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coat of arms Germany map
Coat of arms of the city of Naila
Map of Germany, position of the city of Naila highlighted

Coordinates: 50 ° 20 '  N , 11 ° 42'  E

Basic data
State : Bavaria
Administrative region : Upper Franconia
County : court
Height : 512 m above sea level NHN
Area : 37.05 km 2
Residents: 7647 (Dec. 31, 2019)
Population density : 206 inhabitants per km 2
Postal code : 95119
Area code : 09282
License plate : HO , MÜB , NAI, REH , SAN
Community key : 09 4 75 156
City structure: 37 districts

City administration address :
Marktplatz 12
95119 Naila
Website :
Mayor : Frank Stumpf ( FWG )
Location of the town of Naila in the district of Hof
Schwarzenbach an der Saale Zell im Fichtelgebirge Weißdorf Trogen (Oberfranken) Töpen Stammbach Sparneck Selbitz (Oberfranken) Schwarzenbach am Wald Schauenstein Rehau Regnitzlosau Oberkotzau Naila Münchberg Lichtenberg (Oberfranken) Konradsreuth Köditz Issigau Helmbrechts Geroldsgrün Gattendorf (Oberfranken) Feilitzsch Döhlau Berg (Oberfranken) Bad Steben Landkreis Kronach Hof (Saale) Landkreis Wunsiedel im Fichtelgebirge Landkreis Kulmbach Landkreis Bayreuth Martinlamitzer Forst-Nord Geroldsgrüner Forst Gerlaser Forst Forst Schwarzenbach a.Wald Sachsen Thüringen Tschechienmap
About this picture
City view with parish church
Naila from the southwest

Naila [ ˈnaɪ̯laː ] is a town in Upper Franconia . It is located about 18 kilometers west of the independent city of Hof in the Franconian Forest on the Bavarian Porcelain Route . Until 1972 Naila was the district town of the district of the same name , since 1993 the city has been a medium-sized center in the district of Hof .



Naila is located in the eastern Franconian Forest on the Selbitz river . The altitude mark at Naila train station shows 501 meters above sea level. The highest point in the municipality is 710 meters above sea level at Döbrastöcken on the ascent to Döbraberg , the lowest at 488 meters on the Selbitz at the entrance to the Höllental .

Neighboring communities

The city borders the following areas in the district of Hof:

Lichtenberg Issigau mountain
Bad Steben
Community-free area
Neighboring communities Selbitz
Schwarzenbach am Wald Schauenstein

City structure

Naila consists of a total of 37 districts:

  • Bear house
  • Bear houses
  • fire
  • Culmitz
  • Culmitz hammer
  • Dobra sticks
  • Three green
  • Einsiedel
  • Erbsbühl
  • Erbsbühl (rear)
  • Finch flight
  • Froschbach
  • Garles
  • hell
  • hill
  • Lime kiln
  • Small forging
  • Linden trees
  • Lippertsgrün
  • Marlesreuth
  • Marble mill
  • Martinsberg
  • Marxgrün
  • Middle blade spur
  • Molkenbrunn
  • Naila
  • Naila frog green
  • Nestelreuth
  • Upperblade spur
  • Pechreuth I.
  • Pechreuth II
  • Reutberg
  • Grinding mill
  • Snail green
  • Schottenhammer
  • Lower blade spur
  • Willow mill

Land use

The area of ​​Naila - a total of 37.05 km² - is distributed over 19.22 km² of agricultural land, 1.69 km² of public traffic areas, 13.7 km² of forest areas, 0.22 km² of water, 0.1 km² of parks and green spaces and 0.065 km² km² of undeveloped industrial and commercial space.


The earliest traces of settlement in the area of ​​today's Naila are ceramic shards that could be dated between 600 and 900 AD. For the first time a village was mentioned in 1343 Neulins . Iron and copper mining flourished from the middle of the 15th to the middle of the 18th century. With the beginning of industrialization, the economic focus shifted towards shoe and textile manufacturing. About 200 Nailaers died in World War II. Subsequently there was a large influx of refugees from the former German eastern regions. Despite the loss of important sales markets as a result of the division of Germany , the further economic development of Naila after the war was definitely positive.

Name development

In the past, the following variants of the city name occurred:

  • Neulins, Newlins and Newlin (from 1343 to 1429)
  • Neilein (from 1424)
  • Neylein (from 1429)
  • Neyla (from 1478)
  • Naila (from 1643)

The origin of the city name is unclear. Various local researchers could not agree on an interpretation. There are therefore several attempts to interpret these variants.

If the name Naila comes from Old German , it can be explained as follows:

  • Egg-shaped system (refers to the first system, which must have been egg-shaped or oval-shaped); this would be written Eila or Eilau . The N would then probably have resulted from the regional dialect.
  • New small settlement : The oldest known spelling of Naila, Neulins , offers the new , while -lins , -lein or later -la expresses a reduction in size. This is also in line with today's dialect, where -la is used as a diminutive or belittling form and is the most likely interpretation.
  • Neu-Waldsiedlung : Here, too, the rather likely original word Neu , which is contained in the origin of the word with relative certainty. -La is interpreted here as Loh , which was also found in other sources at the time. Loh would indicate forest , which corresponds to the geographical conditions, but it must be pointed out that the first documented mention of the second syllable was -lins and -la only appeared later.

If you take the Slavic language as a basis, the following explanation results:

  • Nahly (means something like "steep")
  • Na and Glina : from Glina , the Slavic word for clay and Na , roughly local or pub , so put together local on the clay


City parish church, seat of the deanery
Catholic Church Transfiguration of Christ

Naila is the seat of the Naila deanery of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria . The deanery essentially comprises the former Naila district. The Protestant parish church is on the market square. There is a recreational home of the YMCA , a regional church community and the Evangelical Cross Brotherhood . The new construction of the Methodist Church was consecrated in 1932.

In 1911 the new building of a Roman Catholic church was consecrated. The Catholic Curate Naila was raised to a parish in 1937 when the Catholic Dean's Office in Hof was founded . In 1962 the Catholic parish church of the Transfiguration of Christ was built.

There is a New Apostolic Church and a Jehovah's Witness Kingdom Hall .


In 1920 the previously independent community of Froschgrün was incorporated. On July 1, 1971, Culmitz was added. On May 1, 1978, Lippertsgrün, Marlesreuth and Marxgrün and part of the dissolved Reitzenstein community were incorporated.

Population development

In the period from 1988 to 2018, the population fell from 8,560 to 7,684 by 876 or 10.2%. On December 31, 1992 the city had 9,107 inhabitants.

The population figures refer to the current territorial status (the incorporated places are included).

year Residents
1840 4,357
1871 4,549
1900 5,201
1925 6.336
1939 6,955
year Residents
1950 10,090
1956 9,668
1960 9,522
1965 9,829
1970 9,821
year Residents
1975 9,631
1980 9,217
1985 8,675
1990 8,893
1995 9,037
year Residents
2000 8,547
2005 8,410
2010 8,071
2015 7,640


City council

The Naila city council has 21 members including the mayor. There are four committees: Main Administration Committee, Construction and Land Committee, Finance Committee, and Audit Committee. The CSU and the voter union form a parliamentary group , as do the Free Voter Community Naila (FWG), the non-partisan voter community Naila (ÜWG) and party-free citizens . The active citizens' group of voters has no parliamentary group status.

Political party 2020 2014 2008
Free voters 7th 7th 8th
Christian-Social Union in Bavaria 5 5 4th
Social Democratic Party of Germany 3 3 3
Naila Electoral Union 1 1 2
Party-free citizens Marxgrün / Hell 2 2 1
Non-partisan community of voters Naila 1 1 1
Active citizens of Naila 1 1 1


At the head of the city is the mayor. The city council elects two deputies from the ranks of the city council. The second mayor is currently Jörg-Steffen Höger (party-free citizens of Marxgrün / Hell); third mayor Daniel Hohberger (SPD).

Term of office Surname
1818-1828 Johann Jakob Eichele
1829-1840 Johann Nikolaus Wolfgang Knopf
1841-1846 August Immanuel Zuber
1847-1855 Wilhelm Johann Heckel Sr.
1856-1862 Heinrich Johann Klug
1862-1868 Wilhelm Heckel jun.
1868-1875 Ludwig Borger
1876-1887 Heinrich Frühauf
1888-1897 Philipp Heckel
Term of office Surname
1898-1905 Heinrich Findeiß
1906-1919 Wilhelm Hagen
1919-1926 Heinrich Chancellor
1926-1933 Julius Borger
1933-1933 Ludwig Wunner
1933-1945 Karl Jakob Schmidt
1945-1945 Georg Fugmann
1945-1948 Heinrich Lang senior
1948-1952 Christian Schlicht
Term of office Surname
1952-1953 Georg Fugmann
1953-1956 Karl Otto Zander
1956-1959 Hilmar Jahn
1960-1964 Fritz Jahn
1964-1968 Hans Kuenzel
1968-1972 Albin Bischoff
1972-1996 Robert Strobel
1996-2001 Hannsjürgen Lommer
since 2001 Frank Stumpf (FWG)

coat of arms

Naila coat of arms

Blazon : Split; front quartered in black and silver; behind in red on the green ground between two green trees standing a wild man with a green wreath of leaves and a green leaf apron, who is swinging a golden club with his right hand.

Black and silver are symbols for the Hohenzollern, later Brandenburg rulers. Next to it is the wild man who historians say is a symbol of mining in the area. The coat of arms was changed only once in 1819. After joining Bavaria , the black areas were colored blue to represent the Bavarian state colors. This change was reversed at the beginning of the 20th century.

Economy and Infrastructure


Naila used to be an important location for the textile industry , which is only partially preserved today. The up-and-coming businesses have been retailers and freight forwarders since reunification . Thanks to the eastward expansion of the European Union due to the central location and the good transport connections, these have consistently high growth rates and are considered to be the hope of the Naila economy. Another economic focus of the region is the brewing industry . The intensifying competition in the textile sector has led to many bankruptcies since the 1990s and was partly absorbed by the growing logistics and retail trade as well as the strong mechanical engineering and plastics industries. The large companies include the shipping company Bischoff, LIBA Maschinenfabrik, Ontec Automatisierungstechnik, TLS - Transport Logistik Systeme, Rehau AG, Marlesreuth and Schwarzenbach / Wald (plastics), Höllensprudel , Serag-Wiessner (surgical sutures) and Pazdera AG, Naila branch (light metal construction, formerly Thierron ).


Railway bridge over the Selbitz at the entrance to the village from the B 173

Naila is located near the federal motorway 9 ( Berlin - Munich ) and can be reached via junction 32 Naila / Selbitz . The federal highway 173 runs south of Naila and connects Hof in the east with Kronach in the west.

The Hof – Bad Steben railway runs through Naila . The Naila , Oberklingensporn and Marxgrün stations are located in the urban area of Naila . Until 1945 the line in Marxgrün had a connection to Bad Lobenstein and Saalfeld in Thuringia via the Höllentalbahn and the Sormitztalbahn . The local railway Naila – Schwarzenbach am Wald , which was dismantled in 1994, ran over the striking bridge at the entrance to Naila at federal highway 173 .


Old building of the Naila high school

The following schools of the structured school system are located in Naila : The Primary School Naila, the Middle School Frankenwald (formerly Hauptschule), the Musical Realschule Naila emerged from the middle school opened in 1950. A grammar school was established in Naila at the end of the 1960s . This school, which has been called Hochfranken-Gymnasium Naila since 2010, moved into a new building near Lichtenberger Straße in 1970, which has been used as a school center with an extension and after a general renovation since 2012.

The general vocational school emerged from the association vocational school that was newly founded in 1938 and was closed in 2008. The Protestant School Naila, a private elementary and middle school, has been located in the building since 2017. The State Technical and Vocational School for Clothing was founded in 1949 as the State Embroidery School. The school at Martinsberg is a private special educational support center. Children of pre-school age are looked after in four kindergartens and in the special educational-psychotherapeutic children's village Martinsberg.

Leisure, culture and sights

Local museum

Since 1986 there has been a local museum in Naila , which is housed in the Schusterhof , a former shoe factory.

Weber House Museum

Since 1994 there has been a historic weaver's house in the Marlesreuth district of Naila, where life in a weaving village is brought closer.


Mention should be made of the two large markets, the spring and autumn markets, the Rupperich market during Advent and the weekly market.

Park railway

A park railway runs in Froschgrüner Park on Sundays during the summer months .


The wedding fountain on the market square and another bronze fountain are works by the Köditz artist Margarete Wiggen .

Egg whale

Custom of the egg whale in Naila on Holy Saturday

On Holy Saturday the custom of egg rolling (egg rolling) is maintained, which was very important in Naila in earlier times (the naming of several streets can be traced back to the custom). The competition takes place near the playground at Ludelbach.

Architectural monuments

Death march

In the municipal cemetery on Albin-Klöber-Strasse, a collective grave and a stone sculpture remind us that nine victims of a death march from Buchenwald concentration camp are buried there, who were slain by SS men in the spring of 1945 near the site . Five other Nazi victims are buried in the Naila cemetery (three deceased forced laborers and two unknown soldiers who were shot by the SS).

Recreational areas

There are numerous local recreation areas in the region, for example the Höllental .


The Frankenweg leads through the districts of Hölle and Marxgrün and on the outskirts of Naila.


The sports offer of the local clubs includes table tennis , tennis , karate , kickboxing , soccer , handball , volleyball , Indiaca , Kung-Fu , motor sports , bowling , sports and archery, darts , athletics, long-distance running and triathlon. There are opportunities for downhill skiing and snowboarding on the drag lift in the Döbrastöcken district. There are numerous cross-country skiing trails and hiking trails in the vicinity of Naila . The stadium on the northern edge of Naila is an athletics stadium with running tracks, throwing facilities and a soccer field. The playing field is surrounded on one side by an earth wall with standing bars that offer space for around 2000 spectators. It was inaugurated in 1983 with a game of a reinforced FSV Naila against the nine-time German soccer champions 1. FC Nürnberg . The outdoor pool in Dreigrünbach-Grund, which was built in 1936, has since been rebuilt. In Naila itself there is also a mini golf course at Ludelbach and the skate park.


The former Naila notary Axel Adrian started the Naila Demography Days in 2003. The event annually discusses problems that have arisen and will arise as a result of the declining population development in Germany. It is run by POLIS - the association for the interdisciplinary investigation of demography, the state, the economy and society. V. organized. In 2006 the 3rd Demography Days at Naila took place with speakers from science and politics.


The association based in Naila sees itself as a competence network and exchange platform for entrepreneurs and executives in the region and has set itself the goal of imparting knowledge impulses with events and company visits as well as promoting networks and cooperation. He works closely with the Hof University of Applied Sciences , the Working Group for Economic Administration (AWV) and other institutions.


Cellular Study

This study is mostly just called the Naila study in the press and was presented in 2004 in the Frankenhalle by Horst Eger, who carried out the study together with most of the practicing doctors from Naila. Her topic is the investigation of connections between electromagnetic radiation from cell phone towers and the likelihood of cancer occurring . The residents were classified based on the distance from their home to a cell phone mast and the cancer incidence was examined for the said correlation after 10 years of observation. From a statistical point of view, the probability of such a connection based on the study data is 95 or 99% (determined by the chi-square test ).


The study carried out in Naila was controversial, with the critics referring to the size of the control group, which was too small to completely rule out other confounding factors, and the proponents of the study to the high statistical significance of the values ​​obtained, which was at least one repetition on a larger scale would suggest.


The city of Naila is currently aiming in a petition to lower the maximum values ​​to a millionth of their current level at both state, federal and EU level. Arguments are, on the one hand, the precautionary principle of European environmental policy; on the other hand, the extremely low limit values ​​in Switzerland and the Austrian state of Salzburg are addressed, with which a functioning network can still be operated. This can be explained by the fact that the intensity of electromagnetic radiation decreases quadratically with increasing distance from the transmitter. So if you want to cover a very large area with a single transmitter, you have an extremely high radiation exposure in the immediate vicinity of the transmitter, which is far higher than would be necessary for reception. The solution in Switzerland and Austria is accordingly to have significantly more transmission masts, which are operated with significantly lower power.

Balloon escape from the GDR

On September 16, 1979, the Strelzyk and Wetzel families from Pößneck flew over the inner-German border in a self-made hot air balloon at night. After a 28-minute flight and 22 kilometers (as the crow flies), they landed in a field near Naila. There were four adults and four children on board. The original balloon is exhibited in the Nailaer Museum.


In a picture newspaper article in the 1980s, Naila [ Na-ila ] was assigned to Africa , which led to amusement.

Since the great fire of 1862 and the accumulated burning of barns and buildings in the area, the Nailaer citizens have been nicknamed Naalicher Ozünder ( Nailaer igniter). Meanwhile, an Ozünderweg has also been signposted.



Web links

Commons : Naila  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikivoyage: Naila  - Travel Guide

Individual evidence

  1. "Data 2" sheet, Statistical Report A1200C 202041 Population of the municipalities, districts and administrative districts 1st quarter 2020 (population based on the 2011 census) ( help ).
  2. Planning region Upper Franconia East
  3. ? Anzeige=voll&modus=automat&tempus=+20100925/182442&attr=OBJ&val= 1233
  4. ^ Wilhelm Volkert (ed.): Handbook of Bavarian offices, communities and courts 1799–1980 . CH Beck, Munich 1983, ISBN 3-406-09669-7 , p. 530 .
  5. ^ Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer GmbH, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 687 and 688 .
  6. Wir im Frankenwald, Intercommunal Official Journal ..., May 9, 2014, p. 18 , accessed on January 14, 2016
  7. ^ City of Naila City Council Results. City of Naila, accessed June 5, 2020 .
  8. ^ City of Naila City Council. City of Naila, accessed June 5, 2020 .
  9. - Homepage of the Nailaer Gymnasium
  10. Memorial sites for the victims of National Socialism. A documentation, volume 1. Federal Agency for Civic Education, Bonn 1995, ISBN 3-89331-208-0 , p. 177
  11. See also Constanze Werner: KZ-Friedhöfe und Gedenkstätten in Bayern , Schnell and Steiner: Regensburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-7954-2483-1 , pages 215-216 with further details also on the memorial from 1947.
  12. Naila study as a PDF file