Liebenwerda district

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Seal mark of the Liebenwerda district around 1900

The district of Liebenwerda , until 1938 district of Liebenwerda , was a district that existed in the Prussian province of Saxony or in the state of Saxony-Anhalt of the SBZ or GDR from 1816 to 1952. District seat was Liebenwerda . The former district area today belongs to the districts of Elbe-Elster and Oberspreewald-Lausitz in the state of Brandenburg and, to a small extent, to the district of North Saxony in Saxony .


The Liebenwerda district in the middle of the 19th century

The district of Liebenwerda had a size of 793 km² and was located in the Breslau-Magdeburg glacial valley about 120 km south of Berlin. The Black Elster crossed the district from southeast to northwest. The Elbe formed the border in the southwest. In 1907 the district had 63,221 inhabitants and thus a population density of 80 inhabitants per square kilometer. A third of the population worked in agriculture.

Liebenwerda district was located in the easternmost part of the administrative district Merseburg and thus also in the easternmost part of the province of Saxony . It was between 51 ° 47 'and 51 ° 40' north latitude and 30 ° 47 'and 31 ° 27' east longitude. In the north the counties excluded Luckau and Schweinitz , in the west of Torgau , in the southwest, the Amtshauptmannschaft Oschatz , in the south of the Amtshauptmannschaft Großenhain , and in the east the districts of Hoyerswerda and Calau to the county Liebenwerda.


Kingdom of Prussia

The Prussian administrative reforms after the Congress of Vienna was to 1 October 1816 in the area of the Saxon Office Liebenwerda Saxon offices and parts Hayn and Muhlberg the district Liebenwerda in the administrative district of Merseburg in the Prussian province of Saxony furnished. The district office was in the city of Liebenwerda. As part of a subsequent correction of the original district boundaries, the places Bahnsdorf , Friedrichsluga, Gräfendorf and Neudeck were reclassified from the Liebenwerda district to the Schweinitz district .

North German Confederation / German Empire

Since July 1, 1867, the district belonged to the North German Confederation and from January 18, 1871 to the German Empire . The city of Liebenwerda was given the nickname "Bad" in 1925, but the district kept its name. On September 30, 1929, a territorial reform took place in the Liebenwerda district, as in the rest of Prussia, in which almost all independent manor districts were dissolved and assigned to neighboring rural communities . Since the dissolution of the province of Saxony on July 1, 1944, the district has belonged to the new province of Halle-Merseburg , administrative district of Merseburg.

Soviet occupation zone / German Democratic Republic

In the spring of 1945 the district was occupied by Soviet troops . In 1947, after the dissolution of Prussia, the province of Halle-Merseburg was renamed the state of Saxony-Anhalt . The Liebenwerda district remained. As part of the dissolution of the states in the GDR , a comprehensive district reform was carried out in 1952 :

Land reform 1945

The land reform fund included:

  • 27 properties over 100 hectares (ha) with 6,490 ha
  • 40 farms under 100 ha 1,698 ha
  • 3 state estates with an area of ​​9,393 ha

The land was distributed:

  • 395 farm workers and landless farmers 1,596 ha
  • 1001 poor farmers 1,853 ha
  • 125 small tenants 261 ha
  • 178 resettlers 1,315 ha
  • 567 industrial workers and salaried employees 598 ha
  • 86 farmers with 5 to 15 hectares of land received 152 hectares of forest
  • 41 rural communities received forest, building land, roads 634 ha
  • Cities received 21 ha
  • 9 committees of the Association of Mutual Farmers Aid 208 ha
  • The provincial administration received 7,603 ha of forest

The following estates were formed from the remaining 1,790 hectares:

Population development

year Residents of which male of which female Inhabitants / km²
1816 25,688
1840 33,484
1864 43,172
1871 43,967
1875 44,722
1880 46,715
1885 47,853
1907 63.221
1925 74,839
1939 88,018 44,407 43,611 111
1949 111,891 50,464 61,427 141

Politics and administration

District administrators

Term of office Surname
1816-1843 Carl Georg Friedrich von Rechenberg
1843-1851 Friedrich Wilhelm von Rohrscheidt
1851-1854 Rougher
1854-1885 Carl Heinrich von Schaper
1885-1900 Ernst von Bredow
1901-1904 Friedrich Wilhelm von Obernitz
1904-1920 Claus von Borcke
1920-1925 Max Vogl
1925-1945 Georg Röhrig
1945-1949 Paul Paulick
from 1949 Paul Gasche


Name d. choice Election year KPD SPD DNVP DVP NSDAP
Reichstag election 1919 - 11,481 4,006 1.924 -
Reichstag election 1920 914 5,164 7,219 4,480 -
Reichstag election 1924 7,197 7,349 10,770 4,322 975
Reichstag election 1928 7,339 8,806 6,589 3,619 1,222
Reichstag election 1930 10,087 8,450 2,332 3,598 7,252
Reichstag election 07/31/1932 8,564 3,503 4,006 562 20,490
Reichstag election 11/06/1932 7,568 4,406 4,006 1.109 17,734
Name d. choice Election day Eligible to vote voter turnout SED LDP CDU VdgB
District election October 20, 1946 71,016 93.5% 23,758 14,168 21,699 2,611
State election October 20, 1946 71.008 93.7% 23,912 14,250 21,765 2,600

coat of arms

Coat of arms of the Liebenwerda district

The coat of arms bears a black cross bar on a silver shield, on which the coat of arms of the old Margraviate of Meissen - a black, upright lion with a red tongue on a gold background - is placed in the middle . The upper part of the coat of arms shows four, the lower part three towers. The seven castles Mückenberg , Elsterwerda , Saathain , Würdenhain , Liebenwerda , Wahrenbrück and Uebigau , shown in the coat of arms , were built on the left bank of the Black Elster to secure land around 800 years ago. Traces of these once mighty castles can still be seen today in the castles of Mückenberg, Saathain, Elsterwerda, Übigau and the Lubwart Tower in Bad Liebenwerda . The castles of Wahrenbrück and Würdenhain are documented, but have now completely disappeared. The black wavy bar indicates the Black Elster as the river of fate of the district, and the coat of arms of the old margraviate expresses the affiliation of the district area to the margraviate of Meißen. The coat of arms was made in the Magdeburg State Archives according to ideas from history lovers and local researchers. The coat of arms is no longer an official coat of arms and is used by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Heimatkunde e. V. in Bad Liebenwerda used as the club's coat of arms.

Administrative structure

The district building in Liebenwerda around 1905

The district of Liebenwerda was divided into cities, rural communities and - until they were almost completely dissolved in 1929 - into independent manor districts. With the introduction of the German Municipal Code of January 30, 1935, a uniform municipal constitution came into force in the German Reich on April 1, 1935, according to which the previous rural municipalities were now referred to as municipalities . These were grouped together in administrative districts .

The Torgau Regional Court and the Naumburg Regional Court were responsible for the three local courts in Liebenwerda, Elsterwerda and Mühlberg . The Liebenwerda tax office was subordinate to the state tax office in Magdeburg.

After 1885, the military administration of the Liebenwerda district was subordinate to the IV Army Corps ( Magdeburg General Command ). When the Wehrmacht was founded in 1935, the Wehrmeldeamt belonged to the military district of Großenhain in Wehrkreis IV (military substitute district of Dresden).

The Catholic parishes have been under the Archdiocese of Paderborn , more precisely the Diocese of Magdeburg, since 1821 . The regional church of the Protestant communities was the Evangelical Church of the Old Prussian Union , specifically the Church Province of Saxony .

The following administrative authorities existed until 1919:

Royal District Office

  • 1 district administrator
  • 2 district deputies
  • 1 district secretary
  • 1 district assistant
  • 1 circular messenger
  • 1 district doctor / 1 district veterinarian

Chairman of the income tax assessment commission, the appraisal committee of the tax committees for trade tax classes III and IV in the Liebenwerda district

  • 1 chairman (usually district administrator)
  • 1 deputy
  • 1 tax secretary
  • 1 tax supernumerary

Royal district treasury in Liebenwerda

  • 1 rentmaster

Royal land registry office in Liebenwerda

  • 1 cadastral inspector
  • 1 cadastral draftsman

Royal Building Department in Torgau

  • 1 district building inspector

District local government

  • 1st district council
Chairman: District Administrator
District MPs
A. From the electoral associations of the cities (approx. 6)
B: From the electoral association of the rural communities (approx. 11)
C. From the electoral association of the larger rural landowners (approx. 11)
  • 2. District Committee
1 chairman, (approx. 6 members)
1 district committee secretary
1 county road builder
1 district meadow builder
1 district committee assistant

District municipal treasury

  • 1 rendant


  • 1 redant
  • 1 controller
  • 1 district savings bank assistant
  • 3 members of the Board of Trustees

District commission of the fire society in the former Duchy of Saxony

  • 1 district director
  • 1 commissioner


  • Income tax assessment committee (5-6 elected and appointed members)
  • Supplementary Tax Assessment Committee (4-6 elected and appointed members)
  • Tax committees for trade tax classes II and IV (approx. 5 members per class, 5 deputies per class)
  • Building tax assessment committee (1 chairman, 2 members)
  • Substitute commission (1 military chairman, 1 civil chairman, 4 members)
  • Experts to assess the damage to the land caused by military exercises (6 members)
  • Horse eviction commission
for the Liebenwerda collection area (3 appraisers with 3 deputies)
for Elsterwerda elimination district (3 appraisers with 3 deputies)
  • Commission to determine occupancy based on the District Management Act
  • Arbitrators in animal disease matters (approx. 51 arbitrators)
  • Licensing committee for bulls
for the show office Elsterwerda (1 chairman, 1 vice chairman, 3 + 1 members)
for the Liebenwerda Show Office (1 chairman, 1 vice chairman, 3 + 1 members)

Cities, municipalities and manor districts

As far as is known, the cities and municipalities of the district have their first documentary mention and the name given at that time.

Status 1952

Municipalities dissolved before 1952

Manor districts dissolved before 1929

After 1929, the two community-free districts of Amtsheide and Forst Liebenwerda remained in the district.


Since the Middle Ages, the Niederstraße has run through the district in a west-east direction . At Wahrenbrück, another road led north via Herzberg. At Elsterwerda a road from Gross Hayn led further north via Dobrilugk. In 1827 Prussia opened the State Office No. 62, which led from Jüterbog to Dresden through the district. With the increasing expansion of the rail network, new economically important junctions were created. The street village of Falkenberg / Elster quickly gained in importance with the construction of the Jüterbog – Röderau railway in 1848. Ortrand got a train station in 1870 on the Großenhain – Cottbus railway . The Falkenberg – Kohlfurt , which tied the district town of Liebenwerda with Biehla to the Lower Silesian Kohlfurt , went from Falkenberg / Elster in 1874 . Elsterwerda followed in 1875 with the construction of the Berlin – Dresden railway line . The Prussian provincial government tried to develop plans to regulate the Black Elster , but these could not be finally implemented until 1863. Nevertheless, it was not possible to make the Black Elster economically navigable. Even Detlev Carl von Einsiedel had tried with ships on the Black Elster bog iron, or to transport lignite.


  • Sebastian Rick : The development of the SED dictatorship in the countryside. The districts of Liebenwerda and Schweinitz in the Soviet occupation zone 1945–1949 (= publications of the Hannah Arendt Institute for Research on Totalitarianism , Volume 58). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2016, ISBN 978-3-525-36970-8 .

Web links

Commons : Landkreis Liebenwerda  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Gustav Tränkner: The cultivation of soil in 1913 in the districts of Torgau, Wittenberg, Schweinitz and Liebenwerda Inaugural dissertation to obtain a doctorate from a high philosophy faculty at the University of Leipzig, 1928
  2. ^ District statistics from April 3, 1948, Central Administration for Statistics, Bad Liebenwerda district office
  3. ^ "Chronicle of the City of Bad Liebenwerda", 2007
  5. ^ Liebenwerdaer Kreisblatt , No. 86, 1932, special electoral edition Nov. 1932
  6. Karl Fizkow: Local calendar of the Liebenwerda district 1941
  7. ^ Page of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Heimatkunde e. V.
  8. ↑ Local calendar of the Bad Liebenwerda district 1959
  9. Die Schwarze Elster No. 3 (580), 1981
  10. Detailed and recognized chronicle of the place by Rudolf Matthies, long-time local chronicler and employee of the Museum of Prehistory and Early History in Potsdam ( Memento of the original from April 16, 2005 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /