Grünheide (Mark)

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coat of arms Germany map
Coat of arms of the community Grünheide (Mark)
Grünheide (Mark)
Map of Germany, position of the municipality Grünheide (Mark) highlighted

Coordinates: 52 ° 25 '  N , 13 ° 49'  E

Basic data
State : Brandenburg
County : Oder-Spree
Height : 35 m above sea level NHN
Area : 126.9 km 2
Residents: 8755 (Dec. 31, 2019)
Population density : 69 inhabitants per km 2
Postal code : 15537
Primaries : 03362, 033632 (Hangelsberg, Mönchwinkel)Template: Infobox municipality in Germany / maintenance / area code contains text
License plate : LOS, BSK, EH, FW
Community key : 12 0 67 201
Community structure: 6 districts
Address of the
municipal administration:
Am Marktplatz 1
15537 Grünheide (Mark)
Website :
Mayor : Arne Christiani
Location of the community Grünheide (Mark) in the Oder-Spree district
Bad Saarow Beeskow Berkenbrück Briesen Brieskow-Finkenheerd Diensdorf-Radlow Eisenhüttenstadt Erkner Friedland Fürstenwalde/Spree Gosen-Neu Zittau Groß Lindow Grünheide Grunow-Dammendorf Jacobsdorf Langewahl Lawitz Briesen (Mark) Mixdorf Müllrose Neißemünde Neuzelle Ragow-Merz Rauen Reichenwalde Rietz-Neuendorf Schlaubetal Schöneiche Siehdichum Spreenhagen Steinhöfel Storkow Tauche Vogelsang Wendisch Rietz Wiesenau Woltersdorf Ziltendorf Brandenburgmap
About this picture
Grünheide and catch lock with Werlsee

Grünheide (Mark) is a municipality in the Oder-Spree district in Brandenburg, southeast of Berlin.


Geographical location

The community Grünheide (Mark) is located in the northern part of the Oder-Spree district. It borders in the north on the unofficial communities Woltersdorf and Rüdersdorf bei Berlin ( Märkisch-Oderland district ), in the northeast with the community Rehfelde ( Amt Märkische Schweiz ) and the unofficial city Müncheberg , in the east with the unofficial community Steinhöfel , in the southeast with the unofficial community City of Fürstenwalde / Spree , in the south and south-west to the municipalities of Spreenhagen and Gosen-Neu Zittau ( Amt Spreenhagen ) and in the west to the free city of Erkner .

Natural space


In the area of ​​the municipality there is a lake plateau from the Priestersee and Werlsee over the Baberowsee to the Liebenberger See . The chain of lakes is part of the glacial Löcknitz - Stobber -Rinne and drains to the Spree via the Löcknitz , which flows parallel to the chain of lakes . The Löcknitz arises near the district of Kienbaum from the confluence of the Maxsee drainage Mühlenfließ with the Stobberbach , which comes from the Roten Luch . The third “source” of the Löcknitz is the discharge of the Liebenberger See, which flows into the Löcknitz just below the union of Stobberbach and the Maxsee-Mühlenfließ, also under the name Mühlenfließ. In the process, the Liebenberger See also drains the waters of the chain of lakes connected to it - in a north direction against the main flow direction of the channel - into the river. The 30-kilometer Loecknitz flows from Kienbaum to green Heider district Fangschleuse free meandering and has more than 20 kilometers, especially in the nature reserve Löcknitztal keep natural bank structures.

Community structure

Today's (large) community was created through the merger of six communities between 2001 and 2003. The community area is identical to the Grünheide (Mark) office that existed from 1992 to 2003 .

According to its main statute, the municipality of Grünheide (Mark) consists of the following districts:

  • Grünheide (Mark) with the inhabited parts of the municipality Altbuchhorst, Fangschleuse, Grünheide (Mark) (including Freienbrink), Schmalenberg and Klein Wall
  • Hangelsberg with the inhabited parts of the municipality Wulkow, Spreetal and Hangelsberger Forst
  • Kagel with the inhabited parts of the municipality Kagel-Möllensee and Kagel-Finkenstein
  • Kienbaum
  • Mönchwinkel with the inhabited part of the municipality Neu Mönchwinkel
  • Spreeau with the inhabited parts of the municipality Spreewerder, Storkowfurt, Sieverslake, Freienbrink and Störitz

There are also the residential areas Bergluch, Forsthaus Wilhelmsbrück, Fürstenwalde West , Gottesbrück, Kienbaum Colony, Liebenberg, Schlangenluch, Störitzsee, Waldeck and Wilhelmsaue.


The Grünheider area was a settlement area of ​​Germanic tribes early on. The term "Green Heyde" was first used by Elector Joachim II , who in 1543 invited his brother Margrave Johann von Brandenburg-Küstrin to hunt in his hunting lodge on an island in the Werlsee .

The Thirty Years War completely depopulated the area. It was not until 1662 that Friedrich Wilhelm , the Great Elector, approved the settlement of a sawmill. Therefore, 1662 is considered to be the year Grünheide was founded. Since 1933 a field stone monument below the church has been commemorating the founder of the place, Elector Joachim II. Between 1748 and 1763 King Friedrich II settled numerous small farmers and lumberjacks in so-called colonies.

The opening of the Löcknitz to navigate in 1875 and the connection to the railway network via the nearby Fangschleuse station helped Grünheide achieve an upswing. Numerous wealthy Berlin citizens built large summer houses on the banks of the Peetzsee and Werlsee . Gerhart Hauptmann , Bertolt Brecht , Wilhelm Bölsche and Ernst Rowohlt , among others , spent the summer months in and near Grünheide.

Initially, Grünheide belonged to the Brandenburg III. Heath District. From 1889 the town was called Werlsee, which was renamed Grünheide (Mark) on July 16, 1934.

In Grünheide, the company holiday camp " Alexander Matrossow " was built on the Störitzsee by VEB IFA-Automobilwerke Ludwigsfelde and continued as a children's and youth recreation facility in Störitzland after 1990 . There was also a holiday camp in Altbuchhorst, which was operated by the GDR printing and publishing industry.

The GDR regime critic Robert Havemann lived in Grünheide (Mark) from 1976 until his death in 1982. From 1976 to 1979 he was under house arrest imposed by the GDR leadership. House arrest was lifted after three years, but surveillance continued.

On 9/10 September 1989 in the Grünheid district of Altbuchhorst, in the house of Katja Havemann , Robert Havemann's widow , the citizens' movement Neues Forum was founded. This was an important impetus for the political changes that ultimately led to the collapse of the GDR and the democratization of the new federal states .

Administrative history

Grünheide and its current districts have belonged to the Niederbarnim district (Hangelsberg to the Lebus district ) in the Prussian province of Brandenburg since 1817 and to the Fürstenwalde district in the GDR district of Frankfurt (Oder) from 1952 . Since 1993, the places have been in the Oder-Spree district of Brandenburg.

In the course of the formation of offices in Brandenburg in 1992, five communities in the then Fürstenwalde district merged to form the Grünheide office. On July 9, 1992, the Minister of the Interior of the State of Brandenburg gave his consent to the formation of the Grünheide office. July 21, 1992 was set as the date of establishment of the office. The office was based in the municipality of Grünheide and initially consisted of the following municipalities:

  1. Grünheide
  2. Kagel
  3. Hangelsberg
  4. Mönchwinkel
  5. Spreeau

On August 28, 1992, the Kienbaum community was assigned to the Grünheide office by resolution of the Minister of the Interior. The office was renamed to Amt Grünheide (Mark) on July 1, 1994. On December 31, 2001, the municipalities of Grünheide (Mark), Kagel and Kienbaum merged to form the new municipality of Grünheide (Mark).

On October 26, 2003, the municipalities of Hangelsberg, Mönchwinkel and Spreeau were incorporated into the municipality of Grünheide (Mark) by law. The Grünheide (Mark) office was dissolved and the Grünheide (Mark) community became vacant. The municipality of Spreeau lodged a municipal constitutional complaint against its incorporation into the municipality of Grünheide, but this was rejected.

Population development

year Residents
1875 0 763
1890 0 889
1910 1 509
1925 2 114
1933 2 245
1939 2,747
1946 2,742
1950 2,896
1964 2,766
1971 2 805
year Residents
1981 2,557
1985 2 528
1989 2,435
1990 2,347
1991 2 286
1992 2 259
1993 2 244
1994 2,380
1995 2 805
1996 2,995
year Residents
1997 3 136
1998 3 331
1999 3 482
2000 3 622
2001 4 891
2002 4,963
2003 7 546
2004 7 674
2005 7 761
2006 7 822
year Residents
2007 7 770
2008 7 820
2009 7 885
2010 7,982
2011 8 034
2012 8 047
2013 8 111
2014 8 165
2015 8 327
2016 8 448
year Residents
2017 8 554
2018 8 645
2019 8 755

Territory of the respective year, number of inhabitants: as of December 31 (from 1991), from 2011 based on the 2011 census


Community representation

The community council of Grünheide consists of 18 community representatives and the full-time mayor.

Party / group of voters Seats
The left 3
Grünheide citizens' alliance 2
AfD 2
Volunteer firefighter 2
Voting group trade / craft 1
Free community of voters 1
Alternative list per Grünheide 1

(As of: local election on May 26, 2019)


  • 1998–2003 Liselotte Fitzke (SPD) (honorary mayor in the area of ​​today's district of Grünheide)
  • since 2003: Arne Christiani

Christiani was elected in the mayoral election on September 15, 2019 with 58.3% of the valid votes for a further term of eight years.

coat of arms

The coat of arms was approved on December 22, 1995.

Blazon : "In green, a turtle growing out of a corrugated base divided by blue and silver."


The flag of the municipality - when hung on a cross piece of wood - shows three longitudinal strips of green-white-green in a ratio of 1: 2: 1 with the municipality's coat of arms in the middle.


In the list of architectural monuments in Grünheide (Mark) are the monuments entered in the list of monuments of the state of Brandenburg.

Architectural monuments

Church of the Good Shepherd
  • Evangelical Church of the Good Shepherd in the district of Grünheide, neo-Romanesque brick building built in 1892 . Together with the temple-like grave of the Teich family in the northwest of the church building, it is included in the list of monuments of the Oder-Spree district. The church has seen three major interior changes in its history. At the end of the 1950s, the first painting from 1892 was completely redesigned. The apse was redesigned with a Christ monogram IHS and the gallery furnished with symbols of the church year and biblical quotations. The previously dominant colors ( mahogany brown and blue) have been completely replaced by green and gray tones and white walls. In 1960 a two manual organ with pedal from the Schuke workshop in Potsdam was installed. At the end of the 1970s, the defective pulpit was completely demolished and the stone floor was covered with linoleum. In 2013 a new complete interior renovation began with a new terracotta floor covering, modern floor and wall heating and completely new electrics and lighting. The color design has not yet been completed. The place of baptism consists of sandstone from the construction time of the church in 1892. The two figures of the apostles Peter and Paul by the Berlin sculptor Gotthold Riegelmann (1864–1935) are located above the sexton's shop of the church.
  • Kagel village church , built from 1869 to 1871 in the style of the Schinkel School
  • Kienbaum village church , was built in 1908 and 1909 in place of a previous building. In the interior there is, among other things, a pulpit altar from the second quarter of the 18th century, which could have come from this previous building.
  • Dorfschmiede Kagel, Gerhart-Hauptmann-Strasse 20
  • Villa complex with park in the Grünheid district of Fangschleuse, Am Schlößchen 12
  • Residential house with courtyard building in Grünheide, Karl-Marx-Straße 25

Historical monuments

  • Memorial for the victims of war, fascism and tyranny at the Great Wall Bridge over the Löcknitz (also a monument)
  • Memorial plaque from 1948 for the victims of fascism below the church on Karl-Marx-Strasse
  • Kurfürstendenkmal Karl-Marx-Straße 37 below the church
  • Soviet memorial for fallen soldiers of the Red Army Neue Erknerstr./Friedrich-Engels-Str.

Economy and Infrastructure


  • Median Klinik Grünheide, specialist clinic for neurological-neurosurgical rehabilitation
  • Freight traffic center Berlin Ost Freienbrink
  • The automotive group Tesla intends to build its European Gigafactory for electric cars and batteries in Grünheide and start production of its Model Y vehicle there in 2021 . According to press releases, the investment, which is expected to amount to four billion euros, will create several thousand jobs over the long term. The site is located north of the Freienbrink freight center in the Spreeau district . The German environmental protection organization Rettet den Regenwald (Rettet den Regenwald) defends itself against the fast procedure for the construction of the factory and, because of the land consumption , calls for the factory to be built on existing commercial areas. Greenpeace representatives, however, refer to monocultures like the predominant one there as forest fields. In its statement, the BUND reminds that Tesla is building its factory in an industrial area that has been designated for years. A citizens' initiative has been formed against the development of the site, while blogs can be found on the Internet that are committed against this, just as the AfD discovered the topic for itself early on.


The state road L 23 between Herzfelde and Storkow crosses the municipality in a north-south direction, the L 38 between Erkner and Fürstenwalde in a west-east direction. The A 10 (eastern Berlin ring) with junctions 6 (Erkner) and 7 (Freienbrink) runs along the western border of the municipality.

The community Grünheide (Mark) is located on the railway line Berlin-Frankfurt (Oder) and has worked with Fangschleuse and Hangelsberg breakpoints of the regional express -line RE 1 Magdeburg -Berlin- Frankfurt (Oder) , by the DB Regio AG is operated.

The community is also served by the bus routes 429 and 436 of the Oder-Spree bus service. They lead from Herzfelde and Fürstenwalde to Erkner with further transfer options, for example in Erkner to the S-Bahn line S3 to Berlin.

The community belongs to the area of ​​the VBB . The Fangschleuse station and the districts of Altbuchhorst, Fangschleuse, Grünheide (Mark) are located in the area of ​​the tariff area of ​​the city of Berlin in sub-area (tariff zone) C.


Philipp Melanchthon High School

The Löcknitzcampus is the educational location of the Grünheide district with Gerhart Hauptmann elementary school, Bettina von Arnim high school and Philipp Melanchthon high school. The Montessori campus " Clara Grunwald " in the Hangelsberg district is another school location with the Montessori elementary school and Montessori high school.


Federal Training Center Kienbaum

The Kienbaum Federal Training Center in the district of the same name is one of four German Federal Training Centers for the care and training of top athletes. It emerged from a facility used since 1952 and later exclusively reserved for competitive sports in the GDR . The vacuum chamber for simulating altitude training conditions up to an altitude of 4000 m has been preserved as a museum . The center has been extensively expanded and modernized in recent years. Today it offers top German athletes the best training conditions to prepare for international competitions.

Since July 2017 it has been renamed the "Olympic and Paralympic Training Center for Germany." To date, this is the only completely accessible sports center of its kind in Europe.


  • Curt Herrmann (1854–1929), impressionist , lived in the manor house with tower in the Wulkow part of the municipality belonging to the Hangelsberg district from 1750. His grandchildren and great-grandchildren from England had the badly crumbled property restored in 1995–1998 and use their German country estate especially in the warm season.
  • Georg Alexander von Müller (1854–1940), naval officer , most recently admiral and head of the naval cabinet from 1906 to 1918 , lived in the villa " Stensjöholm " in what is now the Hangelsberg district until his death . received.
  • Georg Kaiser (1878–1945), lived in Grünheide (Mark) from 1921 to 1938. Lotte Lenya met there B. 1924 her future husband Kurt Weill for the first time , because he worked there with Kaiser on an opera.
  • Fritz Rasp (1891–1976), actor, lived in his own house in what is now the Mönchwinkel district during his time in Berlin . His daughter, the writer Renate Rasp , still owns the house today, but lives in the Munich suburb of Graefelfing .
  • Robert Havemann (1910–1982), chemist , communist , resistance fighter against National Socialism and critic of the regime in the GDR . Havemann lived in his house in what is now the Grünheide district from 1976 to 1979 because of his criticism of the SED and the expatriation of Wolf Biermann under house arrest and constant surveillance and interception of the property by the Stasi . The system critic only exchanged important information with his visitors in writing. One used u. a. a typewriter into which one typed the question and the other the answer. A few days before Havemann's death, Biermann was able to discreetly visit his old friend again in Grünheide with a special entry visa.
  • Herbert Ziergiebel (1922–1988), writer, spent the last years of his life in the Spreeau district .
  • Günter Kunert (1929–2016), retired state forest manager D., lived in what is now the Mönchwinkel district , where he was active as a local writer and hobby historian, and wrote Cistercian Villages ( ISBN 978-3-933416-77-3 ) and Die Grüne Heide ( ISBN 978-3-933416-64- with his books ) 3 ) two works that primarily deal with the landscape and natural areas in today's Grünheide (Mark) community and the settlement of the region by Cistercian monks
  • Günter Sarge (1930–2019), Major General of the NVA and Chief Military Prosecutor of the GDR, 1986–89 President of the Supreme Court of the GDR; last lived in the district of Kagel


Grünheide is the place of origin of the old apple from Grünheide , which probably emerged here as a chance seedling from the Gelber Bellefleur apple variety before 1900 . The apple from Grünheide is a juicy table and commercial apple.

Web links

Commons : Grünheide (Mark)  - Collection of images

Individual evidence

  1. Population in the State of Brandenburg according to municipalities, offices and municipalities not subject to official registration on December 31, 2019 (XLSX file; 223 KB) (updated official population figures) ( help on this ).
  2. Jörg Gelbrecht, Gerhard Ziebarth: The NSG "Löcknitztal" . ( Memento of the original from August 21, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 104 kB) Leibniz Institute for Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries , Interest Group Löcknitztal e. V., without dating. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  3. a b Main statutes of the community Grünheide (Mark) from February 27, 2009 ( Memento of the original from February 3, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF)  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  4. ^ Community of Grünheide (Mark) . Service portal of the state administration of the state of Brandenburg
  5. Formation of the offices of Vetschau, Schlieben, Angermünde-Land, Grünheide-Großräschen, Lübbenau, Unteres Dahmeland and Calau. Announcement by the Minister of the Interior of June 30, 1992. Official Gazette for Brandenburg - Joint Ministerial Gazette for the State of Brandenburg , Volume 3, Number 54, July 31, 1992, p. 968/9.
  6. Assignment of the community Kienbaum (Fürstenwalde district) to the Grünheide office. Announcement by the Minister of the Interior of August 26, 1992. Official Gazette for Brandenburg - Joint Ministerial Gazette for the State of Brandenburg , Volume 3, Number 75, October 5, 1992, p. 1866.
  7. Change of the name of the office Grünheide. Announcement by the Minister of the Interior of September 13, 1994. Official Gazette for Brandenburg - Joint Ministerial Gazette for the State of Brandenburg , Volume 5, Number 70, October 5, 1994, p. 1430.
  8. ^ Formation of a new community in Grünheide (Mark). Announcement of the Ministry of the Interior of December 13, 2001. Official Journal for Brandenburg Common Ministerial Gazette for the State of Brandenburg , Volume 12, Number 52, December 27, 2001. (PDF) p. 894
  9. Sixth law on state-wide municipal reform concerning the districts of Dahme-Spreewald, Elbe-Elster, Oberspreewald-Lausitz, Oder-Spree and Spree-Neiße (6th GemGebRefGBbg) of March 24, 2003, Law and Ordinance Gazette for the State of Brandenburg , I ( Laws), 2003, No. 05, p. 93
  10. Municipal constitutional complaint procedure of the municipality of Spreeau against incorporation into the municipality of Grünheide VfGBbg: 247/03 of April 21, 2005
  11. ^ Historical municipality register of the state of Brandenburg 1875 to 2005. Landkreis Oder-Spree . Pp. 18-21
  12. Population in the state of Brandenburg from 1991 to 2015 according to independent cities, districts and municipalities , Table 7
  13. ^ Office for Statistics Berlin-Brandenburg (Ed.): Statistical report AI 7, A II 3, A III 3. Population development and population status in the state of Brandenburg (respective editions of the month of December)
  14. ^ Result of the local election on May 26, 2019
  15. Results of the municipal elections in 1998 (mayoral elections) for the Oder-Spree district ( Memento of the original from April 12, 2018 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  16. Local elections October 26, 2003. Mayoral elections , p. 28
  17. Brandenburg Local Election Act, Section 74
  18. ^ Result of the mayoral election on September 15, 2019
  19. ^ Service portal of the state administration Brandenburg
  20. Multibeton: Evangelical Church in Grünheide ( Memento of the original from January 30, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  24. ^ AfD protests against the Tesla factory in Grünheide. Retrieved July 3, 2020 .
  25. ^ Position of the BUND on the planned Tesla Gigafactory. Accessed July 3, 2020 (German).
  28. Uwe Rada: Tesla and the AfD: Populists in production . In: The daily newspaper: taz . March 24, 2020, ISSN  0931-9085 ( [accessed July 3, 2020]).