Danish literature

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Under Danish literature refers to the in Danish written literature. This also includes the Danish-language literature of the Danish southern Schleswig-Holstein . Danish literature is part of Scandinavian literature .

Viking age

The folk and hero songs (Kæmpeviser) of the Viking Age are considered to be the oldest works in Danish national literature . These can be traced back to the end of the 11th century. Since they were not recorded until half a millennium later and, as a result of oral tradition, may have been significantly changed from gender to gender, the question of whether they were originally of Danish origin or influenced by the Edda poems cannot be decided with certainty. They tell of the life and deeds of legendary figures such as Bjarki , Ingjald , Hagbard and Singe , of mermaids , goblins and other magical beings, but also of historical personalities and events of that time.

These works were not passed down orally among the people; rather, it is a Nordic variant of the European knight poetry . However, it can be shown that they soon became common property and were used, for example, at popular dance festivals. These folk ballads were only collected towards the end of the 16th century by the historiographer and preacher Anders Sørensen Vedel ("Hundrede Viser med oplysende Anmærkninger", "Hundertliederbuch" 1591).

This work was later edited and supplemented by Peter Syv , Werner Hans Abrahamson , Knud Lyne Rahbek , Rasmus Nyerup and Jens Rasmussen so that it comprises around 450 songs. The even older runic inscriptions were collected since the 17th century - first by Ole Worm (1588–1665).

middle Ages

The collections of laws from the Middle Ages are more linguistic than literary monuments. The growing power of the Church made it necessary to fix canon law early on , just as the ongoing disputes between the state authorities on the one hand and the nobility and clergy on the other necessitated the establishment of secular legal norms. Since the beginning of the 12th century, many young nobles at the universities of Paris and Bologna were engaged in the newly awakened study of canonical and ancient Roman law, and after their return they worked for the reorganization of Danish legislation. So in 1162 the beautiful church law and in 1170 the Zeeland canon law , both in Danish. Among the secular laws are the Skaanske Lov 1160, the Zeeland ( Sjællandske Lov ) of King Waldemar I 1170 and above all the Jutland ( Jyske Lov ), which was enacted in 1241 at the Diet of Vordingborg .

Apart from these writings and a “Danish rhyming chronicle” from the second half of the 15th century (printed in 1495; oldest Nordic incunabula ), almost all writings from the pre-Reformation period are written in Latin. As a rule, they emerged from the monasteries and dealt with historical and religious matters without exerting any major influence on the further development of literature or on the spiritual life of the nation. Only the Gesta Danorum "The Deeds of the Danes" by Saxo Grammaticus (after 1185), which were written in Latin, contain many narratives that come from dubious sources, but reveal a great sense of form. Translated in part by Christiern Pedersen in 1514 and fully by Anders Sørensen Vedel ( Den danske Krønicke ) in 1575 , this work has had a strong influence on Danish prose.

Title page of the
Danorum Regum heroumque Historia printed by Christiern Pedersen in Paris in 1514

Reformation time

It is true that the Reformation broke the power of the clergy and thus the rule of Latin as a written language, and the Roman-critical Catholic Poul Helgeson (Paulus Helie, approx. 1485–1534) and Erasmus translator urged Christians in the Danish language to unite in the biblical-humanist spirit . But this did not lead to any significant upswing in Danish national literature, since German, as the language of the educated, gained the upper hand. The learned Danish King Friedrich I (1523–1533) contributed to this, and German became the official language at his court. The Danish language lost its importance, especially in the higher classes.

On the other hand, there was an awakening national consciousness, which was expressed in the civil war that broke out after the death of Frederick I. Christern Pedersen (1480–1554), who is rightly referred to as the father of the Danish written language, earned special merit in a popular language . Pedersen had studied in Paris and was able to advocate the use of the Danish language as Chancellor of Archbishop Johan Vese . Due to his sympathy for the captured King Christian II , Pedersen fled to Germany in 1528. He visited Martin Luther in Wittenberg , who was able to win him over to the Reformation. While still in Wittenberg, Pedersen began translating the Bible into Danish and was able to have his Danish New Testament published in Antwerp the following year . In 1531 Pedersen published a collection of psalms and several pamphlets that were entirely in the style of Martin Luther.

In comparison to the first Danish translation of the New Testament, the so-called Christian II's Bible , which was published in 1524 at the request of King Christian II , it is clear with what mastery he used the Danish language. Pedersen's writings caused such a stir that he was allowed to return to his homeland as early as 1532. He settled in Malmø , which was then part of Denmark, and founded a printing company. In the next few years he was able to publish many popular writings, including historical folk books, religious writings, a pharmacopoeia and in 1550 the first complete Danish translation of the Bible, which - because of the language alone - was considered an unsurpassed masterpiece for a long time.

The Ripener Bishop Hans Tausen (1494–1561) stands out among all of Pedersen's contemporaries . He published mostly religious works; As his most important work, in addition to a passion story, the improved edition of the Danish hymn book (1544), first published in Malmø in 1528, should be mentioned. The reformer Frans Vormordsen (1491–1551), who translated David's psalms and Luther's little catechism, should also be mentioned.

Baroque: 1600-1720

Building on the hymn books of the Reformation period, Thomas Kingo (1634–1703) was able to publish a new “hymn book prescribed for Denmark and Norway” in 1689. It is one of the most beautiful sacred song books that the Danish Evangelical Church has. Anders Arrebo (1587–1637) played a role with his creation poetry in Danish literature similar to that of the writer Martin Opitz in German literature. Arild Hvitfeld (1549–1609) published the historical chronicle “Danmarks Riges Krønike” in 10 volumes (Copenhagen 1595–1604). But despite the efforts of these and other men such as Anders Bording (1619–1677), a court poet, the Danish language remained frowned upon in higher society until well into the 17th century. The diary ("Jammersminde") of the king's daughter Eleonora Christina Ulfeldt (1621–1698) is an exception .

Enlightenment, Sensitivity and the Danish National Movement: 1720–1802

A new era in Danish national literature began with the noble universal writer and historian Ludvig Holberg (1684–1754). He is not only considered to be the founder of the modern Danish stage, but also of Scandinavian dramatic literature in general. Under the influence of Molière and English rationalism , but with no role models in his own country and persecuted by the scorn of the "educated public", he created a completely independent Danish "show stage" in a few years, which, compared to the Gottschedschen at the same time , must inspire admiration. Some of his satirical and moral pieces, especially " The Political Kannengießer " and "Jeppe auf dem Berge", have also been played in Germany. Holberg takes his material from his time, whose folly he castigates with humor. He satirizes the addiction to ape foreign languages ​​and customs. Through ridicule, he achieved what his predecessors had tried to achieve through instruction: Holberg's linguistic patriotic endeavors brought the Danish language back to life alongside German and formed the basis on which the new popular literature could develop.

Holberg monument in front of the Royal Theater Copenhagen

The pietism as a countermovement to rationalism and deism represented Hans Adolf Brorson (1694-1764), whose "Troens rare Klenodie" the most beautiful of which is part of what has produced the spiritual seal in Denmark.

Around 1760 - supported by the pro-German attitude of Count Johann Friedrich Struensee (1737–1772) - the aesthetic of sensibility found many followers in Copenhagen. Soon after Holberg's death a playwright was found who was able to continue this work in the style of the new sensibility and develop it to new climaxes. Despite his unsteady life - he took part in the Seven Years' War - and his untimely death, Johannes Ewald (1743–1781) was of great importance for the development of Danish literature as a poet and tragedy poet. Just as Holberg was the father of the comedy, Ewald is the founder of the Danish tragedy under the influence of Klopstock . He took his material from Norse mythology ("Balders Tod", 1773) and the work of Saxo Grammaticus. His pieces were quickly received in Germany too. A number of less important authors are grouped around these two men, such as Christian Falster (1690–1765), who wrote biting and eloquent satires, and Christian Brauman Tullin (1728–1765), who especially cultivated the didactic poem, but also satire.

An excellent successor to Holberg and Ewald was the Norwegian Johan Herman Wessel (1742–1785), who used Norwegian expressions and phrases in his writings, but came to Denmark very young. He had found a literature there which was on the best way to leave the paths drawn out by Holberg and Ewald. As in Germany Gotthold Ephraim Lessing , so here Wessel appeared against the French classical drama, but not like the German scholar in the heavy armor of science, but like Holberg once in the light garment of satire. This is how his “tragedy” came about: “Kjærlighed uden Strømper” (“Love without stockings”, 1772), a parody unique of its kind. Through this he made the French drama in Denmark impossible at one stroke. Troubled financial circumstances and alcoholism meant that until his death at the age of 43 he could only write one major work, "Kjærlighed uden Strømper". With his death, the golden age of Danish literature, the so-called Nordic Renaissance, with its combination of mythology, national history and literature, which led to romanticism, came to an end.

After Struensee's fall, the Danish language was upgraded. Danish was introduced as a subject in grammar schools in 1775, and in 1776 Germans and other foreigners were excluded from all public offices. However, the era from 1780 to the beginning of the 19th century produced hardly anything worth mentioning. Their main characteristics are excessive rationalism , patriotism and a resulting tendency to polemics. This has to do with their anti-German danicism, which was a reaction to Struensee's anti-Danish stance (the latter had even introduced German as the official language of the Norwegian Navy), but which could not be compared with Holberg's enlightened patriotism. The fact that politics was merged with poetry and often enough played the main role is not surprising in an age that immediately followed on from Struensee's brilliant career, as everyone at the time dreamed of a political career that could be promoted through political polemics was looking for, especially since one could hardly earn a living as an author. In 1784, however, he came again to a government by Holstein nobles with a strong German cultural awareness, which caused the Danes to feel marginalized again and the tensions between the ethnic groups increased. In 1789/90 a literary polemic escalated to the Tyskerfejden (feud against the Germans).

An exception in a mediocre literary environment Peter Andreas Heiberg (1758–1841), a representative of sensitive rationalism. His strength was also polemics. His appearance against the reaction, which culminated in the abolition of the freedom of the press , led to his being expelled from the country in 1799 after several political trials had ended. A kindred spirit of Heiberg was the geographer Conrad Malte-Brun (1775-1826). At the age of 19 he already published a newspaper: "Vækkeren", in which he advocated the principles of the French Revolution . When it was suppressed, he wrote “Jerusalem Skomager's Journey til Maanen” and “Aristocratic Catekism” (1796), then re-founded a magazine: “Fluesmækkeren”, and was involved in a process which he escaped by fleeing to Paris, where he became famous as a geographer.

Another member of the circle around Heiberg was Knud Lyne Rahbek (1760-1830), who made a name for himself as an esthete and critic, but in the last 30 years of his life completely withdrew from public life. Together with the Norwegian Kristen Pram (1756–1821) he published the aesthetic magazine “Minerva” (1785–1789 and 1791–1806), through which he intervened in the literary disputes of the time. Its aesthetic impacted Norway (which was separated from Denmark in 1814) and Sweden.

We should also mention Ole Johan Samsö , the author of the drama “Dyveke”; Christian Levin Sander , whose national tragedy “Niels Ebbesen” was received with great enthusiasm and was considered a role model for a long time, also the poet Thomas Thaarup (1749–1829) and, as a link between this period and the following, who because of his lyrical and comical talents also known in Germany , exuberant cosmopolitan Jens Immanuel Baggesen (1764–1826), who was friends with Schiller and Wieland and who remained outside the national Danish movement.

The Golden Age: Romanticism 1802–1830

Partly through studying the German philosophers Immanuel Kant and Johann Gottlieb Fichte , partly through the natural philosophy of Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling , whose ideas found an enthusiastic lawyer in the Norwegian naturalist and philosopher Heinrich Steffens (1773–1845), a member of the circle around PA Heiberg Partly as a result of the strict censorship ordinance of 1799, a new direction in literature was pioneered in Denmark at the beginning of this century. If towards the end of the previous one one had argued with almost naive zeal over rather insignificant aesthetic questions, now began a period of serious reception of the romantic aesthetic. The French Revolution, which upset all of Europe towards the end of the last century, then Denmark's participation in the Napoleonic Wars , the capture of the Danish fleet by the English, the war with the Swedes (1808) and the loss of Norway (1814) contributed to triggering liberal ideas and a heightened historical and national awareness among the elites as well as a return to common Scandinavian values, traditions and myths in broader strata of the people.

The man who best expressed this mood and who became the head of the new romantic school was Adam Oehlenschläger (1779–1850), who stood up for the Danish king for the young Friedrich Hebbel, who was in financial need . Steffens won over the ideas of the German Romantics and began his poetic career in 1802 as a poet ("Guldhornene", "Digte", "Freias Alter", "Langelandsreisen" and "Jesu Liv i den tilbagevendende Natur") and as an epic poet (" Thors Reise til Jotunheim ”and“ Vaulundur's Saga ”), whereupon he went over to tragic drama with his adventurous-romantic“ Aladdin eller den vidunderlige lamp ”. He has achieved his greatest successes in this area, for example with "Hakon Jarl" (1807; German Tübingen 1809), "Baldur hin Gode" (1807), "Palnatoke" (1807) and "Axel og Valborg" (1808). He had the ambition to want to be a German poet too, and translated his works into German. Originally he published the drama “Correggio” (1809) only in the foreign language. His German style, however, was too clumsy and his attitude too specifically Danish for this pursuit to be successful.

His competitor was Nikolai Frederik Severin Grundtvig (1783–1872), who wrote a larger epic work in the Old Norse spirit (“Optrin af Kæmpelivets Undergang i Norden”, 1808), but who achieved little success as a poet. He was happier as a theologian and later as a freedom fighter against the French occupation. On the basis of the Old Norse tradition, he developed a common Scandinavian, mythical-religious historical awareness and contributed to the fact that universal romanticism turned into national romanticism. The most popular novelist in Denmark of the national romantic epoch was Bernhard Ingemann (1789–1862). His novels are all based on historical events, which he transformed with great freedom for his purposes. He also wrote short stories and poems.

The poet Adolph Wilhelm Schack von Staffeldt (1769–1826) received little attention despite his poetry, which was distinguished by bold images, and remained outside the national romantic movement, indeed he fought against the new romantic literature.

Soon there was a decline in the romantic movement. That was less due to the choice of Norse fabrics, but to their fixation on the classical, humanistic Schiller drama type.

The Hegelian Johan Ludvig Heiberg (1791-1860) appeared as an opponent of Ingemann and Grundtvig . His outlook on life, his satirical skills and his ease of use of language make all of his works appear appealing. He achieved most successes as a poet and arranger of vaudevilles , ie syntheses of text and music with both epic and lyrical elements; but he was also known as a poet and author of the national romantic play "Elverhøi" (1828). The romantic-idealistic phase of Danish literature ends with his work. As the director of the Royal Theater in Copenhagen, where his wife was an excellent actress for many years, Heiberg did a lot to elevate the Danish drama. Also Carsten Hauch (1791-1872) reaped rich success with his plays and novels.

Realism: 1830–1871

The realistic description of the present gained in importance around 1830: The bourgeoisisation of literature advanced, prose and novel replaced the verse epic. Pastor Steen Steensen Blicher (1782–1848) was very successful and became very popular with his Jutland novellas. Blicher was the first to work on the genre that later became known in Germany as "village stories" through Jeremias Gotthelf and Berthold Auerbach ; he was also one of the first dialect poets in Danish literature. Partly influenced by Ingemann and partly by Blicher was "Etlar Carit" ( pseudonym for Carl Brosbøll , born in 1820), who was characterized by a flourishing imagination and astonishing talent for combination.

Among the novelists in this period Thomasine Gyllembourg-Ehrensvärd (1773-1856) stood out, the mother of Heiberg, who made her debut at the age of 53 in the “Flyvende Post” edited by her son with the story “En Hverdagshistorie” and soon got one Name in the history of Danish literature. Andreas Nikolai de Saint-Aubain (pseudonym "Carl Bernhard", 1798–1865) is related to her in several ways , but he lags behind her in terms of depth of feeling. Christian Winther (1796–1876), who, as a singer of rural life, enriched literature with numerous novels and lyrical poems, was more popular than the latter two . His most important work is probably the romantic epic "Hjortens Flug" (1856). Another important lyric poet is Henrik Hertz (1798–1870), who sought to revive Baggesen's muse and for this purpose led a sharp polemic against Oehlenschläger and Heiberg in “Gjengangerbreve” (1830). He was also known as a dramatic poet through the romantic "Kong René's Datter" and various other works. In Thomas Overskou (1798–1874) the stage won a skilled playwright, while the student comedies of Jens Christian Hostrup (1818–1892) opened up a new and productive field for the art of acting.

Hans Christian Andersen, 1860

The obituary of all these authors is dominated by Hans Christian Andersen (1805–1875), who knows how to breath poetry into even inconspicuous events and phenomena in his world-famous fairy tales. Just as naive and sensual as his fairy tales are his lyrical poems, which were influenced by German Romanticism and Heinrich Heine . Some of the poems were translated into German by Adelbert von Chamisso (“It goes with a dampened drum sound”, among others). As a novelist and playwright, however, Andersen was less successful; even his novel “OT” (Odense Tugthus) was only able to temporarily captivate the interest of the Danish reading world.

Frederik Paludan-Müller (1809–1876) was less accessible to the general public than Andersen . He made his debut in 1832 with the romantic play "Kjærlighed ved Hoffet" ("Love at the Court"), which also became famous in Germany, and from then on published lyrical and romantic dramas, rhyming fairy tales, poetic stories, epic, lyrical and didactic poems in a colorful sequence . Significant among these many signs of his astonishing productivity is the extensive epic "Adam Homo", the first part of which appeared in 1841 and the end of which only appeared in 1848. It's very broad and a little tiring here and there, but it's full of deep thoughts and thoroughly original.

Erik Bögh (1822–1899) is primarily a humorous columnist. As such, he dominated the tastes of Copenhagen's literary circles during the 1860s. As a strictly conservative, he was a bitter opponent of the liberal Jewish literary historian and critic Georg Brandes and the naturalistic literary movement he represented. The best known are his “Forelæsninger” and the feature sections collected under the title “Dit og Dat”. He has also translated or edited around a hundred theater plays into Danish and written some himself, of which “Fastelavnsgilden” and “Huldrebakken” are worth mentioning. After the breakthrough of naturalism in Danish literature, he almost completely withdrew from public life. An equally implacable enemy of the newer school was Parmo Carl Ploug (1813-1894), the main representative and main singer of the so-called. Scandinavianism , a political tendency that sought to bring about a closer union of the three Scandinavian empires.

Christian Knud Friedrich Molbech (1821–1888), also a representative of the older, sentimental lyric school, is more outstanding than Bögh and Ploug . He is also excellent as a playwright; For example, his tragedy “Dante” bears witness to a dramatic power and (especially in the German translation, which he himself reworked) to a knowledge of the stage that is very seldom found in Danish writers. In addition, Molbech became known for an excellent translation of Dante'sDivine Comedy ”. Vilhelm Bergsøe (1835–1911) is less versatile, but quite important in the field of novels and novellas . At first he was a zoologist, but had to give up this profession as a result of an eye disease that robbed him of his eyesight and from then on devoted himself to literature. His first major work was the cycle of novels “Fra Piazza del Popolo”; but he only achieved a resounding success with the novel “Fra den gamle Fabrik”. He has published his popular scientific treatises under the title "Fra Mark og Skov".

Meïr Aron Goldschmidt (1819–1887) occupies a peculiar position in Danish literature . At the age of 21 he founded the satirical weekly newspaper " Corsaren ", which had the undisclosed tendency to work for the overthrow of absolutism in the people, and which soon gained enormous influence. But that did not yet satisfy the bold editor; he undertook a long trip abroad to study the great social and political movements, and on his return (1847) founded the monthly "Nord og Syd", which was later continued as "Ude og Hjemme". Through these magazines he exerted a great influence on his time. Later he shifted exclusively to poetic production and wrote a large series of short stories and novels as well as a two-volume work under the title: "Livs-Erindringer og Resultater". In the latter, he tends towards a mysticism that can best be compared with the "doctrine of the unconscious" of the philosopher Eduard von Hartmann .

The poet and epic poet Hans Peter Holst (1811-1893) was little read . Also to be mentioned are: the poet Emil Aarestrup (1800–1856), the novelist Hermann Frederik Ewald (1821–1908) and the meritorious translator William Shakespeare , Edvard Lembcke (1815–1897).

The main feature of the poetry of the 1850s and 1860s was that peculiar sentimental Scandinavian romanticism. This was characterized by the enthusiasm for the old Norse prehistoric times, which aroused in Denmark by the poems of Oehlenschläger and in Sweden by Per Henrik Ling (1776–1839), Esaias Tegnér (1782–1846), Erik Gustaf Geijer (1783–1847) and others had been.

Then there was the war of 1848 , which aroused such hatred of Germans in the Scandinavian countries that intellectual relations with Germany were almost completely abandoned. But this also blocked the canal through which one had been in contact with pretty much all civilized peoples. This result of the Scandinavian movement was not foreseen by its leaders. This was compensated by praising everything that was not Scandinavian as rotten and rotten, that everything Nordic was praised as something semi-supernatural and the “Nordic force that could have ruled the world” as the only way to get around the "cause of mankind to achieve victory" (Ploug). The fantastic idea of ​​the high world historical mission of the Scandinavian peoples had settled in the minds of almost all "educated" people. It was inevitable that it would also come into its own in literature and especially in poetry. But it was just as necessary that sooner or later a vigorous reaction had to take place against such a one-sided movement, and that the limited nationalism had to turn into an albeit vague cosmopolitanism.

Naturalism, Impressionism, and Symbolism: 1871–1920

This transformation took place at the beginning of the 1870s, primarily under the influence of Georg Brandes . He recognized that Denmark had lost contact with the European intellectual currents after the debacle of the German-Danish War of 1864 at the latest. Influenced by Darwinism , Nietzsche and French positivism , he became a "trend-setting literary aesthetician of the young generation ... and thus gave Scandinavian poetry ( H. Ibsen ) a leading role in world literature for the first time". The social background of this development was formed by the Danish founding years after 1870, the emergence of large companies and new social classes as well as the emigration from the country.

Brandes worked mainly through a series of lectures he gave in the winter of 1871/72 on the "mainstreams of 19th century literature" and which later appeared in print. In it he showed that in other countries, namely in France, Germany and England, the political and cultural reaction that fought against the literature of the Enlightenment at the beginning of the century had long since been overcome. In semi-feudal Denmark, as in the other Scandinavian countries, this reaction is still in full bloom. These lectures created such excitement that Brandes preferred to leave Denmark and go to Berlin. As a result, he fought from Berlin in the magazine "Det nittende Aarhundrede" published by him and his brother Edvard Brandes. In just a few years he succeeded in building an aesthetic school that ruled almost alone for a long time not only in Denmark, but also in Norway and Sweden.

The botanist Jens Peter Jacobsen (1847-1885), who until then had only emerged as a representative of Darwin's theory of evolution and as a translator of his works, was a student of Brandes, who quickly became famous . His first novella "Mogens" (1872) formed the boundary stone between realism and newer literary currents in the north. He later wrote novellas and the novels "Fru Marie Grubbe" and "Niels Lyhne". Due to constant illness and financial worries, he did not produce anything else in the last few years of his life. Nevertheless, he is considered to be the main exponent of literary naturalism and a pioneer of impressionism in Denmark. Rilke translated some of his poems into German. In addition to Jacobsen, the marine painter , theater poet and poet Holger Drachmann (1846–1908) can be named as a representative of naturalism. In his lyrical melodrama (v. A. In Volund Smed on the basis of Völundliedes ) he broke away from the "Brandesianern" ( "Skyggebilleder fra Rejser i Ind og Udlandet", 1883), but will not fully move into the camp of the Romantics. An interesting poet personality was the educator Sophus Schandorph (1836-1901) with his descriptions of the Zeeland peasant life and the Copenhagen petty bourgeoisie in works such as "Smaafolk", "Thomas Fris's History", "Stine bliver Gaardmandskone", "Kjærlighed paa Trommesalen" (in " Novelletter ”) and“ Et Levnetsløb fortalt paa Kirkegaarden ”(in“ Fem Fortællinger ”).

The eccentric Herman Bang (1857–1912) was a novelist, playwright, actor, reciter, traveling speaker and columnist, who is considered a master of Danish literary impressionism. His disillusioned, the typical contemporary decadence verhaftetes debut (dt in abbreviated form. "Desperate gender", 1900) of 1880, that some features of the artist novels of Thomas Mann anticipates that time caused a stir because of its homosexual and incestuous innuendo. His second novel “Am Weg” is probably more important. In “Stuck” (1887), a bitterly angry work about the excesses of the Wilhelminian era and the cosmopolitan dreams of the Danish Philistines, Bang already makes use of some modern stylistic devices. Rilke's “Malte” is influenced by Bang's novel “The White House” (1898). Thomas Mann admired Bang for his subtle, implicit representations of the unsaid and merely hinted at gestures, as is also expressed in the novel "Tine" (1889), but is also influenced by Jacobsen's reading. His novella “Tonio Kröger” is set partly in Denmark; on a visit to Denmark in 1899, he received suggestions.

Even Henrik Pontoppidan (1857-1943) was a representative of the resigned Christian-bourgeois disillusionment and also a pioneer of modernism. He came from a pastor's house in Jutland influenced by Grundtvik and is considered to be the main representative of Danish naturalism . He kept an even distance from conservatives and socialists. His main work is the novel Hans im Glück (1898–1904, German Leipzig 1919), which describes the failure of an engineer's dreams. In 1917 he received the Nobel Prize for Literature .

This tower with Johannes Jørgensen's apartment in Frederiksberg gave the magazine Taarnet its name.

Edvard Brandes (1847–1931), the brother of Georg Brandes, who was influenced by Ibsen, was active in the field of drama and theater criticism . His naturalistic pieces (especially "Et Besøg") did not survive time. Peter Nansen (1861–1918) was a promising young novelist ("Marie") and playwright who worked successfully for many years as an editor for the publishing house Gyldendal . Johannes Vilhelm Jensen (1873–1950) wrote poems influenced by Walt Whitman's vitalism and novels about the development of Nordic man, influenced by Darwinian evolutionism, and thus moved on the edge of cliché and racism. He received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1944. The four-part epic “Pelle Erobreren” (1909/10) by Martin Andersen Nexø embodied the type of the optimistic proletarian development novel, workers' literature .

Around the magazine Taarnet ( Tårnet, dt: "The Tower", 1893-1894) gathered in reaction to naturalism and its sometimes intrusive moral and social criticism - mainly represented by the Brothers Brandes - a group of poets who from French symbolism and its amorality were impressed. In Taarnet and in the journal Tilskueren published Johannes Jørgensen (1866-1956) translations of works by Joris-Karl Huysmans , Charles Baudelaire , Stéphane Mallarmé , Paul Verlaine , Edgar Allan Poe and others. The group around Taarnet also included Viggo Stuckenberg (1863–1905) and the neo-romantic Sophus Claussen (1865–1931).

Expressionism, psychologism, neorealism: 1920–1945

While Herman Bang's works were still received relatively broadly in Germany, Danish literature here experienced a severe neglect after the First World War; younger authors were rarely translated. This has to do with the tearing up of the cultural exchange relations between Copenhagen and Berlin and the end of cross-border debates that were of great importance in the 19th century.

In the cultural and material crisis after the First World War, there was a further split in the currents of Danish literature, which resulted in a loose juxtaposition of ideological tendencies and opinions. Expressionism, surrealism, Christian, Marxist, psychoanalytically based and neorealist currents coexisted. Marxists, Freudians and followers of Wilhelm Reich , who lived in Copenhagen in 1933/34, gathered around the magazine “Kritisk Revy”. This group included Tom Kristensen (1893–1974) and Hans Rudolf Kirk (1898–1962), who was best known for his novel “Fiskerne” (1928), in which he described the clash between social and fundamentalist groups of fishermen on the Limfjord . The psychologically sophisticated works of Tania Blixen (actually Karen Blixen, 1885–1962), who initially wrote in English, were based on the classic narrative style and only became very popular after a long delay and only after the successful filming of her biography ( Out of Africa 1985). From the proceeds of the then powerfully flowing royalties , it became possible for her to set up a museum on Rungstedlund , which also houses the Danish Academy she founded in 1960 . Hans Christian Branner (1903–1966) wrote - influenced by Ibsen and Virginia Woolf - psychological novels and short stories in the style of the Stream of Consciousness . After the Second World War he dealt with the time of the German occupation and wrote the internationally famous radio play “Illusion”.

Books about rural life in traditional narrative style continued to be extremely popular with the general public. These included above all the historical novels by Morten Korch (1876–1954), who wrote more than 80 books in over 50 years and was the most widely read Danish author around 1940.

Modernism after 1945

The development of Danish literature in the post-war period essentially reflects pan-European trends. Martin Andersen Nexø took back his proletarian optimism for development with his novel "Morten hin Røde" (1945–1947). Branner continued his work on the basis of psychoanalytic models ("Rytteren", 1949). Martin Alfred Hansen (1909–1955) dealt with ethical issues in Danish society following Kierkegaard . Jørgen Gustav Brandt (1929–2006) was an important poet, novelist, essayist and novelist who was committed to symbolism in the second half of the 20th century. He belonged to the circle around the avant-garde magazine Heretica (1948–1953), which - founded by the poet Thorkild Bjørnvig (1918–2004) - shaped the post-war phase of Danish modernism and gave it its name. This group also included the novel, screenplay and theater writer Peter Seeberg (1925–1999), who was influenced by Nietzsche and French existentialism and who incorporated his experience from the production of propaganda films for the German UFA in his debut work “Bipersonerne” (1956) .

In the 1960s, the traditional narrative prose was replaced by collage-like experiments with forms. Literary modernism experienced a high phase from 1965 to 1972. Language did not serve it as a communicative instrument, but became a self-sufficient medium, a “counter-language” that was supposed to free literature from the “straitjacket” of standardized language. Through this language - so the assumption - a higher level of reflection on reality should be achieved. However, some of these works remained incomprehensible to the general public. The most important representative of this modernism was Villy Sørensen (1929-2001), the important Danish philosopher of the 20th century, influenced by existentialism, Marx and Freud, who became known for his Kafkaesque stories with a symbolic and fantastic language of forms. Sven Holm (* 1940) was influenced by him with his psychological novels and stories. In 1965 Holm published the first Danish anthology with pure pornography with the two volumes "Sengeheste" . The critic and novelist Klaus Rifbjerg (1931–2015), who contributed to this, was one of the pioneers of modernism with Sørensen around the magazine “Vindrosen” (1954–1973) in Denmark; He has published around 170 works, including plays and screenplays (for example for "Nordisk kvadrille", 4x4 ) and since 2000 historical novels as well. The author and film director Henrik Stangerup (1937–1998) oriented himself on international models. Ib Michael (* 1945) finds his subjects mainly overseas; he tries to bring the East Asian cultures closer to his readers.

From 1973 - also under the influence of the student movement - there was a turn away from experimentation with form. The opposition to aestheticism increased, neorealism and documentarism regained importance and maintained this role until the 1990s. A pessimistic view of Danish society and the welfare state that is reaching its limits prevailed. Escape from everyday life became the topic; many texts dealt with those who failed, outcasts or criminals. Anders Bodelsen (* 1937), as a writer and important screenwriter, was an important representative of this counter-movement, which Sven Holm also joined. Thorkild Hansen (1927-1989) made a name for himself with his trilogy of novels (1967-1970) about the Danish slave trade and a three-volume biography (1978) by Knut Hamsun , which dealt in particular with the trial against Hamsun for collaboration with the German occupation forces . His book about the navigator Jens Munk was translated into German in 1974. Jørn Riel (* 1933) lived in Greenland for 16 years ; his novels and stories mostly take place in the arctic . The writer and journalist Dan Turèll (1946–1993) became known for his montages that transcend genre boundaries, but above all for crime novels with precise descriptions of the milieu and ironic breaks. Some of his works were only published posthumously and translated into many languages.

The most widely read contemporary poet in Denmark, whose "Gesammelte Gedichte" (1998) achieved a very high circulation of 130,000 for Denmark, is Benny Andersen (1929–2018). He designed everyday topics with self-irony, puns (which makes it difficult to translate his poems) and a sense of absurd rhymes. Andersen also worked as a children's book author and singer.

Women's literature since 1968

Suzanne Brøgger at the opening of the new main library in Helsingør (2010)

Since the late 1960s, the women's movement has also gained increasing literary influence, especially in the form of autobiographically colored, neorealist confessional literature. Vita Andersen (* 1944), poet, playwright and novelist achieved fantastic sales figures with her criticism of the emotionally poor world of men. The works of Vibeke Grønfeldt (* 1947) are a little more nuanced . As early as 1967, the communist Ditte Cederstrand (1915–1984) dealt with the new immigrant proletariat ("Bagerbørn", German: "All my children"); In her story “Because I love you”, a former prostitute tells how she kills her husband to save him from encountering reality. Mention may also Dorrit Willumsen (born 1940), which was awarded the Danish Academy became the first woman; Dea Trier Mørch (* 1941), whose novel "Vinterbørn" (1976, German: "Winterkinder") was filmed, and the award-winning lyric poet, storyteller, novelist, television and stage writer Kirsten, who became known for her cheerful and friendly stories Thorup (born 1942). Several works by Suzanne Brøgger (* 1944), a feminist representative of magical realism , who also received the Danish Prize for Children's Literature ( Dansk Litteraturpris for Kvinder ) in 2006, have been translated into German . The poet Inger Christensen (* 1933) gained an international reputation with the great poem "det" ("Es", 1969). Several of the more than 40 lyrical and narrative publications by the introverted but socially committed Marianne Larsen (* 1951), who made her debut at the age of 18 and became known for translating Lu Xun's prose works from Chinese, were awarded prizes .


The more recent Danish literature breaks with the intellectual-ironic aesthetics of the 1990s and the sometimes minimalist narrative style and turns to realistic models. Svend Åge Madsen (* 1939) is one of the most important and most widely read authors of Danish postmodernism (“Seven Generations of Madness”, German 2002). The award-winning Bjarne Reuter (* 1950) has found international attention in recent times, first as a children's book author who created the popular figure of Buster in 1980, then also with books for adults ("Das Zimthaus", German 1999; "Die Himmelsstürmer", German 2000); also Peter Høeg (* 1957, "Fräulein Smillas Gespür für Schnee", German 2004) and Janne Teller (* 1964), who now lives in Berlin and New York ("Nothing - What is important in life", German 2010; "War - imagine if he were here", German 2011). Books by Kim Leine (* 1961), who was born in Norway and influenced by Flaubert , Herman Melville , Halldór Laxness and Tolstoi , have also been translated into German. He writes on Greenlandic topics, including the successful novels “Tunu” (Eng .: “Die Untreue der Greenlander ") and" Profeterne i Evighedsfjorden "(German:" Ewigkeitsfjord "). This book, which was awarded the Nordic Council's Literature Prize 2013, is about the failure of an alcoholic Norwegian-Danish missionary in Greenland more than 200 years ago.

Jens Christian Grøndahl (* 1959) writes novels, plays and essays. Several books by him are available in German, including Indian Summer (German 1996) and Tage im March (German 2011). Julie Hastrup (* 1968) is a successful crime writer ("Retribution", 2009). The novel Nordkraft by journalist Jakob Ejersbo (1968–2008), published in 2002 and filmed in 2005, depicts in drastic language the milieu of petty criminals, dealers and drug addicts in Aalborg. Helle Helle , who was born on Lolland in 1965 and has received a lifelong income from the Danish artist since 2011 , draws complex images of the Danish provinces, everyday life and the relationship crises of the middle classes (e.g. in The Imagination of an Uncomplicated Life with a Man, German 2012) Kulturfonds receives. In her narrative poetry, Pia Juul (* 1962) deals with the themes of love, sex and death (German: "Eyes everywhere", 2001). Naja Marie Aidt , who was born in Greenland in 1963 and was awarded the Nordic Council's Literature Prize in 2008 and the Søren Gyldendal Prize in 2011, also became known as a poet, but also through stories . Kaspar Colling Nielsen (* 1974) paints a dystopia of the Danish future in “Der Europäische Frühling” (German 2019): While Lolland is a peaceful idyll, the cities are threatened with chaos and the refugees are deported to Mozambique.

The participation of migrants in Danish literature production has been increasing since the 1990s. Most of them are autobiographies and autofictional texts. The fact that they are still perceived as aloof is evident from the pressure of expectation that weighs on them to bring ever new exotic perspectives to Danish society. This applies e.g. B. for Lone Aburas ', whose father is a Muslim Egyptian; In her novel Føtexsøen she plays with the expectations of the readers, exploits them and at the same time parodies the Danish greed for more and more autobiographies by writers with a migration background. In her novel, the fictional father is the first Danish Muslim to sell pork at a hot dog stand and the entire Danish literary elite drowns on a cruise. Alen Meskovic, born in Bosnia in 1977, came to Denmark at the age of 17 . He writes poetry and published his first novel Ukulele jam in 2011 . The controversial first work of the poet of Palestinian descent Yahya Hassan (* 1995), who settles with his traditional milieu of origin , caused sensational sales figures in 2013 .

Book market and literary prizes

In 2014, a total of 11,340 printed and e-books were published (with translations and new editions) in Denmark, around 5% more than in the previous year. E-books accounted for around 30%, which also gave new and smaller publishers access to the market. In the field of fictional literature, there has been significant long-term increases in the number of newly published books. A total of 1365 new publications appeared in 2014, 11% more than in the previous year, around 33% more than in 2010, more than twice as many as in 2001. 1015 1344 fiction works were newly translated into Danish, 543 of them from English / American and 58 from German, but Danish in-house production increases in proportion to the proportion of translated fiction books.

In Denmark, in addition to the literary prizes donated by public institutions, such as the Danish Critics' Prize, which has been awarded since 1957, and the prestigious Danske Akademis Store Pris of the Royal Danish Academy of Art (since 1961), several one-year or multi-year literary grants are regularly awarded by private donors. De Gyldne Laurbær (Goldner Laurbær ) has been awarded annually by the Booksellers Club for fiction works since 1949.

Since 1920 "Hvedekorn" has been an important journal for literature and art. Many of the new fiction publications are published by Gyldendal , the oldest and largest Danish publisher .

Danish writer in southern Schleswig

Willy-August Linnemann was born in southern Schleswig, acquired Danish citizenship in 1936 and, from a conservative perspective, wrote two cycles of novels about life in the border area. Karin Johannsen-Bojsen is a member of the Danish minority in Germany and deals with the identity of the people of southern Schleswig.

Gynther Hansen (1930–2013) did not come from southern Schleswig, but from a German family in Varnæs ( northern Schleswig ), whose older members did not hide their enthusiasm for Hitler . At times he worked as a librarian in Flensburg . In the 1960s he became known for his starkly realistic and existentialist novels and stories that address feelings of alienation. He also dealt with biographical topics ("Mig og min storebror", 2001; "Hitler, min far og mig", 1989), material from the difficult warlike past of both peoples (trilogy "Lysninger", 1987; "Soldaterne", 1989, "Danskerne", 1990) and dealt with the neo-Nazis.

Scientific literature

As in poetry, a new era began in scientific literature with Ludvig Holberg, especially in the field of historiography. Holberg wrote the three-volume work "Danmarks Historie", the first popular work of its kind, and "Almindelig Kirkehistorie". The historian Hans Gram (1685–1748) and his student Jakob Langebek (1710–1775), the editor of the “Scriptores rerum danicarum”, and Frederik Suhm (1728–1798), the author of a 14-volume unfinished “ Historie af Danmark ”.

A universal scholar of Holberg's time was Erik Pontoppidan the Younger (1698–1764), who wrote not only historical and statistical but also scientific and theological works in Danish, German and Latin, while Frederik Christian Eilschow (d. 1750) worked for the popularization of philosophy was and Jens Höjsgaard (d. 1773) made important contributions as a researcher in the field of the Danish language.

Among the theologians, first of all, Pastor Grundtvig, already mentioned as a poet, should be mentioned, who successfully took up the fight against the rationalism of the time, at the same time worked for the Nordic idea of ​​unity and the development of a free popular life and profoundly influenced the spiritual life in Denmark Influence was. In addition to Grundtvig, the most important theologians are: Jakob Peter Mynster (1775–1850), Bishop of Zealand, and Henrik Nikolai Clausen (1793–1877), a representative of a critical direction within theology. Even Hans Larsen Martensen (1808-1884), the author of "The christe celled ethics", came to a reaching beyond Denmark celebrity. Søren Kierkegaard (1813–1855), the “greatest thinker in Denmark”, can be seen as a transition link between theology and philosophy, who understood the basic principle of Christianity in a highly individual way and in some respects parallels Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach .

As a philosopher, Frederik Christian Sibbern (1785–1772), who was significantly influenced by Schelling , was a great influence at Copenhagen University. He was also a successful poet ("Udaf Gabrielis' Breve til og fra Hjemmet"). The philosopher Rasmus Nielsen (1809-1884) continued the fight against theology as a science in Kierkegaard's footsteps and represented this position with great eloquence in his lectures and writings (“Grundideernes Logic”, “Natur og Aand” etc.). The Young Hegelian Hans Brøchner (1820–1876), who also made contributions to the history of philosophy, took a counter position to Nielsen . In the field of natural sciences, Hans Christian Ørsted (1777–1851), the discoverer of electromagnetism and author of numerous works on phenomena in physics , should be emphasized. His widespread book “Aanden i Naturen” deserves a mention, in which he develops his ideas on natural philosophy.

Besides him, the following are natural scientists: the botanist and plant geographer Joakim Frederik Schouw (1789–1852), the geologist and chemist Johann Georg Forchhammer (1794–1864) and the zoologist Japetus Steenstrup (born 1813), the latter also being the Archeology deserves.

As a result of the awakening enthusiasm for the prehistoric times of the north, antiquity research was carried out with particular intensity. This was most successfully done by Peter Erasmus Müller (1776–1834), the editor of the ancient scripts ("Saga Library"). In the field of linguistic and literary history, Niels Matthias Petersen (1781–1862) achieved excellent results, while the actual prehistoric archeology was dealt with by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen (1785–1865). Jens Worsaae (1821–1885) raised ancient studies to a high level with his numerous archaeological and historical writings. The following should be emphasized as historians: Erik Christian Werlauff (1781–1871), a cultural historian; also the autodidactic historian and philologist Christian Molbech (1783–1857), who temporarily headed the Royal Theater; but specifically Karl Ferdinand Allen (1811–77), the author of the unfinished work “De tre nordiske Rigers Historie 1497–1537”. The works of Caspar Peter Paludan ("Grevens Felde". "De første Konger af den oldenborgske Slægt") and others are also excellent. a.

Language studies went hand in hand with historical and archaeological research. Christian Molbech, in addition to the already mentioned Petersen, has achieved great merits in this area through his lexical work; also Rasmus Christian Rask (1787–1831), who laid the foundations for a systematic treatment of the Old Norse language and was one of the founders of comparative linguistic research.

In classical philology, Johan Nicolai Madvig (1804–1886) earned a European reputation as a text critic. His u. a. The neo-humanist-romantic theories on the relationship between language and nation, influenced by Herder and which shaped the school reforms he influenced, prompted him to demand that the Duchy of Schleswig be divided along the language border, which put him in an isolated position in Denmark, but in 1869 registered the Prussian Pour le Mérite for science and arts .

Individual evidence

  1. On this and the following sections up to the Baroque period cf. Meyers Konversations-Lexikon , 4th ed. 1885–1890, Vol. 4, keyword Danish literature (sic!), Pp. 520–526; here: 520
  2. ^ Wilhelm Friese: From the Reformation to the Baroque. In: Fritz Paul (Ed.): Basic features of the newer Scandinavian literatures. Göttingen 1981, p. 9 f.
  3. On this section cf. Meyers Konversations-Lexikon , 4th ed. 1885–1890, Vol. 4, keyword Danish literature , p. 521.
  4. Ewald, Johannes. In: The Brockhaus Literature. Mannheim 1988, vol. 1, p. 630.
  5. ^ Anne-Bitt Gerecke: Transculturality as a literary program: Heinrich Wilhelm von Gerstenberg's Poetics and Poetry. Göttingen 2002, p. 57 f.
  6. a b c Danish Literature, 1988, p. 457.
  7. On this section cf. Meyers Konversations-Lexikon , 4th ed. 1885–1890, Vol. 4, keyword Danish literature , p. 522.
  8. ^ Adam Oehlenschläger: Writings . German Edition, 18 volumes, Breslau 1829/30.
  9. For the following section cf. Meyers Konversations-Lexikon , 4th ed. 1885–1890, Vol. 4, keyword Danish literature , p. 523.
  10. ^ Johan Ludvig Heiberg in: Encyclopaedia Britannica
  11. ^ The Danish literature, p. 127.
  12. On this section cf. also Meyers Konversations-Lexikon , 4th ed. 1885–1890, vol. 4, keyword Danish literature , p. 524.
  13. Pearl divers about Hermann Bang
  14. H. Barüske: Introduction to: Modern Storytellers of the World , 1977, p. 31.
  15. Pontoppidan had an absurdly Latinized surname (originally the Broby family was called "bridge town"). Archive link ( Memento of the original from May 25, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.e-poke.dk
  16. a b The Danish literature, p. 129.
  17. ^ Danish literary history, in: Den store Danske (Danish).
  18. Website of the Karen Blixen Museum ( Memento of the original from February 5, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / blixen.dk
  19. Short biography in Den store danske.
  20. a b Rudolf Kähler, epilogue to Erkundungen II , p. 367.
  21. denstoredanske.dk
  22. Danish Lexicon of Women's Literature
  23. Printed in: Explorations II .
  24. ^ The Danish literature, p. 130.
  25. 1988: German Children's Radio Play Award - Honorable Mention for: You can't pick someone like me from the trees, says Buster.
  26. Interview with Helle Helle at the Leipzig Book Fair 2012.
  27. Dörthe Gaettens: New Voices Wanted: The Search for a Danish Multicultural Literacy , in: Wolfgang Behschnitt, Sarah De Mul, Liesbeth Minnaard (Eds.): Literature, Language, and Multiculturalism in Scandinavia and the Low Countries (= Niederlands / Flandern) , Amsterdam 2013, pp. 63–96.
  28. Gaettens, p. 95 f.
  29. Review in the Frankfurter Rundschau, November 4, 2013.
  30. Books and Literature 2015: Annual Report of the Book and Literature Panel.
  31. Website of the magazine Hvedekorn ( Memento of the original from October 5, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.hvedekorn.dk
  32. For the following section cf. Meyers Konversations-Lexikon , 4th ed. 1885–1890, Vol. 4, keyword Danish literature , p. 525.

Literature on Danish literature

19th century

  • Meyers Konversations-Lexikon , 4th ed. 1885–1890, Vol. 4, keyword Danish literature , pp. 520–526.
  • Rasmus Nyerup: Den danske Digtekonsts Middelalder. together with Rahbek, 1805–1808.
  • Knud Lyne Rahbek: Udsigt over den danske Digtekonst under Frederik V. og Christian VII . 1819-28.
  • Christian Molbech: Forelæsninger over den danske literature. 1839.
  • Carl Adolph Thortsen: Historisk Udsigt over den danske Litteratur indtil Aar 1814. 6th edition, Copenhagen 1866.
  • Niels Matthias Petersen: Bidrag til den danske Litteraturs Historie. 2nd ed. 1871.
  • Johann Ludwig Heiberg: Udsigt over den danske skjönne literature. 1831.
  • Torvald Ström: Dansk Literature History. 1871.
  • Frederik Winkel-Horn: Den danske literature history. 1880.
  • Sigurd Müller : Haandbog i den danske literature. 1880.
  • Sigurd Müller: G. Brandes, Ludvig Holberg og hans Tid. 1884; German, Berlin 1885.
  • Thomas Overskou: Den danske Skueplads i dens history. 1859-74.
  • Adolf Strodtmann: The intellectual life in Denmark. Berlin 1873.
  • Anton E. Wollheim da Fonseca: National literature of the Scandinavians. 1874-1877.
  • Frederik Winkel-Horn: History of the literature of the Scandinavian north. Leipzig 1880.

Newer secondary literature

  • Danish literature. In: The Brockhaus Literature. Mannheim 1988, Vol. 1, pp. 457 f.
  • Wolfgang Butt: The Danish literature. In: Kindlers New Literature Lexicon. Munich 1988, Vol. 20, pp. 125-131.
  • Moritz Schramm: Young Danish Literature . In: Clams. Annual journal for literature . No. 39/40. Viersen 2000, ISSN  0085-3593 .
  • Nina von Zimmermann: Stories from the Jazz Age. The 'lost generation' in Danish literature . Vienna Studies in Scandinavian Studies, Volume 18. Praesens. Vienna 2006, ISBN 3-7069-0407-1 .
  • Karin Hoff, Lutz Rühling (Hrsg.): Kindler compact: Scandinavian literature 20th century. E-book, ISBN 978-3-476-04361-0 .


  • Heinz Barüske (ed.): Modern storytellers of the world. Denmark. Erdmann Verlag 1977. ISBN 3-7711-0782-2 .
  • Alfred Antkowiak (ed.): Explorations. 15 Danish storytellers. Berlin, Volk und Welt publishing house, 2nd edition 1981.
  • Rudolf Kähler (Ed.): Explorations II. 31 Danish narrators. Berlin, Volk und Welt publishing house, 2nd edition 1987.
  • Ulrich Sonnenberg (Ed.): Denmark tells. Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, 1991.


see list of Danish-speaking writers

See also

on Faroese and Greenlandic authors of the Danish language

Web links