Chronology of technology

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This chronology of technology contains important milestones in the development and history of technology .

time Discovery, invention, development
Stone age
Bronze age
Iron age Simple shipbuilding , fishing net , rope
approx. 4000 BC Chr.
approx. 3500 BC Chr.
approx. 3000 BC Chr.

Development of the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic writing

approx. 1500 BC Chr. Glass production in Egypt
approx. 1100 BC Chr. First mechanical calculation aid , the abacus ( Babylonians )
approx. 970 BC Chr. First water pipe system in Jerusalem
approx. 500 BC Chr. Invention of the spirit level , application of the law of levers
approx. 450 BC Chr. Invention of the pulley
approx. 300 BC Chr. First automata are developed ( Philon of Byzantium )
approx. 250 BC Chr. Invention of the Archimedean screw
around 100 BC Chr. Paper is invented in China
at 100 Using steam to open gates and developing a simple reaction turbine ( Heron of Alexandria )
at 300 First verifiable alchemical research ( Zosimos of Panapolis )
around 400
around 620 Invention of porcelain in China
around 700 Wood panel printing , also called block printing , in East Asia
around 700 First use of blast furnaces in Catalonia
968 Invention of the thread telephone ( Kung-FooWhing )
around 980 The principle of the pinhole camera is described ( Ibn al-Haitham )
around 1000 First use of black powder and missiles in China
10/11 century First expansion of the water wheel in Europe, later the wind turbine
12th Century Discovery of sulfuric acid
around 1200 The silver pen came into use as the forerunner of the pencil
around 1280 Invention of glasses
around 1450
around 1500 First graphite pencils ( pencil ) ( UK )
1510 First pocket watch
1519 First occupied railways in mines
1556 Mining and Metallurgy Handbook ( Georgius Agricola )
1569 The first mechanical engineering book of modern times ( Jacques Besson )
1588 First reading machine (reading wheel ) ( Agostino Ramelli )
1590-1600 The microscope is developed (probably Zacharias Janssen and father)
around 1600 Chopsticks as the forerunner of the slide rule ( John Napier )
1608 Development of the optical tube , forerunner of Galileo's telescope ( Hans Lipperhey )
1609 The astronomical telescope is built and used ( Galileo Galilei )
around 1620 The slide rule is invented ( Edmund Gunter and William Oughtred )
1623 Invention of the first calculating machine ( Wilhelm Schickard )
1638 and 1650 Air pressure and vacuum are discovered and applied ( Evangelista Torricelli , Otto von Guericke )
1640 Invention of the pendulum clock ( Galileo Galilei )
1642 Improvement of the adding machine ( Blaise Pascal )
1655 Improvement of the grinding technique of telescopic lenses ( Christiaan Huygens )
March 18, 1662 First scheduled service of horse-drawn (eight-seat) buses ( Paris ) → Carrosses à cinq sols
1673 Improvement of the microscope ( Antoni van Leeuwenhoek )
1679 The dual number system is mentioned for the first time ( Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz )
1687 Presentation of the basic laws of mechanics ( Sir Isaac Newton )
1688 First reflecting telescope ( Sir Isaac Newton )
1690 Discovery of the principle of the atmospheric steam engine in Marburg ad Lahn ( Denis Papin )
1698 Steam and vacuum as drive energy for a water pump ( Thomas Savery )
1704 Discovery of the first steamship propulsion system in Kassel (Denis Papin)
1712 First usable steam engine ( Thomas Newcomen )
1714 First patent on a machine for writing ( Henry Mill )
1727 Discovery of light-sensitive silver compounds that later become important for photography ( Johann Heinrich Schulze )
1745 With the "Kleist'schen bottle" and the " Leyden bottle ", the cathedral dean Ewald Jürgen Georg von Kleist in Cammin (Pomerania) and a year later by the physicist Pieter van Musschenbroek in Leyden discovered the capacitor principle for the first time .
1752 Invention of the lightning rod ( Benjamin Franklin )
1768 Nicholas Cugnot builds a self-driving “steam car” and demonstrates it in Paris in 1769 .
1769 Decisive improvement of Newcomen's steam engine by James Watt
1770 Natural rubber as an eraser ( Joseph Priestley )
1780 Invention of the copying press ( Wattsche Presse ) ( James Watt )
1783 Hot air balloon ( Joseph Michel Montgolfier and Jacques Etienne Montgolfier )
1785 The fully mechanized Power Loom is invented ( Edmond Cartwright )
1801 First high-pressure steam engine by ( Richard Trevithick )
1804 First steam locomotive in a mine ( Richard Trevithick )
1805 The fully mechanized loom is being further developed with control technology ( Joseph-Marie Jacquard )
1821 First monorail ( Henry Robinson Palmer )
1825 First public railroad : the Stockton and Darlington Railway
1838 Discovery of the principle of the fuel cell ( Christian Friedrich Schönbein )
1840 Electric vehicle drive ( Johann Philipp Wagner )
1843 Invention of wood pulp for paper production ( Friedrich Gottlob Keller )
1849 Francis water turbine
1852 Semi-rigid airship
1860 By pasteurization milk foods durable (to Louis Pasteur )
1861 First working telephone ( Philipp Reis )
1869 Air brake ( George Westinghouse )
1877 Invention of the phonograph ( Thomas Alva Edison )
1880 Development of the transformer by Lucien Gaulard (France) and John Dixon Gibbs (England), presented in London in 1881, patent application unsuccessful in 1882. In 1885, Károly Zipernowsky , Miksa Déri and Ottó Titusz Bláthy filed a successful patent application in Budapest ( Hungary ).
1881 First electric tram in the world by Werner von Siemens in Lichterfelde near Berlin .
1882 First electric power plant in New York by Edison
1885 George Westinghouse supplies the power supply hochgespanntem AC a
1883 Invention of the electric telescope with Nipkow disk ( Paul Nipkow )
1886 Invention of the automobile ( Carl Benz )
1887 Invention of the record ( Emil Berliner )
1890 First electric tube in London ( City and South London Railway )
1891 First safe, repeatable gliding flight ( Otto Lilienthal )
1891 First long-distance transmission of electrical energy as three-phase current with high voltage between Lauffen am Neckar and Frankfurt am Main . This method is still the most common method of electrical energy transmission today.
1893 The US Railroad Safety Appliance Act mandates the use of air brakes on all railways in the United States
1895 Discovery of X-rays ( Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen )
1896 Discovery of radioactivity ( Antoine Henri Becquerel )
1897 Invention of the cathode ray tube ( Ferdinand Braun )
1903 First successful controlled powered flight with a heavier-than-air aircraft ( Orville Wright and Wilbur Wright )
1913 The assembly line for automobile assembly ( Henry Ford )
1931 First electron microscope ( Ernst Ruska )
1935 The first regular television program is broadcast from the Berlin radio tower
1938 First induced nuclear fission of uranium ( Otto Hahn and Fritz Straßmann )
1941 Completion of the Zuse Z3 , the first universally programmable digital computer ( Konrad Zuse )
1942 Launch of an A4 rocket , which advances at an altitude of 85 km into areas that cannot be reached by balloons and airplanes
1945 First detonation of an atomic bomb ( Trinity test ) ( USA )
1948 Invention of the transistor ( William B. Shockley , John Bardeen and Walter Brattain )
1950 First Affordable Programmable Home Computer ( Simon )
1952 First detonation of a hydrogen bomb ( USA )
1954 First nuclear power plant to generate electricity in Obninsk near Moscow (output 5 MW)
1957 Launch of the first artificial earth satellite Sputnik 1 ( USSR )
1958 Development of the first integrated circuit ( Jack Kilby )
  • First impact of a missile on the moon with the unmanned Lunik 2 probe (USSR), with numerous physical measurements of moon data for the first time
  • First circumnavigation of the moon and first photo of the back of the moon using Lunik 3 (USSR)
1960 Completion of the first laser by Theodore Maiman
1961 Launch and flight of the first man into space and first orbit by Yuri Gagarin (USSR)
1963 Invention of the digital camera by David Paul Gregg at Stanford University
1968 By producing the first network connection between two computers on the ARPANET of the foundation stone for the later Internet set
1969 First manned moon landing with Apollo 11 ( USA )
1971 Ray Tomlinson sent the first email in Cambridge, USA
1972 Launch of the first spacecraft to leave the solar system ( Pioneer 10 )
1974 In RFC 675 the basic protocol TCP for the Internet is specified and this term is mentioned for the first time in writing
1979 The compact disc (CD) as digital audio storage is presented ( Sony & Philips )
1980 Construction of the first computer named as personal computer ( IBM )
1984 With the organizer I provides Psion the first forerunner of the PDA ago
1988 The self-duplicating program worm spreads faster than expected due to a programming error and is the first computer worm to paralyze the Internet for several days
1993 With the introduction of the Newton MessagePad 100, with pen operation and handwriting recognition, Apple defines the term PDA
1993/1995 Official commissioning of the global navigation satellite systems GLONASS (practically not usable for approx. 15 years) and GPS
1995 The DVD as digital audio storage is presented
1999 The age of mobile devices begins with the Palm VII, the first PDA with a built-in cellular modem
2010 The first commercially successful tablet computer is used by Apple unveiled

See also


  • Friedrich Klemm : History of Technology. Man and his inventions in the western world. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1983, ISBN 3-499-17714-5 ( Cultural History of Natural Sciences and Technology 14), ( Rororo - Rororo-Sachbuch 7714).
  • Wolfgang König (Hrsg.): Propylaea history of technology. 5 volumes. Propylaen-Verlag, Berlin 1991–1992, ISBN 3-549-05231-6 (several reprints).
  • Marie-Louise ten Horn-van Nispen: Four hundred thousand years of technological history. From the Stone Age to the Information Age. Primus Verlag, Darmstadt 1999, ISBN 3-89678-208-8 .
  • Adam Hart-Davis: The Flying Ship and Other Inventions That Almost Worked. Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-423-20479-6 ( dtv 20479).
  • Peter James, Nick Thorpe: cuneiform writing, compass, chewing gum. An encyclopedia of early inventions. Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-423-62084-6 ( dtv 62084 - series Hanser ).
  • Christian Mähr : Forgotten Inventions. Why doesn't the soda locomotive work anymore? Dumont Literature and Art Verlag, Cologne 2002, ISBN 3-8321-7816-3 .

Individual evidence

  1. Kehoe, Brendan P .: Zen and the Art of the Internet . 2nd Edition. Prentice Hall, Munich, 1994, ISBN 3-930436-06-X , pp. 83 f . (English: Zen and the Art of Internet: a Beginner's Guide .).

Web links