21st century BC Chr.

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The 21st century BC Chr. Began on 1 January 2100 v. Chr. And ended on 31 December 2001 v. This corresponds to the period 4050 to 3951 before today or the interval 3718 to 3632 radiocarbon years .

Age / Epoch


Seal of Mentuhotep II made of bronze, silver and electrum
  • 2037/2031/2022 v. Chr .:
    • The Pharaoh of the Theban 11th dynasty Mentuhotep II succeeds in reuniting Lower and Upper Egypt. This defines the beginning of the Middle Kingdom in Egypt.
  • 2034 to 2004:
  • Around 2020 BC Chr .:
    • The Sumerian city ​​of Ešnunna gains independence from Ur . This marked the beginning of the 1st dynasty of Ešnunna as an independent city-state.
  • 2004 BC Chr .:
    • Weakened by ongoing fighting with the Amurites, Ur is finally destroyed by a coalition of Elamites , nomads from the Zagros and the city-state of Isin .

Inventions, discoveries

  • Mathematics is practiced as a science in Babylonia .
  • Around 2050 BC Chr .:
    • Sulgi , king of the 3rd Dynasty of Ur, leads a unit volume, the space dimension gur one that corresponds to 200 liters.
  • 2046/2038 BC Chr .:
    • Under Amar-Sin for the first time with the Mina a standard weight used.


Stone chest from Ri Cruin
The mortuary temple of Mentuhotep II.


Annual balance sheet of a state basket maker, Ur-III period, around 2040 BC Chr.

Natural events and disasters

  • Around 2100 BC Chr .:
  • Around 2050 BC Chr .:
  • Around 2000 BC Chr .:
    • Severe earthquake 15 kilometers west of Ashgabat , the capital of Turkmenistan . The strength is also 7.1 and there are fewer than 1,000 deaths to mourn.


Statue of Mentuhotep II

Note: The years of government cannot be precisely determined in this century. Therefore, these are approximate estimates.

Pharaohs of Egypt

Kings of Assyria

King of Elam

King of Isin

Kings of Ur

Weight of 5 mina of the Su-Sin
Painting of Rama armed with a bow and arrow


Archaeological cultures

Cultures in North Africa

  • Egypt :
    • First Intermediate Period (2216 to 2137/2025 BC)
      • 9th Dynasty (2160 to 2040 BC)
      • 10th dynasty (2130 to 2077 BC) in Herakleopolis
    • Middle Kingdom (2137/2077 to 1781 BC)
      • 11th dynasty (2160 to 1994 BC, also 2077 to 1938 BC) in Thebes
  • Nubia :
    • C group (2150 to 1540 BC) in Lower Nubia

Cultures in Mesopotamia and the Middle East

Cultures in East Asia

Pottery of the early Ban Chiang culture, Thailand, 2100 to 900 BC Chr.

Cultures in South Asia

Cultures in Central Asia

Distribution area of ​​the Sintashta culture in red

Cultures in Europe

The reconstructed dolmen of Degernau

Cultures in america

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Jörg Wolff: Cultural and legal historical roots of Europe: work book. BoD - Books on Demand, 2005, ISBN 3-936999-16-3 , p. 158
  2. Brigitte Borchhardt-Birbaumer: Imago noctis: the night in the art of the West: from the ancient Orient to the Baroque era. Böhlau Verlag Vienna, 2003, ISBN 3-205-77052-8 , p. 32
  3. Bernd Marquardt: Universal history of the state: from the pre-state society to the state of the industrial society. LIT Verlag Münster, 2009, ISBN 3-643-90004-X , p. 61
  4. Chinese Dynasties ( Memento of May 16, 2012 in the Internet Archive ). In: china-erleben.com . Retrieved February 17, 2012.
  5. Klaas Veenhof : History of the Ancient Orient up to the time of Alexander the Great. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2001, ISBN 3-525-51685-1 , p. 118

Web links

Commons : 21st century BC Chr.  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files