in the Internet Archive ), on: peta.de , March 27, 2009.
  173. The Tagesspiegel Tribunal rejects animal rights activists with a Holocaust comparison , on: tagesspiegel.de , November 8, 2012.
  174. Jaana Eichhorn: History between tradition and innovation. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2006, ISBN 3-89971-294-3 , pp. 303-308 .
  175. Andrea Dworkin: Woman Hating. A Radical Look at Sexuality. EP Dutton, Boston 1974, pp. 34-46 and 118-150; Mary Daly: Gyn / Ecology. The Metaethics of Radical Feminism. Beacon Press, Boston 1978.
  176. Wolfgang Behringer: Nine million witches. Origin, tradition and criticism of a popular myth. In: History in Science and Education 49 (1998), p. 668.
  177. Erika Wisselinck: Witches. Why we learn so little of their history and what is wrong with it. Analysis of a displacement. Frauenoffensive, Munich 1987, pp. 11, 15, 21.
  178. ^ Gerd Schwerhoff: From everyday suspicion to mass persecution. Recent German research on the early modern witchcraft. In: History in Science and Education 46 (1995), pp. 362–365.
  179. Wolfgang Behringer: Witches: Faith, Persecution, Marketing. Beck, Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-406-62504-6 , p. 75 .
  180. ^ Diane Purkiss: The Witch in History. Early Modern and Twentieth-Century Representations. Routledge, London 1996, quoted from Wolfgang Behringer: Nine million witches. 2011, p. 680.
This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on July 2, 2011 .