J1 League

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J1 League
Full name 日本 プ ロ サ ッ カ ー リ ー グ
Nihon Pro Soccer League
abbreviation J1
Association Asian Football Confederation
First edition 1992
hierarchy 1st League
Teams 18th
master Yokohama F. Marinos ( 2019 )
Record champions Kashima Antlers (8 championships)
Record scorer JapanJapan Yoshito Ōkubo (179)
Current season 2019
Website http://www.jleague.jp
Qualification for AFC Champions League

The J1 League ( J1 リ ー グ , J1 Rīgu ) is the top division of the Japan Professional Football League ( 日本 プ ロ サ ッ カ ー リ ー グ , Nippon Puro Sakkā Rīgu ) and the top division in Japanese football . It is one of the most successful soccer leagues in Asian team soccer and the only one with the top AFC rating . The J2 League is subordinate to it.

The record holder and current defending champion are the Kashima Antlers with a total of eight championships.


Until the founding of the J. League in 1992

Before the J. League was established as the top division in Japan, several amateur teams played in the Japan Soccer League (JSL). Due to the American influence after the defeat in World War II, baseball had advanced to the national sport for years and the interest in football was rather low, apart from national youth team tournaments. The mostly represented factory teams of large companies had strong financial backing, but it was not worth investing in larger stadiums or good places. The national team also did not have the quality to become one of the top Asian teams. To arouse interest in the sport, the Japan Football Association (JFA) decided to establish a professional league.

The founded J. League started in 1992 with eight clubs from the JSL First Division , a club from the JSL Second Division and the newly founded club Shimizu S-Pulse . Many clubs changed their names, similar to teams in the US professional leagues NBA , NFL and Major League Baseball , with words borrowed from Italian or Spanish to Europeanise the clubs. Most of the new mascots were created by Sony Entertainment between 1992 and 1995 . The JSL changed its name to the Japan Football League and became the second division behind the J. League. The first official season did not start until 1993 and the founding year was used to give the ten teams a preparatory season with the J. League Cup .

The high phase of the J. League 1993–1995

On May 15, 1993, the first season of the newly formed league began with the game between Verdy Kawasaki and the Yokohama Marinos in the Tokyo Olympic Stadium . The media presence of the sport on television - at least one game per game day was broadcast nationwide - generated great interest among the audience. The stadiums filled up and the clubs tried to make the sport attractive with veteran foreign stars. In its second edition in 1994, the league recorded its unbroken attendance record of an average of 15,598 viewers per game.

With the increased enthusiasm for the league, the lower-class clubs also tried to get a place in the professional league. Júbilo Iwata and Bellmare Hiratsuka expanded the field for the 1994 season, which was enlarged with six other teams in the following four years.

After the 1996–1999 boom

Despite the success of the first three years, experts expected the bubble to burst soon. With the commitment of more players and high salaries, the expenses threatened to exceed the expected income. With the abrupt drop in attendance in 1996, a year later only just under every second went to the stadium compared to the record year 1994. As expected, the clubs had to accept high losses and threatened to bleed out financially. Due to the low level of audience interest, it was decided to reintroduce the two-part mode for the 1997 season. Assumptions are based on the assumption that the league's rapid growth caused the audience to fall in favor.

Despite the clubs breaking away from their companies, many were still dependent on their sponsorship. With the economic recession and the liquidity of the company and hence the revenue of the clubs fell by their de facto nor parent company . Sato Kogyo, general contractor and one of the two main sponsors of the Yokohama Wing , announced in 1998 that support for the association would be discontinued due to the financial difficulties. All Nippon Airways , the second main sponsor, was not financially strong enough to do the sponsorship alone, so they tried to find a solution. After a meeting with Nissan , whose former works team was merged into the Yokohama Marinos, an agreement was reached on a merger of the former city rivals. The wings were dissolved and integrated into the renamed Yokohama F. Marinos - the F. in the name is still reminiscent of the wing today. A second incident of this kind concerned the then Bellmare Hiratsuka club , whose main sponsor Fujita had to stop supporting and led to the club's relegation in 2000. The league threatened to collapse if no solution was found.

Restructuring 1999-2004

In order to master the situation, those responsible decided to take two measures to counteract the impending disaster.

The "Hundred Years Vision" envisaged the creation of over 100 professional teams in the J. League by 2092. In order to save the league, the management made the clubs responsible for promoting football and other sporting activities at the local level. By rooting in the home, the clubs should become interesting for the hometown, its population and locally based companies as sponsors. The league tried to prevent a nationwide structure of the sport. And indeed, with the adjustment of the economic criteria for promotion to the J. League Division 2, many smaller cities with professional clubs were able to establish themselves.

Furthermore, in 1999 the structure of the league had to change decisively. With the establishment of the J. League Division 2 as the forecourt of the professional league, the JFL was pushed into the third division. Division 2 initially consisted of nine clubs from the old JFL and one relegated from Division 1. Thus, the House of Lords still consisted of 16 teams, Division 2 of ten clubs.

Regarding the game, the league is now based on the European format. Originally, the league tried to prevent draws and normal games ended in doubt with overtime , golden goal or penalty shoot-outs . With the 1999 season there was no more penalty shootout, in 2002 there was no extra time in Division 2 and a year later in Division 1.

Until 2004, with one exception in the 1996 season, the season was divided into two parts. So there was a round-trip winner, who decided the championship in two play-off games among themselves. Exceptions were Júbilo Iwata in 2002 and Yokohama F. Marinos in 2003 , who won both halves and did not have to host a season finale. This is one of the reasons why the league renounced the two-part league system from the 2005 season and also oriented itself here on the European counterpart.

European league format and AFC Champions League 2005–2008

From the 2005 season, Division 1 consisted of 18 teams with two direct relegation places and one relegation place. On the last day of the match, five teams were still fighting for the title. The championship lead changed four times, most recently in stoppage time. Ultimately, Gamba Osaka was able to secure the title in front of the Urawa Reds. Interest in the league rose again and has remained constant since then.

The role of the AFC Champions League , in which Japanese teams have participated since the 1980s, also changed for Japanese league football during this time. The clubs perceived participation as a burden that only distracts from the national competition. An example of this is the 2005 season, during which Yokohama and Iwata had to play 13 CL and league games within 44 days and could not concentrate on any of the competitions.

In response to pressure from the clubs, the league management decided in future - similar to the Korean K League Classic and the Chinese Chinese Super League - to take the AFC participants into consideration and to adapt the league's game days to international competition. The adjustment was made for the 2006 season.

The inclusion of the Australian A-League and the introduction of the FIFA Club World Cup increased the marketing of the sport on the Asian continent. As in Europe, the focus of the successful clubs was now also on international competitions. For example, Kawasaki Frontale was able to build a fan base in Hong Kong with its participation in the Champions League in 2007 and the Urawa Red Diamonds cup victories in 2007 and Gamba Osaka in 2008 testify to the clubs' efforts in international business.

The excellent management of the league was rewarded with the highest league ranking to be awarded and a total of four starting places in the competition from the 2009 season. The league took the opportunity to market itself internationally, with a focus on Asia.

Since participating in the Champions League, the winner of the Imperial Cup , which is always played on New Year's Day of the following year, was only able to take part in the international competition in the following year.

One example is Tokyo Verdy , which won the national cup in 2005 and was relegated to Division 2 in the same year as a second division team in the 2007 CL season.

In order to close this gap, the participation of the Kashima Antlers , as winners of the Imperial Cup 2007, was skipped, as the club was allowed to participate as champions in 2008 anyway.

Thus, the winner of the Kaiser Cup has been playing in the Champions League in the following season since the 2008 season.

Modern since 2009

With the start of the 2009 season there were three changes. Four J. League teams are allowed to participate in the AFC Champions League. Furthermore, there have been three direct relegation places to Division 2 since this season. Furthermore, from now on each club may have a maximum of four foreign players, at least one of whom must have the nationality of another AFC country.

For the 2015 season , a new mode was introduced to determine the master. The best three teams of the season as well as, if not already eligible to participate in the overall table, the winners of the first and second half of the season, played a championship tournament. The overall table winner was directly qualified for the finals, which will be played in the first and second leg; the other teams played the opponent in individual knockout games. As early as the 2017 season , however, there was a return to the mode of a double round tournament based on the European model, which was valid until the 2014 season . With the beginning of the 2018 season , the relegation for the table sixteenth was reintroduced; that team must assert itself at the end of the season in a single game against the winner of the J2 promotion playoffs. After the first match day of the 2020 season, the J-League experienced a forced break of around four months due to the COVID-19 pandemic . It was continued from July 4, 2020, subject to conditions. No spectators were allowed.


year Important events # J1 teams # AFC teams Relegation pl.
  • The JFA forms a committee to establish a professional league.
  • The committee decides the criteria for future professional clubs
  • 15 out of 20 clubs in the Japan Soccer League are eligible to participate in the professional league
  • The professional league J. League is founded. The following clubs make up the field of participants:
    • Gamba Osaka , JEF United Ichihara , Nagoya Grampus Eight , Sanfrecce Hiroshima , Urawa Red Diamonds , Verdy Kawasaki , Yokohama Wings , and Yokohama Marinos (from the old JSL First Division)
    • Kashima Antlers (from JSL Division 2)
    • Shimizu S-Pulse (newly founded, no works team).
  • Japan Soccer League becomes the second-rate Japan Football League
  • The J. League Cup is played as a preparation season with 10 teams
1993 10
  • Other clubs move up to the J. League: Júbilo Iwata and Bellmare Hiratsuka
  • Other clubs move up to the J. League: Cerezo Osaka and Kashiwa Reysol
  • The first point system is presented: The team receives 3 points for a win, 1 point for a defeat on penalties and 0 points for a defeat in regular or extended playing time
  • Other clubs move up to the J. League: Kyoto Purple Sanga and Avispa Fukuoka
  • The league is playing suspends the two-part season
  • The average number of viewers sank to the record low of 10,131 viewers per game
  • Another club is promoted to the J. League: Vissel Kobe
  • The league plays again in a two-part season
  • The point system is changed: the team receives 3 points for the regular time win, 2 points in overtime and 1 point in the penalty shoot-out. There are no points for defeat.
  • Another club is promoted to the J. League: Consadole Sapporo
  • Yokohama Wing announces the dissolution and affiliation with city rivals Yokohama Marinos from the coming season.
  • The league cites the Hundred Year Vision as its goal.
  • The league announces the establishment of a two-tier system from the coming season.
  • The league holds the J. League Promotion Tournament to decide on promotion and relegation for the coming season. Consadole Sapporo becomes the first relegated league history.
  • Yokohama Marinos merge with Yokohama Wings to become Yokohama F. Marinos .
  • The penalty shootout will be abolished in both leagues.
  • The point system is changed: a team receives 3 points for a win in regular time, 2 points in overtime, and 1 point for a tie.
  • The old Japan Football League is restructured and becomes the third division . In order to ensure the differentiation from the old league, the new JFL in Japan is called the Nihon Football League .
16 2
  • For the first time, two teams qualify for the newly introduced AFC Champions League at the end of the season
16 2 2
  • The extension will be abolished in league games of Division 1 and the traditional 3-1-0 point system established
16 2 2
  • For the expansion of the league to 18, relegation will be canceled this season. Only two teams are promoted.
  • Introduction of the promotion and relegation system with 2 direct and one indirect promotion position, which is played in two games.
16 2 0.5
  • The J. League Division 1 is expanded to include 18 teams
  • J. League Division 1 completely abolishes the two-part season.
18th 2 2.5
  • The away goals rule will be introduced in the Yamazaki Nabisco Cup and the promotion and relegation games
  • The league founds a committee that advises on the expansion of the league
  • The league is reintroducing the requirements for eligibility to participate in the J. League
18th 2 2.5
Note: If a Japanese club wins the AFC Champions League, they lose this right.
  • The Urawa Red Diamonds became the first Japanese team to win the AFC Champions League since its relaunch in 2002.
18th 2 2.5
  • Gamba Osaka wins the AFC Champions League as the second Japanese team in a row.
18th 2 + 1 2.5
  • Four clubs are allowed to participate in the AFC Champion League.
  • Introducing the AFC player prerogative.
  • The indirect 16th relegation place is converted into a direct one. Now three teams are automatically relegated or promoted.
18th 4th 3
  • The J. League champions may take part in the next two editions of the FIFA Club World Cup as the title holder of the organizing association.
18th 4th 3
  • The two-part playing time will be reintroduced.
  • A tournament mode will be installed to determine the champions, for which the three best in the overall table and, if not already eligible to participate, the two semi-series champions qualify. The overall first placed is set for the final, which is played in the home and return leg, the other teams determine the opponent in knockout mode.
18th 4th 3
  • Renewed abolition of the two-part championship and the championship tournament at the end of the season.
  • The Urawa Red Diamonds win the AFC Champions League for the second time.
18th 4th 3
  • Reintroduction of the relegation between J1 and J2; the table-sixteenth plays in a single game against the winner of the J2 promotion playoffs for relegation.
18th 4th 2.5

Position in the Japanese football pyramid

Stages) League / Division
I. J1 League (J1)
18 clubs
II J2 League (J2)
22 clubs
III J3 League
17 clubs
IV Japan Football League
16 clubs
V / VI 9 regional
leagues 134 clubs
VII + 46 prefecture
leagues & 5 block leagues on Hokkaidō

many clubs

Since the founding of the J. League Division 2 in 1999, there has been a promotion and relegation system similar to that of European football leagues, in which the last two of the J1 and the first two of the J2 are definitely promoted. Between 2004 and 2008, the third placed J2 and the 16th J1 played in the relegation for a place in the upper house. Even if the second division had to meet the requirements of the J. League for playing eligibility (including the size of the stadium with at least 10,000 seats), no winner was refused promotion during this time.

Until the 2004 season, Division 1 played an independent round-trip round, the winners of which decided the championship in a final. Only in the 1996 season was a full season played for the first time, which replaced the split season from 2005. The top three teams in the league and the winners of the Imperial Cup have been taking part in the AFC Champions League since 2008 . If the Kaiser Cup winner can also be found among the top three of the league, the field of participants will be expanded to include fourth place.

The relegation games were not played between 2009 and 2017, and the last three clubs were automatically relegated. With the 2018 season, the relegation was reintroduced as a single game between the J1 sixteenth and the winner of the J2 promotion playoffs.

Competition mode

The eighteen teams play a double round tournament , with one game against each other team taking place on their own pitch. The table is created according to the following criteria:

  1. Number of points scored
  2. Goal difference
  3. Goals scored
  4. Results of the games among themselves
  5. Decision game or coin toss

The club with the best result at the end of the season wins the Japanese championship. The two best teams qualify for the group stage of the AFC Champions League , the third placed starts in the play-off round of the Champions League. Should one of these teams also win the Kaiser Cup, the fourth-placed team moves up. The two worst teams are relegated directly to the J2 League , the third from bottom plays in a single game against the winner of the J2 promotion playoffs for relegation.

Prize money
  • 1st place: 200 million yen
  • 2nd place: 100 million yen
  • 3rd place: 80 million yen
  • 4th place: 60 million yen
  • 5th place: 40 million yen
  • 6th place: 20 million yen
  • 7th place: 10 million yen

Participants 2018

Clubs of the J1 League 2018
logo society
Year of entry
Located in First season in
the top division
Currently in the
highest league since
Cerezo Osaka.svg Cerezo Osaka 1995 Osaka , Osaka 1965 2017–
Gamba Osaka.svg Gamba Osaka (*) 1993 Suita , Osaka 1986/87 2014–
Consadole Sapporo.svg Hokkaido Consadole Sapporo 1998 Sapporo , Hokkaidō 1989/90 2017–
Jubilo Iwata.svg Júbilo Iwata 1994 Iwata , Shizuoka 1994 2016
Kashima Antlers FC.svg Kashima Antlers (*) 1993 Several cities in the southwest of Ibaraki Prefecture 1985 1993–
Kashiwa Reysol.svg Kashiwa Reysol 1995 Kashiwa , Chiba 1965 2011–
Kawasaki Frontale 1999 (J2) Kawasaki , Kanagawa 1977 2005–
Nagoya Grampus Eight.svg Nagoya Grampus (*) 1993 Nagoya , Aichi 1973 2018–
Sagan Tosu 1999 (J2) Tosu , saga 2012 2012–
Sanfrecce Hiroshima.svg Sanfrecce Hiroshima (*) 1993 Hiroshima , Hiroshima 1965 2009–
Shimizu S-Pulse.svg Shimizu S-Pulse (*) 1993 Shizuoka , Shizuoka 1993 2017–
Shonan Bellmare.svg Shonan Bellmare 1994 Hiratsuka , Kanagawa 1972 2018–
FC Tokyo.svg FC Tokyo 1999 (J2) Tokyo 2000 2012–
Urawa Red Diamonds (*) 1993 Saitama , Saitama 1965 2001–
Vegalta Sendai 1999 (J2) Sendai , Miyagi 2002 2010–
Vissel Kobe.svg Vissel Kobe 1997 Kobe , Hyogo 1997 2014–
V-Varen Nagasaki 2013 (J2) Association of cities in Nagasaki 2018 2018–
Yokohama F Marinos.svg Yokohama F. Marinos (*) 1993 Yokohama and Yokosuka , Kanagawa 1979 1982–
  • The newcomers from the J2 League are highlighted in purple
  • Unless otherwise stated, the year of entry indicates the first season in the top division of the J. League.
  • "First season in the highest league" and "Currently in the highest league since" include the seasons in the former Japan Soccer League .
  • The teams marked with (*) are among the founding members of the J. League in 1993. The Yokohama Wings stopped playing in 1999 and merged with the Yokohama Marinos. The remaining founding members JEF United Ichihara Chiba and Tokyo Verdy (as Verdy Kawasaki) currently play in the J2 League.

Championship and relegation

Champion since the founding of the J. League

year master Runner-up
1993 Verdy Kawasaki Kashima Antlers
1994 Verdy Kawasaki Sanfrecce Hiroshima
1995 Yokohama Marinos Verdy Kawasaki
1996 Kashima Antlers Nagoya Grampus
1997 Júbilo Iwata Kashima Antlers
1998 Kashima Antlers Júbilo Iwata
1999 Júbilo Iwata Shimizu S-Pulse
2000 Kashima Antlers Yokohama F. Marinos
2001 Kashima Antlers Júbilo Iwata
2002 Júbilo Iwata Yokohama F. Marinos
2003 Yokohama F. Marinos Júbilo Iwata
2004 Yokohama F. Marinos Urawa Red Diamonds
2005 Gamba Osaka Urawa Red Diamonds
2006 Urawa Red Diamonds Kawasaki Frontale
2007 Kashima Antlers Urawa Red Diamonds
2008 Kashima Antlers Kawasaki Frontale
2009 Kashima Antlers Kawasaki Frontale
2010 Nagoya Grampus Gamba Osaka
2011 Kashiwa Reysol Nagoya Grampus
2012 Sanfrecce Hiroshima Vegalta Sendai
2013 Sanfrecce Hiroshima Yokohama F. Marinos
2014 Gamba Osaka Urawa Red Diamonds
2015 Sanfrecce Hiroshima Gamba Osaka
2016 Kashima Antlers Urawa Red Diamonds
2017 Kawasaki Frontale Kashima Antlers
2018 Kawasaki Frontale Sanfrecce Hiroshima
2019 Yokohama F. Marinos FC Tokyo

Split season (1993–1995,
1997–2004, 2015–2016 ) single season (1996, 2005–2014, 2017–)

Record champions

society master Runner-up master Runner-up
Kashima Antlers 8th 3 1996, 1998, 2000, 2001, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2016 1993, 1997, 2017
Yokohama Marinos 4th 3 1995, 2003, 2004, 2019 2000, 2002, 2013
Júbilo Iwata 3 3 1997, 1999, 2002 1998, 2001, 2003
Sanfrecce Hiroshima 3 2 2012, 2013, 2015 1994, 2018
Kawasaki Frontale 2 3 2017, 2018 2006, 2008, 2009
Gamba Osaka 2 2 2005, 2014 2010, 2015
Tokyo Verdy 2 1 1993, 1994 1995
Urawa Red Diamonds 1 5 2006 2004, 2005, 2007, 2014, 2016
Nagoya Grampus 1 2 2010 1996, 2011
Kashiwa Reysol 1 0 2011
Shimizu S-Pulse 0 1 1999
Vegalta Sendai 0 1 2012
FC Tokyo 0 1 2019

History of the relegation

1998 season

With the introduction of the J. League Division 2 , the number of J1 teams was reduced from 18 to 16. The original plan was that at the end of the 1998 season, six teams would play in a play-down tournament for four places in Division 1. It was the JFL participant Kawasaki Frontale and five other teams who finished last in an overall table over the 1997 and 1998 seasons. With the dissolution of the Yokohama wing, one team fell from Division 1 anyway, so the number of participating teams was reduced to five.

Kawasaki and Avispa Fukuoka initially played a single qualifying game for the tournament, the loser of that game being placed in Division 2. Avispa was able to prevail here in extra time with the help of a golden goal and now met JEF United Ichihara in the semifinals , the other match was contested by Vissel Kobe and Consadole Sapporo . After JEF United and Vissel asserted themselves relatively clearly in the first and second leg, it was Consadole who should be relegated as the first club in league history after two final defeats against Avispa. Together with Kawasaki Frontale and eight other clubs, they founded the new J. League Division 2.

1999–2004 seasons

Between 1999 and 2003, the last two were relegated to J2 at the end of the season. This was calculated from the performance in both seasons of the two-part season and not, as in the title fight, from the placement in one half of the season. After the 2004 season, the field of participants was increased from 16 to 18, which is why no team had to relegate directly. Instead, the sixteenth of the J1 table played against the third of the J2 in a round trip for promotion and relegation. Here, too, the table was sixteenth from both seasons.

Seasons 2005 to date

From 2005 to 2008, the last two teams were relegated directly, while the sixteenth had to play in two relegation games to stay up. Relegation was waived between 2009 and 2017 and three clubs were automatically relegated. During the brief reintroduction of the two-part championship in the 2015 and 2016 seasons, these teams were once again determined by establishing an overall table for both seasons. With the revival of the relegation from the 2018 season, only the last two teams will be relegated directly, the sixteenth will now play in a single game against the winner of the J2 promotion playoffs to stay in class.

season 15th 16. 17th 18th
1998 JEF United Chiba Consadole Sapporo Vissel Kobe Avispa Fukuoka
1999 Urawa Red Diamonds Bellmare Hiratsuka
2000 Kyoto Purple Sanga Kawasaki Frontale
2001 Avispa Fukuoka Cerezo Osaka
2002 Sanfrecce Hiroshima Consadole Sapporo
2003 Vegalta Sendai Kyoto Purple Sanga
2004 Cerezo Osaka Kashiwa Reysol
2005 Shimizu S-Pulse Kashiwa Reysol Tokyo Verdy 1969 Vissel Kobe
2006 Ventforet Kofu Avispa Fukuoka Cerezo Osaka Kyoto Purple Sanga
2007 Ōmiya Ardija Sanfrecce Hiroshima Ventforet Kofu Yokohama FC
2008 JEF United Chiba Júbilo Iwata Tokyo Verdy Consadole Sapporo
2009 Montedio Yamagata Kashiwa Reysol Ōita Trinita JEF United Chiba
2010 Vissel Kobe FC Tokyo Kyoto Sanga FC Shonan Bellmare
2011 Urawa Red Diamonds Ventforet Kofu Avispa Fukuoka Montedio Yamagata
2012 Albirex Niigata Vissel Kobe Gamba Osaka Consadole Sapporo
2013 Ventforet Kofu Shonan Bellmare Júbilo Iwata Ōita Trinita
2014 Shimizu S-Pulse Ōmiya Ardija Cerezo Osaka Tokushima Vortis
2015 Albirex Niigata Matsumoto Yamaga FC Shimizu S-Pulse Montedio Yamagata
2016 Albirex Niigata Nagoya Grampus Shonan Bellmare Avispa Fukuoka
2017 Sanfrecce Hiroshima Ventforet Kofu Albirex Niigata Ōmiya Ardija
2018 Nagoya Grampus Júbilo Iwata Kashiwa Reysol V-Varen Nagasaki
2019 Sagan Tosu Shonan Bellmare Matsumoto Yamaga FC Júbilo Iwata
  • Clubs in bold were relegated
  • † won the relegation game
  • ‡ Lost the relegation game and were relegated

More competitions

Previous competitions

J. League Awards

Notable J. League players

Especially at the beginning of the J. League history, the league tried to sign a number of veteran foreign stars in order to increase the general level of play. Below is a selection of such players who are of particular interest for the German-speaking area.

Audience numbers

With an average attendance of 18,883 in the 2017 season, the league was roughly on par with the Dutch Eredivisie . The Urawa Red Diamonds (34,184 per game) had the highest average attendance in 2019 .

season cut Games total
2005 18,765 306 5,742,233
2006 18,299 306 5,599,408
2007 19,066 306 5,834,081
2008 19.203 306 5,876,138
2009 19.094 306 5,842,695
2010 18,501 306 5,661,296
2011 15,715 306 4,808,859
2012 17,534 306 5,365,310
2013 17.160 306 5,251,083
2014 17,239 306 5,275,090
2015 17,803 306 5,447,602
2016 17,968 306 5,498,222
2017 18,883 306 5,778,198
2018 19,079 306 5,838,050
2019 20,750 306 6,349,421
Source: weltfussball.de

Transmission in German-speaking countries

In the German-speaking countries, the broadcast in the 2019 season will be via the online pay TV channels DAZN , Sportdigital and Rakuten Sports. DAZN offers a game every match day (usually the game with the participation of Vissel Kobe , Lukas Podolski's current club ) live and on demand; this game is then occasionally taken over by Sportdigital. In addition, Rakuten Sports can watch three games a week as a live stream free of charge.

See also

Individual evidence

  1. J1 来 季 2 ・ 25 開幕 、 12 ・ 2 閉幕… J2 は 2 ・ 26 開幕. In: www.hochi.co.jp. Sports Hochi, November 1, 2016, archived from the original on November 4, 2016 ; Retrieved November 4, 2016 (Japanese).
  2. 2018J1 参 入 プ レ ー オ フ 大会 方式 お よ び 試 合 方式 に つ い て. In: www.jleague.jp. J. League, December 12, 2016, accessed December 12, 2016 (Japanese).
  3. Diario AS: En directo: Torres desvela cuál será su próximo equipo . In: AS.com . July 10, 2018 ( as.com [accessed July 10, 2018]).
  4. J1 League 2017 - spectators. Retrieved January 26, 2019 .
  5. Rakuten launches live streaming, VOD service, delivering sports content to fans worldwide. Japan Today, June 11, 2019; accessed August 19, 2019 .

Web links