List of academic degrees (Germany)

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The list of academic degrees (Germany) leads degrees , which are awarded in Germany by state or state-recognized institutions or have been awarded in recent history.

Bachelor degree

B. A. Bachelor of Arts
BBA Bachelor of Business Administration
B. Sc. Bachelor of Science
LL. B. Bachelor of Laws
B. Ed. Bachelor of Education
B. Eng. Bachelor of Engineering
B. F. A. Bachelor of Fine Arts
B. Mus. Bachelor of Music
B. M. A Bachelor of Musical Arts

Master's degree

Consecutive master's degrees

Consecutive courses are the most common master’s courses (approx. 88%) and build on a corresponding bachelor’s degree . Likewise, after completing a diploma course, a master’s course can be completed. For the sake of simplicity, there are only the following seven master’s degrees for consecutive courses. Technical additions are no longer possible.

abbreviation Cons. Master's degree Subject groups
M. A. Master of Arts partly education and educational sciences , culture and linguistics , art history , religious studies , social sciences , sports science , some economics
M. Sc. Master of Science Computer science , partly engineering , mathematics , natural sciences , psychology , partly economics
M. Eng. Master of Engineering  Engineering
LL. M. Master of Laws Law (except state examination )
M. F. A. Master of Fine Arts Free art , “artistic core subjects” at art colleges
M. Mus. Master of Music music
M. Ed. Master of Education Education and educational sciences , studies for a teacher

Non-consecutive and advanced master's degrees

The designation of degrees for further education and non-consecutive master’s courses can be chosen by the universities differently from the names for consecutive master’s courses. The designations of the degrees do not necessarily have to differ from those for consecutive Master’s courses. However, if the qualification designations of the consecutive Master’s courses are used, the same requirements must also be met. The abbreviations for the degrees are written partly with and partly according to the Anglo-Saxon model without points.

It can therefore happen that different degrees are awarded for similar courses at different universities. Most frequently, however, are the consecutive Master's degrees mentioned above.

Around every tenth master’s degree program awards a different degree, half of which is a Master of Business Administration (MBA). The other non-consecutive or further education Master’s degrees are awarded in Germany in rare cases, usually in one or two courses throughout Germany. In some cases, the offer also takes place in international cooperation with universities in countries where the respective degree is more common.

This must be distinguished from master’s degrees that are exclusively awarded by a foreign partner university, as the cooperating study institution in Germany does not have university status. For example, the Master of Divinity is not currently awarded by German universities.

European Master in Intercultural Education This master’s degree is awarded in the European Master’s in Intercultural Education program at Freie Universität Berlin . The degree program is offered bilingually in German and English by the Faculty of Education.
Master of Acoustics (M. Ac) This degree is awarded in the advanced training course acoustics at the University of Stuttgart . It is aimed at graduates in engineering and natural sciences who have at least one year of professional experience.
Master of Business Administration (MBA) The Master of Business Administration is awarded by a large number of universities. The course is designed to provide graduates of non-economic courses with the business administration skills required for management positions. In some cases, executives with relevant practical experience are also admitted.
  • "Executive MBA" (EMBA): It is aimed primarily at managers with several years of professional experience. Most of the students have already proven their potential in a company and would like to qualify for overarching management tasks with the EMBA.
Master of Business Administration and Engineering (MBA Eng.) The (Executive) Master of Business Administration and Engineering is awarded by numerous universities. The course is intended to provide graduates of technical courses with the business management knowledge required for management positions.
Master of Adult Education (M. Edu) The further education master's Master of Adult Education is awarded by the Evangelical University of Applied Sciences Nuremberg. It is aimed at university graduates from all disciplines who have relevant professional experience in the education sector.
Master of Advanced Studies in Applied Ethics (MAS) This master's degree is awarded in the applied ethics course at the Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster (WWU). In terms of content, the course deals with questions from the areas of bio - and medical ethics , environmental or business ethics , scientific and technical ethics as well as political ethics .
Master of Architecture (M. Arch.) The degree is awarded by the Academy of Fine Arts Nuremberg in the postgraduate course in architecture and by the Anhalt University of Applied Sciences in the architecture master's program Dessau under the topic of revitalizing the city .
Master of Aviation Management (M. AVIMA) The degree is awarded in the part-time English-language Master in Aviation Management (AVIMA) course from the Technical University of Applied Sciences Wildau (FH) in cooperation with the Wildau Institute of Technology .
Master of Building Physics (M. BP.) This degree is awarded in the building physics course at the University of Stuttgart . The course provides the graduates with holistic knowledge of building physics.
Master of Business Engineering (MBE) The Master of Business Engineering is awarded in the further education course in logistics management at the University of Stuttgart and industrial engineering at the University of Applied Sciences in Frankfurt am Main, as well as in a postgraduate course at the Steinbeis University in Berlin .
International Master of Business Consulting (MBC) This degree is awarded in the advanced online course at Wismar University.
International Master of Business Informatics (MBI) This degree is awarded in the online English -language course International Business Informatics at the Faculty of Economics at the Viadrina European University in Frankfurt (Oder) .
Master of Business Law (M. B. L.) This academic degree is awarded in the course of business law for technology companies by the Brandenburg Technical University of Cottbus . The Free University of Berlin also offers a similar degree program.
Master of Business Law and Economic Law (LL. M. oec.) Awarded by the Institute for Business Law of the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg for the master's degree in Business Law
Master of Science in Business and Law (MScBL) This academic degree is awarded in the non-consecutive course in Economics and Law (expiring) by the Technical University of Dresden as a cooperation between the Faculty of Law and the Faculty of Economics, sponsored by the Faculty of Law.
Master of Business Marketing (MBM) The (Executive) Master of Business Marketing can be obtained as part of the technical sales program at Freie Universität Berlin . It offers a deepening and specialization in the field of marketing / sales.
Master of Business Research (MBR) The Master of Business Research is awarded as part of a postgraduate, four-semester doctoral program at the Faculty of Business Administration at the Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich .
Master of Business Systems (MBS) This academic degree is awarded by the University of Wismar in the business systems course .
Master of Comparative Law (M. C. L.) The usually one-year postgraduate course is offered primarily by US universities; in Germany, for example, this has been the University of Mannheim since 1998/99 in cooperation with the University of Adelaide
Master of Computer Science (M. Comp. Sc.) The degree is awarded by the Distance University in Hagen and also by the University of Trier in the non-consecutive (distance) degree course in Computer Science .
Master of Criminology and Police Science This degree has been awarded since 2005 in a continuing education course at the Law Faculty of the Ruhr University Bochum . The admission requirements therefore include at least one year of relevant professional experience.
Master of Customs Administration (MCA) The Master of Customs Administration has been offered at the Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität (WWU) Münster since 2005. At Charles Sturt University in Canberra you can take the MCA since 2013. The English-language master’s course is recognized by the World Customs Organization and is aimed at those responsible for international trade. The MCA has been running at Münster University since 2014 under the name "MCA in Customs, Taxation and International Trade Law".
Master of Economics This degree is awarded in the one-year postgraduate course in Economics at the Faculty of Economics at the University of Jena . This research-oriented course in English is intended to provide students with formal and empirical methodological knowledge to solve complex economic issues.
Master of Economics and Business This degree is awarded in the postgraduate course in Financial Markets, Banking, Insurance and Public Economics at the Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences at the University of Potsdam . With an international focus, it is awarded as a non-consecutive degree at the University of Passau .
Master in Disaster Management and Risk Governance (MDM) This degree is awarded by the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn in the advanced training course in Disaster Preparedness & Disaster Management . The modular, advanced master's degree is offered in cooperation with the Federal Office for Civil Protection and Disaster Aid (BBK) and aims to provide a holistic academic contribution to qualification in the field of disaster risk reduction and disaster management.
Master of Drug Regulatory Affairs (M. D. R. A.) This degree is awarded by the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn in the advanced training course Drug Regulatory Affairs . The advanced master’s course is offered in cooperation with the German Society for Regulatory Affairs (DGRA) and is interdisciplinary between the pharmaceutical sciences, law and medical sciences.
Master of Engineering in Traffic Accident Research The master’s degree is awarded by the Institute of Vehicle Safety at TU Graz and is offered as a part-time course.
Master of European Studies (M. E. S) The master’s degree is awarded in the European Studies program in cooperation with the Free University of Berlin, the Humboldt University of Berlin and the Technical University of Berlin.
Master of Evaluation (M. Eval.) The master’s degree is awarded by the Sociological Faculty of Saarbrücken University. Cooperating universities are the University of Applied Sciences for Technology and Economics (HTW) of the Saarland and the Catholic University for Social Work of the Saarland.
Master in Information Management (MIM) The master’s degree is awarded by the Economics Faculty of the Westphalian Wilhelms University of Münster and the Computer Science Department of the University of Koblenz-Landau .
Master of Health Administration (MHA) The master’s degree is awarded by the Faculty of Health Sciences at Bielefeld University.
Master of Health Management (MaHM) This degree is awarded in the further education course Master of Health Management at the Apollon University of Health Economics .
Master of Health Economics (MaHE) This degree is awarded in the further education course Master of Health Economics at the Apollon University of Health Economics .
Master of Higher Education (MoHE) The master’s course offered at the University of Hamburg is aimed at scientists who teach at universities and institutions of further education.
Master of Hospital Management (MaHM) This degree is awarded in the Master of Hospital Management advanced training course at Kiel University .
Master of International Taxation (M. I. Tax) The Master of International Taxation (MITax) is awarded by the University of Hamburg. The advanced, part-time course is offered at the Interdisciplinary Center for International Finance and Taxation (IIFS) / International Tax Institute of the University of Hamburg and combines legal and economic qualifications in the field of international taxation.
Master of Arts Library and Information Science (M. A. LIS) This accredited, extra-occupational master's degree in library and information science is awarded at the Cologne University of Applied Sciences in the master's program in library and information science and is internationally valid. At the Institute for Library and Information Science (Berlin) of the Humboldt University in Berlin , the course is offered with the same degree.
Master of Mediation (MM) Further education master’s course in mediation at the Distance University in Hagen .
Master of Medicine, Ethics and Law (M. mel.) This master’s degree is awarded as part of an interdisciplinary postgraduate course at the Interdisciplinary Scientific Center for Medicine, Ethics and Law at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg.
Master of Organizational Management (MoM) The Ruhr-Universität Bochum offers the part-time continuing education course of the same name. It imparts competencies for the analysis, design and management of innovative and changing organizations (companies, public administration, non-profit institutions).
Master of Organizational Psychology (MoP) The degree is being awarded by the Distance University in Hagen in the advanced training course in work and organizational psychology. The Bergische Universität Wuppertal will continue the offer in the future.
Master in Human Resources and Labor Law (MPA) The master’s degree in human resources and labor law is a legal and human resources master’s degree from the University of Mannheim.
Master of Public Administration (MPA) The Master of Public Administration is an administrative master's degree in the Public Management course.
Master of Public Health (MPH) The Master of Public Health is an interdisciplinary postgraduate course in the field of health sciences (English: Public Health ).
Master of Public Management (MPM) The Master of Public Management is an administrative master's degree in the field of public administration with a focus on business administration. It is awarded in Bavaria by the FHVR Hof in cooperation with the Deggendorf University of Technology and in Hesse by the Wiesbaden University of Applied Sciences in the part-time public management course.
Master of Public Policy (MPP / M. P. P.) The Master of Public Policy is awarded by the Hertie School of Governance and the Willy Brandt School of Public Policy .
Master in Redevelopment This degree is awarded in two part-time master’s courses at RWTH Aachen University. Competencies and skills are to be imparted in order to manage complex redevelopment projects in portfolio and area development.
Master of Social Management (MSM) The Master of Social Management is a social science master’s degree in social management. The course includes qualifications in business, organizational and human resource management for management tasks in independent and public bodies involved in social work or social education and in the social economy.
Master of Systems Engineering (M. of Systems Eng.) Completion of the study program Systems Engineering of the University of Applied Sciences in Munich and University of Applied Sciences Landshut . The Master of Systems Engineering has a higher level integration competence for several engineering disciplines for a competent overall view of a system.
Master of Technology Management (MTM) The Master in Technology Management is awarded by the Northern Institute of Technology (NIT) in Hamburg. The content of the program is comparable to an MBA program, but the MBA degree may no longer be awarded without prior professional experience.
Master of Theology (M. Th.) Currently only graduated from the part-time course Protestant Theology at the Philipps University of Marburg . The Master of Theology is intended to provide further scientific and theological qualifications.


lic. theol. Licentiate in theology (lat. licentiatus theologiae)
lic. iur. can. Licentiate in (canonical) church law (lat.licentiatus iuris canonici)
lic. rer. publ. Licentiate in journalism (lat.licentiatus rerum publicarum)
lic. rer. reg. Licentiate in Regional Science [KIT: Postgraduate Studies] (lat. licentiatus rerum regionalum)

In some cases, the first letter "L" is also capitalized in the degrees which, like the doctoral degree, appear before the name.

Bachelor of Science (Baccalaureus) degree

B. A. Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Arts
Bac. Jur. Bachelor Juris or bachelor Juris
Bac. Oec. Bakkalaureus Oeconomicus or Baccalaureus Oeconomicus

Master's degree

M. A. Master of Arts
M. Sc. Magister Scientiarum
LL. M. Legum Magister
MLE Magister Legum Europae
Mag. Rer. publ. Magister rerum publicarum
Mag. Theol. and M. Theol. Magister Theologiae
Mag. Iur. Magister iuris
M. Th. Magister Theologiae

Diploma degree

Baden-Württemberg Cooperative State University

Dipl.-Inf. (DH) Computer scientist (dual university)
Dipl.-Ing. (DH) Graduate engineer (dual university)
Dipl.-Betriebsw. (DH) Degree in business administration (dual university)
Dipl.-Wirtsch.-Inf. (DH) Business IT specialist (dual university)
Dipl.-Soz.päd. (DH) Graduate social pedagogue (dual university)

The diploma degree “Diplom (DH)” can only be obtained by postgraduate graduation from an existing state degree “Diplom (BA)”. With the postgraduate degree, the graduate of the former vocational academy acquires a full academic degree .

University of Applied Sciences

Dipl.-Agrar Ing. (FH) Agricultural engineer (FH)
Graduate archivist (FH) Graduate archivist (FH)
Dipl.-Betriebsw. (FH) Degree in business administration (FH)
Dipl.-Bibl. (FH) Graduated librarian (FH)
Dipl.-Bioinf. (FH) Bioinformatician (FH)
Dipl.-Bioing. (FH) Diploma in bioengineering (FH)
Dipl.-Biomath. (FH) Diploma in Biomathematics (FH)
Dipl.-Chem. (FH) Graduate chemist (FH)
Dipl.-Des. (FH) Graduate designer (FH)
Dipl.-Doc. (FH) Diploma Documentary (FH)
Dipl.-Dolm. (FH) Diploma interpreter (FH)
Dipl.-Energiewirt (FH) Diploma in energy management (FH)
Graduate occupational therapist (FH) Graduate occupational therapist (FH)
Dipl.-oec.-troph. (FH) Graduated oecotrophologist (FH)
Certified translator (FH) Graduated specialist translator (FH)
Dipl.-Finw. (FH) Graduate in finance (FH)
Dipl.-Forsting. (FH) Forest engineer (FH)
Dipl. FÖ (FH) Graduate fitness economist (FH)
... Diploma for Fine Arts (FH)
Dipl.-Freizeitwiss. (FH) Graduate leisure scientist (FH)
Dipl.-Ges.oec. (FH) Graduate health economist (FH)
Dipl.-Immobilienw. (FH) Graduate real estate manager (FH)
Dipl.-Inf. (FH) or
Dipl.-Inform. (FH)
Diploma computer (FH)
Dipl.-Inf.-Wirt (FH) or
Dipl.-Infw. (FH)
Diplom- Informationswirt (FH)
Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Graduate engineer (FH)
Dipl.-Ing. Horticulture (FH) Graduated horticultural engineer (FH)
Dipl.-Journ. (FH) Journalist (FH)
Dipl.-Kffr. (FH) Graduate in business administration (FH)
Dipl.-Kfm. (FH) Business graduate (FH)
Dipl.-Komm.Psych. (FH) Diploma in communication psychologist (FH)
Dipl.-Kult.arb. (FH) Graduate cultural worker (FH).
Graduate artist (FH) Graduate artist (FH)
Dipl.-Art Therapy. (FH) Art therapist (FH)
Dipl.-Logist. (FH) Diploma in logistics (FH)
Dipl.-Math. (FH) Graduate mathematician (FH)
Dipl.-Medieninform. (FH) Media IT specialist (FH)
Dipl.-Medienök. (FH) Media Economist (FH)
Dipl.-Medienw. (FH) Media graduate (FH)
Dipl.-Mediator (FH) Diploma mediator (FH)
Dipl.-Museol. (FH) Graduated museologist (FH)
Graduate music therapy. (FH) Music therapist (FH)
Dipl.-Naut. (FH) Qualified navigator (FH)
Dipl.oec.troph (FH) Qualified ecotrophologist (FH)
Graduated online journalist (FH) Graduated online journalist (FH)
Dipl.-Pfl. (FH) Graduate nurse (FH)
Dipl.-Pflegew. (FH) Graduate nurse (FH)
Dipl.-Nursing Ped. (FH) Graduate Nursing Pedagogue (FH)
Graduate Physiotherapist (FH) Qualified Physiotherapist (FH)
Dipl.-Pol. (FH) Political Scientist (FH)
Dipl.-Red. (FH) Diploma Editor (FH)
Dipl.-Rel.-Ped. (FH) Degree in Religious Education (FH)
Dipl.-Rest. (FH) Diploma restorer (FH)
Dipl.-Reha-psych. (FH) Qualified Rehabilitation Psychologist (FH)
Dipl.-Rpfl. (FH) Diplom- Rechtspfleger (FH)
Dipl.-Sicherheitsing. (FH) Graduate safety engineer (FH)
Dipl.-Soz. Work (FH) Graduate social worker (FH)
Dipl.-Soz.jur. (FH) Social law graduate (FH)
Dipl.-Soz.päd. (FH) Graduated Social Pedagogue (FH)
Dipl.-Soz.-Wirt (FH) Graduate social economist (FH)
... Degree in theater education (FH)
Dipl.-Techn. (FH) Graduate technologist (FH)
Dipl.-Tech.-Red. (FH) Graduated technology editor (FH)
Dipl.-Übers. (FH) Graduate translator (FH)
Dipl.-Vers.-Betriebsw. (FH) Diploma in insurance business administration (FH)
Dipl.-Verww. (FH) Graduate in Administration (FH)
Dipl.-Verw.-Betriebsw. (FH) Degree in administrative business administration (FH)
... Administrative IT specialist (FH)
Dipl.-Administration Manager (FH) Degree in Administration Manager (FH)
... Diploma for Economics (FH)
Dipl.-Volksw. (FH) Graduate economist (FH)
Dipl.-Wirt.-Inf. (FH) Business IT specialist (FH)
Dipl.-Wi.-Inform. (FH) Business IT specialist (FH)
Dipl.-Wirtsch.-Ing. (FH) Degree in industrial engineering (FH)
Dipl.-Wirt.-Ing. (FH) Degree in industrial engineering (FH)
... Business Japanese Studies (FH)
Dipl.-Wi.Jur. (FH) Business law graduate (FH)
Dipl.-Business Psych. (FH) Business Psychologist (FH)
Dipl.-Wirt.-Übers. (FH) Diploma in business translation (FH) (academic degree awarded at the AKAD universities upon completion of the business translation degree.)

Art and music college

... Diploma from the Academy of Fine Arts in Nuremberg + specialization
Dipl.-Anim. Graduated animator
Dipl.-Arch. Graduate architect ( DDR -degree is not awarded)
Dipl. Audiovisual Media Diploma in audiovisual media
... Graduated exhibition designer
... Diploma in fine arts
... Diploma in Fine Arts
... Graduated set designer
... Diploma in stage design
... Graduated stage actor
... Diploma in stage performance
... Certified choreographer
Dipl.-Des. Graduated designer
Dipl.-Film- u. Television drama. Graduated film and television dramaturg
Dipl.-Film- u. TV host. Graduated film and television economist
Dipl.-Filmcomp. Graduated film composer
Dipl. Free Art Diploma in Fine Art
... Diploma for fine arts
... Diploma in singing
Dipl.-Ing. Graduate engineer
Dipl.-Kam. Graduated cameraman
... Graduated church musician
... Diploma in Church Music
Dipl. Art education Diploma in fine arts and education
Dipl. Art Education / Art Education Diploma in art education / art mediation
Dipl.-Art.-Ped. Graduated art pedagogue
... Graduated musician
Dipl.-Rest. Graduated restorer
... Diploma in media arts
Dipl. Mus. Diploma in Music
Dipl.-Mus.-Ped. Graduated music pedagogue
Dipl.-Musikl. Graduated music teacher
... Diploma in music education
... Graduated singer
Dipl.-Reg. Graduated director (also music theater director)
Dipl.-Show. Graduated actor
Dipl.-Schnittm. Graduated cutter
Dipl.-Sceneeb. Graduated scene designer
Graduated scene. Graduated scene master
... Graduated scenographer
... Graduated dance teacher
... Diploma in dance education
Dipl.-Tonm. Diploma sound engineer
Dipl. Vis. Come over. Diploma in visual communication


The abbreviation "Univ." Is added to the diploma degree at Bavarian universities. For the sake of clarity, the degrees are only given here without “Univ.” If the degree is also awarded at non-Bavarian universities.

Dipl.agr.biol. Agricultural biologist
Dipl.agr.oec. Degree in agricultural economics
Dipl.-Angl. Diploma in English
Dipl.-Arch. Graduate architect
Dipl.-Berufspäd. Qualified professional pedagogue
Dipl.-Betriebsw. Diploma in Business Administration (academic degree at the University of Hamburg, former. HWP)
Dipl.-Bibl. Graduated librarian
Dipl.-Biochem. Diploma biochemist
Dipl.-Biogeogr. Diploma in biogeographer
Dipl.-Bioinf. Bioinformatics graduate
Dipl.-Biol. Diploma biologist
Dipl.-Biol. (to) Diploma in biology (technically oriented) (University of Stuttgart)
Dipl.-Biophys. Graduated biophysicist
Dipl.-Biotechnol. Diploma in biotechnology
Master brewer Master brewer
Dipl.-Chem. Graduate chemist
Dipl.-Chem.-Ing. Diploma in Chemical Engineering
... Graduate Caritas scientist
Dipl.-Chem. Oec. Graduate business chemist
Dipl.-Comp.-Math. Computer mathematician
Dipl.-Demogr. Graduated demographer
Dipl.-Des. Graduated designer
... Graduated deaconry scientist
Dipl.-Dolm. Graduated interpreter
Dipl.-Dram. Diploma dramaturg
Dipl.-Forstw. Forestry graduate
... Diploma for fine arts
Dipl.-Geogr. Graduate geographer
Dipl.-Geoinf. Graduated geoinformatics specialist
Dipl.-Geol. Diploma geologist
Dipl.-Geoökol. Graduated geoecologist
Dipl.-Geophys. Graduate geophysicist
Dipl.-Germ. Graduated Germanist
Dipl.-Geront. Graduate gerontologist
Dipl.-Ges.oec. Graduated health economist
Dipl.-Ghl. Certified health teacher
Dipl. GDFS Diploma for cross-border German-French studies
Dipl.-Gwl. Graduated trade teacher
Dipl.-Gyml. Graduated grammar school teacher (academic degree awarded to graduates of grammar school teacher training at RWTH Aachen University after passing the first state examination)
Dipl.-Hdl. Graduated commercial teacher
Dipl.-Heilpäd. Graduate special education teacher
Dipl.-Hist. Graduated historian
Dipl.-Holzwirt Graduated wood economist
Graduate human biologist Graduated human biologist
Dipl. Human. biol. Graduated human biologist
Dipl.-Hydrol. Graduate hydrologist
Dipl.-Inf. or Dipl.-Inform. Computer scientist
Dipl.-Inform. Med. Computer scientist in medicine
Dipl.-Inf.Wirt / Inform.Wirt Degree in information management
Dipl.-Inf.wiss Diploma in Information Science
Dipl.-Ing. Graduate engineer
Dipl.-Ing. agr. Graduate agricultural engineer
Dipl.-Ing.-Inf. Graduated engineering IT specialist
Dipl.-Ing. oec. Graduate engineer-economist industrial engineer
Dipl.-Ing.-Päd. Graduate engineer-pedagogue
Dipl.-Ing. silv. Forest engineer
Dipl.-jur. or Dipl.-Jur. Graduate lawyer
Dipl.-Journ. Journalist
Dipl.-Kff. or Dipl.-Kffr. Diploma in Business is the female counterpart to graduate in business
Dipl.-Kfm. Business graduate
Dipl.-Kfm. to Business graduate technically oriented
Dipl.-Komm.-Wirt Degree in communications
Dipl.-Crimea. Graduated criminologist
Dipl.-Crimea. Diploma criminologist ( DDR -degree is not awarded)
Dipl.-Kult. Diploma in cultural studies
Dipl.-Kult.Päd. Diploma in cultural education
Dipl.-Kult.Man. Graduated cultural manager
Dipl.- Kulturwirt Diplom-KulturwirtIn (see cultural studies course )
Graduate artist Graduated artist
Graduate art pedagogue Diploma in art education
Dipl.-Landsch.-Ecol. Graduate landscape ecologist
Dipl.-Lebensmittelchem. Graduated food chemist
Graduate teacher Diploma teacher ( diploma teacher )
Dipl.-Ling. Graduate linguist
Dipl.-LMChem. Graduated food chemist
Dipl.-LM-Ing. Graduated food engineer ( food technology )
Dipl.-Logist. Diploma in logistics
Dipl.-Math. Graduated mathematician
Dipl.-Math. oec. or Dipl.-Wi.-Math. or Dipl.-Wirtschaftsmath. Univ. Business mathematician or finance and business mathematician
Dipl.-Math. techn. Graduated technical mathematician
Dipl.-Med. Medical degree ( GDR degree, is no longer awarded)
Dipl.-Vet.-Med. Graduated veterinary medicine ( GDR degree, is no longer awarded)
Dipl.-Med. Ped. Graduated medical pedagogue
Media advisor Graduated media consultant
Graduated media designer Graduated media designer
Dipl.-Medieninf. Media IT specialist
Media Practitioner Graduated media practitioner
Media economist Media economist (degree in media planning, consulting and development in Siegen)
Dipl.-Medienwiss. Graduated media scientist
Dipl.-Met. Graduated meteorologist
Dipl.-Mot. Graduated motologist
Dipl.-Mol.Med. Molecular medicine graduate
Dipl.-Microbiol. Diploma microbiologist
Dipl.-Mil. Graduated military scientist ( GDR degree, will no longer be awarded)
Dipl.-Min. Graduated mineralogist
Dipl.-NanoSc. Graduated nanostructure scientist
Dipl.-Nat. Graduated natural scientist
Dipl.-Hist.Sc Graduated natural science historian
Dipl.-Neurowiss. Graduated neuroscientist
Dipl.oec.troph. Qualified ecotrophologist
Dipl.-Oec. Graduate economist
Dipl.-Ök. Graduate economist
Dipl.-oen. Graduated oenologist
Dipl.-Orient. Orientalist
Graduated oriental archaeologist Graduate oriental archaeologist ( GDR degree, no longer awarded)
Dipl.-Oz. Graduate oceanographer
Dipl.-Ped. Qualified pedagogue
... Certified nursing pedagogue
Dipl.-Pfl. Certified nursing teacher
Dipl.-PGW Graduate nursing and health scientist
Dipl.-Pharm. Graduate pharmacist
Dipl.-Phil. Diplom-Philosopher (degree is no longer awarded, but is still valid)
Dipl.-Phys. Graduated physicist
Dipl.-Phys. (Med.) Diploma Medical Physicist
Dipl.-Phys.Ing. Graduated physics engineer
Dipl.-Phys. oec. Business physicist
Dipl.-Pol. Graduated political scientist
Dipl.-prehist. Graduated prehistoric
Dipl.-Psych. Graduated psychologist
Dipl.-Reg.-Wiss. Regional scientist
Dipl.-Reh.-Ped. Qualified rehabilitation pedagogue
Dipl. Rer. com. Graduated communication scientist
Dipl. Rer. oec. Degree in economics
Dipl. Rer. pole. Diplomatus rerum politicarum (for political and economic scientists)
Dipl.-Rom. Diploma in Romance Studies
Dipl. Sc. Pol. Univ. Diplomaticus scientiae politicae Universitatis (only awarded at the Munich School of Politics .)
Dipl.-Sicherheits-Ing. Graduated safety engineer
Dipl.-Soz.Ök. Degree in social economics
Dipl.-Soz. Diploma sociologist
Dipl.-Soz. tech. Sociologist with a degree in technical science (only TU Berlin)
Dipl.-Soz.päd. Graduated social pedagogue
Dipl.-Sozw. Graduate social economist
Dipl.-Sozialw. or Dipl.-Soz.Wiss. Graduated social scientist
Dipl.-Sporting. Graduated sports engineer
Dipl.-Sportl. Graduated sports teacher
Dipl.-SpOec. Graduated sports economist
Dipl.-Sportwiss. Graduated sports scientist
Dipl.-Sprachm. Diploma in language mediator
Dipl.-Speech Science Graduate speech scientist
Dipl.-Staatsw. Graduate political scientist
Dipl.-Stat. Graduated statistician
Dipl.-Stom. Diploma dentist , see also stomatology (degree is no longer awarded, but is still valid)
Dipl.-Stomat. Diploma dentist (degree is no longer awarded, but is still valid)
Dipl.-Systemwiss. Graduated systems scientist
Dipl.-Tech. Math. Graduated technical mathematician
Dipl.-Technoinform. Qualified techno computer scientist
Dipl.-Theol. Graduated theologian
Dipl.-Troph. Graduate trophologist ( nutritionist )
Graduate translator Graduated translator
Dipl.-Umweltwiss. Graduated environmental scientist
Dipl.-UWT Degree in environmental engineering
Dipl.-Verk.wirtsch. Graduated transport economist
Dipl.-Verw. Knowledge Graduate in administrative science
Dipl.-Volksw. Graduate economist
Dipl.-Wirt. Business graduate (degree is no longer awarded, but is still valid)
... Diploma in commercial and labor law (HWP Hamburg)
... Degree in business and labor law
Dipl.-Wirtchem. Graduated business chemist
Dipl.-Wirt.-Inf./ Dipl.-Wirt.-Inform./ Dipl.-Wirtsch.-Inf./ Dipl.-Wirtsch.Inf./ Dipl.-Wirtsch.-Inform. Business IT specialist
Dipl.-Wi.-Ing./ Dipl.-Wirt.-Ing./ Dipl.-Wirtsch.-Ing. Graduate industrial engineer
Dipl. Iur. Oec. univ. Business law graduate Univ.
Dipl.-Wigeo. Degree in economic geography
Dipl.-Wirtl. Diplom-Wirtschaftslehrer (academic degree which is awarded at RWTH Aachen University after passing the first state examination to graduates of the economics teaching degree)
Dipl.-Wipäd. Degree in business education Graduated science organizer
Dipl.-WiWi. Graduate economist

PhD degree

Major degree

Dr. agr. (agriculturae) Doctor of Agricultural Science
Dr BA ( DBA ) Doctor of Business Administration
Dr. biol. anim. (biologiae animalis) Doctor of Animal Physiology
Dr. biol. hom. (biologiae hominis) Doctor of Human Biology
Dr. cult. (culturae) Doctor of Cultural Studies
Dr. disc. pole. (disciplinarum politicarum) Doctor of Social Sciences at the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen ( Political and Social Sciences )
Dr.-Ing. ( PhD engineer ) Doctor of engineering (introduced in 1899 at the technical universities of Germany. Due to the resistance of the classical universities of the time , the German spelling applies, not the Latin)
Dr. iur. (iuris) Doctor of Law or Doctor of Law (also: jur. For "juris") or: (iurisprudentiae) Doctor of Law
Dr. iur. can. (iuris canonici) Doctor of canonical law (i. E. The Roman Catholic Church law )
Dr. iur. et rer. pol (iuris et rerum politicarum) Doctor of Law and Political Science
Dr. iur. utr. ( iuris utriusque ) Doctor "both rights", that is, secular and ecclesiastical law (also j. U .; Jur. Utr. , See above)
Dr. math. (mathematicae) Doctor of Mathematics
Dr. med. (medicinae) Doctor of Medicine
Dr. med. dent. (medicinae dentariae) Doctor of Dentistry / Dentistry
Dr. med. sci. Doctor of Medical Science at the Technical University of Munich
Dr. med. vet. (medicinae veterinariae) Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
Dr. nat. med. Doctor of Science Medicine
Dr. nat. techn. (naturalium technicarum) Doctor of Natural Resources and Life Sciences
Dr. oec. (oeconomiae) Doctor of economics / administration
Dr. oec. publ. (oeconomiae publicae) Doctor of Political Science / Economics
Dr. oec. troph. (oecotrophologiae) Doctor of Nutrition / Household Science
Dr. paed. (paedagogiae) Doctor of Education
Dr. pharm. (pharmaciae) Doctor of Pharmacy
Dr. phil. (philosophiae) Doctor of Philosophy ; encompasses the entire breadth of the old philosophical faculties, in particular all philologies , but also sociology , political science , history , psychology , pedagogy , cultural studies , sometimes also mathematics , natural and economic sciences
Dr. phil. in art. (philosophiae in artibus) Doctor of Philosophy in the Arts (artistic-scientific) (only Hamburg University of Fine Arts , University of Music of the Westphalian Wilhelms University of Münster )
Dr. phil. nat. (philosophiae naturalis) Doctor of Natural Sciences in Frankfurt am Main but instead of Dr. rer. nat.
Dr. PH (public health) Doctor of Public Health
Dr. rer. agr. (rerum agriculturarum) Doctorate in agricultural sciences or agriculture and soil culture
Dr. rer. biol. hum. (rerum biologiae humanae) Doctor of Human Biology
Dr. rer. biol. vet. (rerum biologiae veterinariae) Doctor of Veterinary Biology
Dr. rer. cult. (rerum culturarum) Doctor of Cultural Studies
Dr. rer. cur. (rerum curae) Doctor of Nursing Science
Dr. rer. forest. (rerum forestalium) Doctor of Forest Sciences (even without "rer.")
Dr. rer. hoard. (rerum horticulturarum) Doctor of Horticultural Sciences
Dr. rer. hum. (rerum humanarum) Doctor of Medical Science
Dr. rer. med. (rerum medicarum) Doctor of Medical Science
Dr. rer. medic. (rerum medicinalium) Doctor of theoretical medicine / medical sciences / biomedicine / medical technology / medical biometrics and bioinformatics / health sciences
Dr. rer. merc. (rerum mercantilium) Doctor of Commerce
Dr. rer. mont. (rerum montanarum) Doctor of Mining Science
Dr. rer. nat. (rerum naturalium) Doctor of Science ; Collective term for doctors of mathematics , physics , chemistry , biology , computer science , statistics , geography , pharmacy or psychology
Dr. rer. oec. (rerum oeconomicarum) Doctor of Economics
Dr. rer. physiol. (rerum physiologicarum) Doctor of Human Biology
Dr. rer. pole. (rerum politicarum) Collective term for doctors in political science , social sciences , political sciences or economics
Dr. rer. publ. (rerum publicarum) Doctor of Administrative Sciences
Dr. rer. sec. (rerum securitatis) Doctor of Safety Science
Dr. rer. silv. (rerum silvestrium or rerum silvaticarum) Doctor of Forest Sciences
Dr. rer. soc. (rerum socialium) Doctor of Social Sciences
Dr. rer. tech. (rerum technicarium) Doctor of Technical Sciences
Dr. sc. agr. (scientiarum agrarium) Doctor of Agricultural Sciences
Dr. sc. hum. (scientiarum humanarum) Doctor of Human Sciences
Dr. sc. mus. (scientiae musicae) Doctor of Musicology
Dr. sc. oec. (scientiarum oeconomicarum) Doctor of Economics
Dr. sc. phil. (scientiarum philosophiae) Doctor of Philosophy
Dr. sc. pol. (scientiarum politicarum) Doctor of Economics and Social Sciences
Dr. sc. soc. (scientiae socialis) Doctor of Social Sciences
Dr. sc. techn. (scientiarum technicarum) Doctor of Technical Sciences
Dr. Sports science Doctor of Sports Science
Dr. theol. (theologiae) Doctor of Theology , formerly often just D.
Dr. troph. (trophologiae) Doctor of Nutrition

Ph. D. graduation

Ph. D. Fine Art Engl .: Doctor of Philosophy Fine Arts Doctoral degree for graduates in the arts (Bauhaus University Weimar)
Ph. D. Art and Design Engl .: Doctor of Philosophy Design Doctoral degree for graduates in design (Bauhaus University Weimar)
Ph. D. Media Art Engl .: Doctor of Philosophy Media Art Doctoral degree for graduates in media art (Bauhaus University Weimar)

A related German equivalent to the Ph. D. Free Art / Art and Design / Media Art is the Dr. phil. in art. (philosophiae in artibus) at the HfbK Hamburg (guided tour according to the HfbK certificate). As a "Dr." without further additions, the tour as an equivalent or equivalent to the Ph. D. is basically possible. Regarding title and degree management in general: Academic degrees acquired at a German university or titles awarded here may only be used within Germany in the form as they are named in the certificate. A Ph.D. degree acquired in an EU or EEA country can be used as a “Dr.” in Germany (see passport regulations).

Other doctoral degrees and titles

Dr. mult. (multiplex) abbreviated for a person with three or more equal doctoral degrees (e.g. Dr. h. c. mult.)
Drs. (Doctores) Abbreviation when naming several people with degrees (e.g. Drs. Meier and Müller)
Dr. habil. (habilitatus) Doctorate with teaching qualification ( habilitation )
Drs. (Doctorandus) Name for a person who is writing a dissertation.
Dr. des. (designatus) occasionally Dr. phil. des .: Doctoral degree, which, according to some doctoral regulations, is carried out between the end of the doctoral procedure and the publication of the dissertation.
Dr. mph./Dr. sc. rel./Dr. sc. bs. (anciently in Latin or English spelling: "Dr. eccl." for ecclesiasticas or ecclesiastical ) Ecclesiastical doctoral degrees, especially at theological seminars, not university .
GDR. (Dr. theol. Et Dr.) A person with a theological (honorary doctorate) and another doctoral degree.

Honorary doctorate

Dr. H. c. (honoris causa) Honorary doctorate ("for the sake of honor")
Dr. e. H. (honorary) Honorary doctor, also eh. Or E. h.
D. (honorary) Honorary doctorate in Protestant theology

The honorary doctorate can be awarded by a university with the right to award doctorates. This is not done through a dissertation , but due to special achievements in accordance with the rules of the awarding university.

Legal restrictions

Domestic honorary doctorates and certain clerical degrees or titles are not academic degrees and may only be used as such and not in a manner that could be confused with academic degrees. Pretending to be entitled to hold an academic degree is illegal in Germany according to §132a StGB . In the case of a degree or title awarded abroad (by an institution authorized to do so under the respective local law), the Conference of Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder no longer provides for an obligation to nostrify by resolution of September 21, 2001 (implementation in the Länder took place by 2003) . Foreign degrees and titles from authorized institutions may therefore be used independently in accordance with the specific regulations of the State University Act of the officially registered place of residence of the title holder. The use of degrees acquired purely for sale or through donations or titles without performance is prohibited by all state university laws for titles acquired in Germany as well as abroad and a punishable violation of §132a StGB.

See also

Individual evidence

  1. a b Source: , as of October 2007
  2. a b Resolution of the Standing Conference of October 10, 2003 , cf. master
  3. Ev. FH Nürnberg AE Master
  4. Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, advanced training course in applied ethics: applied ethics. Retrieved July 13, 2017 .
  5. MBL course at the Free University of Berlin
  6. ^ Main page of the "Master of Business Law" course at the Free University of Berlin
  7. Business Law course. In: Retrieved May 5, 2020 .
  8. ^ [1] , Technical University of Dresden
  9. Master of Economics ( Memento of the original dated December 16, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Friedrich Schiller University Jena @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  10. ^ Postgraduate Course “Master of Customs Administration” , Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität
  11. The KAVOMA course
  12. The KAVOMA course on the website of the Federal Office for Civil Protection and Disaster Aid (BBK) ( Memento of the original from November 20, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  13. Archived copy ( Memento of the original from July 22, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  15. Interdisciplinary Center for Medicine, Ethics and Law , Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg
  16. Information on the Master of Theology course (Protestant theology) at the Philipps University of Marburg
  17. Post-graduation of BA degrees. Retrieved December 4, 2017 .
  18. § 2, Paragraph 5 of the Study and Diploma Examination Regulations (StuDPO)  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. of the cultural work course at the Potsdam University of Applied Sciences . Website of the FH Potsdam, course cultural work, accessed on June 29, 2012.@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /  
  19. Bavarian Higher Education Act Art. 66 (1)
  20. Study regulations for the diploma course in biophysics . Berlin June 20, 2001, p. 19 ( online ).
  21. ^ Regulations for the diploma examination in biophysics at the University of Kaiserslautern . Kaiserslautern August 12, 2002, p. 2 ( online [PDF]).
  22. Job description of graduate oriental archaeologist (university) from October 31 , 2005 ; Curriculum for the basic course in regional sciences for training at universities and colleges in the GDR , Berlin 1983, p. 5
  23. Special part (B) of the diploma examination regulations for the degree course in social management, social affairs department, at the University of Applied Sciences Oldenburg / Ostfriesland / Wilhelmshaven. (No longer available online.), archived from the original on July 17, 2015 ; accessed on July 16, 2015 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  24. ↑ Subject examination regulations for the university diploma course Political and Social Sciences at the University of the Federal Armed Forces in Munich., November 6, 1997, accessed on July 16, 2015 .
  25. Section 1, Paragraph 1 of the Doctoral Degree Regulations of the Medical Faculty of the University of Rostock to obtain the degree of Dr. rer. hum. Rostock University Medical Center website, accessed on August 23, 2012.
  26. ^ Title in medicine - Clinic - Via medici . In: Thieme Via medici . ( Online [accessed October 21, 2017]).
  27. Retrieved October 21, 2017 .
  28. Doctoral Regulations of the Medical Faculty Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on October 21, 2017 ; accessed on October 21, 2017 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  29. Duden | Dr. rer. med [ic]. | Spelling, meaning, definition. Retrieved October 21, 2017 .
  30. § 2 Paragraph 1 of the doctoral regulations of July 24th, 2011 of the Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus of the TU Dresden to obtain the degree of Dr. rer. medic. Website of the Technical University of Dresden, Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus, accessed on May 16, 2017.
  31. Doctoral Regulations for the Faculty of Environmental Sciences, § 1 Doctoral Degrees ( Memento of the original from March 25, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Website of the Technical University of Dresden. Retrieved December 4, 2012. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  32. Abbreviations dictionary
  33. Deutsches Wictionary, Abbreviations area
  34. Official Enlightenment of the Free State of Bavaria (here as an example), s. Arrangement on the cover sheet. Retrieved January 4, 2019
  35. ^ VG Stuttgart, judgment of July 6, 2016 - 4 K 4865/15 (sample judgment, here: State of Baden-Württemberg). Retrieved January 4, 2019
  36. Agreement of the federal states in the Federal Republic of Germany on favorable regulations according to section 4 of the "Principles for the regulation of the management of foreign university degrees in the sense of a legal general license through uniform legal provisions of April 14, 2000" (resolution of the Conference of Ministers of Education of September 21, 2001 as amended . of June 26, 2015). Retrieved January 5, 2019