Gymnasium for the Gray Monastery
|Protestant grammar school for the gray monastery|
|type of school||Humanistic high school|
Salzbrunner Strasse 41-47
|Coordinates||52 ° 31 '7 " N , 13 ° 24' 45" E|
|carrier||School foundation of the Evangelical Church Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia|
|management||Annette Martinez Moreno|
The Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster , in earlier centuries Berlinisches Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster , since 1963 Evangelisches Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster , is the first and oldest grammar school in Berlin .
The school, founded in the 16th century, was originally located in the rooms of the former Gray Monastery in Berlin-Mitte , but had to move after the Second World War and was then located on Niederwallstraße in East Berlin. Also the library, all collections of the Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster and the foundation documents of the Streitschen Foundation of the former pupil (1757–1763) of the Gymnasium, Sigismund Streit , later a merchant in Venice, who donated his collections (paintings and books) to his old school and who thus regulated their future growth and maintenance through financial donations were located in East Berlin, first in the Ermelerhaus , then in the Berlin city library. But since this school with the traditions of the Gray Monastery repeatedly attracted attention in a way that was critical for the GDR, the GDR government decided in 1958 to withdraw its name from the school. It was not until 1963 that the Protestant grammar school in Berlin-Schmargendorf was given the name Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster.
There is a school in church sponsorship .
On July 13, 1574, the Berlin high school "Zum Grauen Kloster" was built in today's Klosterstrasse . In 1271 the mendicant order of the Franciscans founded the Gray Monastery near the city wall at what was later to become the grammar school . The name of the monastery goes back to the gray robe of the Franciscans. In 1539 the monastery was secularized and dissolved in the course of the Reformation , whereby the religious received lifelong right of residence. After the last Franciscan died in the monastery on January 4, 1571, the Brandenburg Elector Johann Georg , who succeeded the throne in January 1571 , wanted to use the monastery as a grammar school and consecrated it on July 13, 1574.
When the parish schools St. Marien and St. Nikolai moved in in 1571 , the Berlinisches Gymnasium was founded as the highest educational institution in Berlin and the first state school in the Mark Brandenburg region. It developed into the first class bourgeois educational institution in Berlin. In May 1767 the Berlin Gymnasium was merged with the Köllnisches Gymnasium and now continued together as the Berlin Gymnasium to the Gray Monastery until 1824.
Around 1770, the then rector Anton Friedrich Büsching had the new school building built to the left of the Franciscan monastery church . In 1819, Friedrich Wilhelm III. the “warehouse” of the grammar school, which housed the auditorium, library and science classrooms.
1900–1901 a historicizing extension was built according to the designs of the architects Matzdorff and Högg . The building contained apartments for the director and two professors in the front and transepts, and in the rear there were bedrooms for 12 students. The school building was supposed to fit harmoniously into the old group of the Gray Monastery, which is why Brandenburg brick of a Gothic character with some later-style motifs such as bay windows, front door and ironwork was used. The masks were cut directly into clay by the sculptor Hans Latt in the brickworks. The sculptor also designed the bay window. The total cost was 283,000 marks.
The high school building and the adjacent church were destroyed by bombs in 1945. Therefore, the high school first moved into the former rector of the House of Friedrichswerder Oberrealschule in Weinmeisterstraße 15 (Berlin-Mitte), then - in 1949 - in the building of the now by Berlin-Wedding relocated French school in Niederwallstraße 6-7 .
In 1949 the Evangelical Church founded the Protestant grammar school, which is also old-language, in the parish hall of the Church of Faith in Berlin-Tempelhof. This school then moved to Berlin-Schmargendorf in 1954 at Salzbrunner Strasse 41-47 in a former burnt-out administration building near Hohenzollerndamm, which was rebuilt with funds from the Marshall Plan .
In 1958, the old name Graues Kloster was officially revoked from the school in Niederwallstrasse as part of the SED school policy ; The 2nd EOS Berlin-Mitte existed in the building until 1984 ; it was the only state school in East Berlin to set up old-language classes.
In 1963 the name and tradition of the Berlin Grammar School in Schmargendorf were given the name and tradition of the Berlin Grammar School to the Gray Monastery with the active participation of the association of former monasteries ; the full name of the church-sponsored private school leading to the Abitur has since been the Evangelisches Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster .
On May 31, 1989, a memorial plaque was unveiled on the listed school building, which was donated to the Gray Monastery by the Berlinisches Gymnasium Foundation . The plaque shows the old monastery church and the monastery building in which the high school resided for a long time in bas-relief.
The ruins of the historic building in Berlin-Mitte were planned for reconstruction in the 1950s, but were leveled in the course of road construction in 1968. The church ruins , however, still exist today as a monument and are used for exhibitions.
In 1999 the 425th anniversary of the Berlin Grammar School in the Gray Monastery and the 50th anniversary of the Evangelical High School in the Gray Monastery were celebrated. In 2009 the school celebrated 60 years of the Evangelisches Gymnasium and 435 years of the Gray Monastery. Central events took place with the Berlin-Brandenburg regional bishop Wolfgang Huber and the Berlin general superintendent Ralf Meister .
Associations related to the Gray Monastery
Graduates of the grammar school studying at the Berlin universities founded a striking student union in 1877 , the association of former monasteries , which soon developed into the fraternity of monasteries . In order to emphasize its elitist orientation even more, the fraternity quickly transformed into a corps , which from now on called itself Corps Baltia Berlin and was accepted into the Rudolstadt Seniors' Convent . The Corps Baltia Berlin merged with the Corps Silingia Breslau in 1954 and moved its headquarters to Cologne.
The association of former monasteries , which was founded in 1885 and is still the former association of the gray monastery today, has no relation to the student associations.
Library and archive
The school library of the high school with a valuable old stock comprised 45,000 volumes before the Second World War. After war losses, around 14,000 volumes from the 15th to 20th centuries have survived and are currently on loan at the Central and State Library in Berlin . In addition to the works of the college, which were collected separately as Litteratura Gymnasii , the library also contains donations from the pupil Sigismund Streit (1687–1775) and others, such as Friedrich Nicolai , as well as the school's archive. The books were re-cataloged after 1989 by the Streitsche Foundation.
The Association of Friends of the Evangelical Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster - Berlinisches Gymnasium in Berlin-Mitte e. V. would like to build a Protestant school with an ancient language on the former site of the school, over which the busy Grunerstraße currently leads. The urban planning of the Senate Department for Urban Development provides for the demolition of Grunerstraße and the use of the area formerly belonging to the monastery for a school.
The Evangelical Gymnasium for the Gray Monastery is attended from the 5th grade; This makes it one of the few so-called basic grammar schools in the state of Berlin in which the transition to an upper school normally takes place after six years of elementary school. The Gray Monastery also converted the curriculum to a total school time of 12 years. The last class with 13 school years left school in 2012. The grades are designated in ascending order with sixth, fifth, fourth, lower, upper and lower and, during the course system, with the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th semester.
The grammar school has a Protestant , ancient language orientation; Latin and English are compulsory subjects from the 5th grade onwards, and ancient Greek from the 8th grade onwards. A further foreign language (French) can be chosen from year 9 onwards. From the 10th grade onwards, Hebrew can also be chosen. An ancient language (Latin or ancient Greek) is also required as a compulsory examination subject in the Abitur. It is therefore possible to leave the school with the three degrees Hebraicum , Latinum and Graecum , whereby every student who attended the school from the beginning receives the Latinum with the middle school leaving certificate and the Graecum after completing the 11th grade, if he in the last semester attended the language did not fail. The written and oral examinations of the Hebraicum are held by the Senate.
In contrast to state secondary schools, Protestant religious education is not a voluntary but a compulsory subject from the beginning of school to the Abitur; it can also be chosen as an examination subject within the scope of the statutory combination options. All students also attend the weekly school devotion on Wednesday morning.
Since the end of the 1960s, a social internship in the tenth school year has been part of the school career at the Gray Monastery ; the pupils look after chronically ill, old or disabled people; it initially took place in the Evangelical Johannesstift in Spandau, and since the mid-eighties the students have been going to the Von Bodelschwingh Foundation Bethel or Eckardtsheim in Bielefeld or the Diakonische Stiftung Wittekindshof near Bad Oeynhausen. The two-week social internship is intended to expand the social skills of the students, to enrich the emotional world of young people with the knowledge that disabled and non-disabled people are children of God and have the same needs and perspectives, but that people with a handicap also require special protection and an active love and affection .
The degrees obtained at the Gray Monastery are equivalent to the degrees from public schools.
The number of students has almost doubled since the 1980s; it is now around 800 on average. However, the number of children who are supposed to be registered by their parents still far exceeds the capacity of the school. Therefore, only a fraction of those willing to register are accepted every year. The allocation of places is based on the school's own application process, which includes an interview with both the child and the parents.
Due to the commitment of some teachers, working groups are offered in addition to everyday school life, which can usually be attended free of charge. For many years there has been a dance group, an orchestra group, a student and parents choir and a theater group. For some time there has also been a physics working group and an economic working group. Due to regular performances of the individual working groups, there is a lively extracurricular life in which parents, teachers, students and alumni are integrated.
The Debattier-AG is dedicated to debate theory and practice as well as the competition Jugend Debattiert . The work in this working group is closely related to the culture of debate in antiquity and offers students the opportunity to use the millennia-old rhetorical theory in their immediate environment in a young way. The school provided five state winners (Berlin), including two national winners.
The rowing team of the Gray Monastery, located on the south bank of the Kleiner Wannsee , existed from 1905 to 1943, had to be abandoned due to the war and was then re-established in 1955.
- Jacobus Bergemann (1574-1575)
- Michael Kilian (1575)
- Benjamin Boner (1577–1581)
- Wilhelm Hilden (1581–1586)
- David Görlitz (1587)
- Lorenz Creide (1588–1590, previously Vice Rector from 1582)
- Hermann Lipstorp (1590–1597)
- Carl Bumann (1598–1604)
- Joseph Goez (1605-1610)
- Jacobus Scultetus (1611-1612)
- Andreas Hellwig (1613-1614)
- Peter Vehr the Elder Ä. (1614-1618)
- Georg Gutkius (1618–1634)
- Johannes Bornemann (1634–1636)
- Johannes Poltz (1636–1638)
- Michael Schirmer ( Subrector 1636-1651, vice-principal from 1651 to 1668)
- Bernhard Kohlreif (1639–1640, previously Vice Rector from 1635)
- Adam Spengler (1641-1651)
- Johannes Heinzelmann (1651-1658)
- Jacob Hellwig the Elder J. (1658-1662)
- Konrad Tiburtius Rango (1662–1668)
- Gottfried Weber (1668–1698, previously sub-rector from 1660)
- Samuel Rodigast (1698–1708, previously vice rector from 1680)
- Christoph Friedrich Bodenburg (1708–1726)
- Johann Leonhard Frisch (1727–1743, previously Sub-Rector from 1698, Vice-Rector from 1708)
- Joachim Christoph Bodenburg (1743–1759, previously prorector from 1729)
- Johann Jacob Wippel (1759–1765, previously Vice-Rector from 1743)
- Anton Friedrich Büsching (1766–1793)
- Friedrich Gedike (1793–1803)
- Johann Joachim Bellermann (1804–1828)
- Georg Gustav Samuel Köpke (1828–1837)
- August Ferdinand Ribbeck (1838–1845)
- Theodor Heinsius (1845–1847)
- Johann Friedrich Bellermann (1847–1867)
- Hermann Bonitz (1867–1875)
- Friedrich Hofmann (1875-1893)
- Ludwig Bellermann (1893–1911)
- Ludwig Martens (1911-1922)
- Arnold Reimann (1922–1933)
- Immanuel Boehm (1933-1937)
- Hans Warneck (1937–)
- Hans Seeger (1954–1971)
- Hans Scholl (1971–1994)
- Klaus Lorkowski (1995–1998)
- Martin Heider (2000-2007)
- Brigitte Thies-Böttcher (2008-2016)
- Xenia von Hammerstein (2016-2019)
- Annette Martinez Moreno (since 2019, previously provisional since 2017)
- Johann Friedrich Behrendt (1700–1757), Vice Rector (1743–?)
- Heinrich Bellermann (1832–1903), musicologist and composer, singing teacher
- August Boeckh (1785–1867), German classical philologist and archaeologist
- Eduard Bonnell (1802–1877), classical philologist
- Johann Crüger (1598–1662), cantor and composer
- Adolf Dorner (1840-1892), gym teacher
- Johann Gustav Droysen (1808–1884), historian
- Johann Georg Ebeling (1637–1676), composer
- Fritz Felgentreu (* 1968), classical philologist and politician
- Karl Heinrich Ludwig Giesebrecht (1782–1832), writer
- Eduard Grell (1800–1886), composer, organist, choir director
- Ludwig Friedrich Heindorf (1774–1816), classical philologist
- Paul Hildebrandt (1870-1948), educator
- Friedrich Ludwig Jahn (1778-1852), "gymnastics father"
- Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig Kränzlin (1847–1934), botanist
- Ernst Langelütje , singing teacher 1898–1924
- Friedrich Madeweis (1648–1705), Vice Rector
- Hans Georg Meyer (1849–1913) poet, linguist, writer and educator
- Johann Andreas Christian Michelsen (1749–1797), mathematician and educator
- Karl Philipp Moritz (1756–1793), poet
- August Nauck (1822-1892), philologist
- Wilhelm Pape (1807–1854), classical philologist, lexicographer
- Max Ruge (1853–1893), grammar school teacher, city school inspector and member of the German Reichstag
- Ernst Samter (1868–1926), philologist and historian of religion
- Michael Schirmer (1606–1673), sub-principal and vice-principal
- Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (1768–1834), theologian
- Karl Schwering , mathematician, taught and completed his habilitation from 1869 to 1872
- Georg Ludwig Spalding (1762–1811), philologist
- Christian Gottfried Daniel Stein (1771–1830), geographer and lexicographer
- Paul Viereck (1865–1944), philologist, epigraphist and papyrologist
- Wilhelm Wilmanns (1842–1911), Germanist
- Johann August Zeune (1778-1853), geographer, Germanist
- Johann Quistorp the Elder (1584–1648), theologian
- Johann Crüger (1598–1662), cantor and composer
- Sigismund Streit (1687–1775), German merchant, collector and patron of the arts in Venice
- Franz Caspar Schnitger Sr. (1693–1729), organ builder
- Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten (1714–1762), philosopher and founder of scientific aesthetics
- Gottlob Burchard Genzmer (1716–1771) theologian, educator and natural scientist
- Samuel Buchholtz (1717-1774), theologian and historian
- Christian Gottlieb Friedrich Stöwe (1756–1824), superintendent and astronomer in Potsdam
- Wilhelm Jakob Wippel (1760–1834), educator and librarian
- Johann Stephan Gottfried Büsching (1761–1833), lawyer, Lord Mayor of Berlin
- Friedrich August von Staegemann (1763-1840), Prussian statesman
- Johann Gottfried Schadow (1764–1850), architect
- Reinhold Graf von Krockow (1767–1821), Free Corps Leader
- Christian Friedrich Gottlieb Wilke (1769–1848), organist, composer, music teacher and writer
- Friedrich Ludwig Jahn (1778-1852), "gymnastics father"
- Karl Friedrich Schinkel (1781–1841), architect
- Wilhelm von Pochhammer (1785–1856), Prussian lieutenant general, pomologist and writer
- Alexander von der Marwitz (1787–1814), Brandenburg nobleman and pen pal of Rahel Varnhagen
- Karl Rümker (1788–1862), astronomer
- Ernst Wilhelm Bernhard Eiselen (1793–1846), gymnastics and fencing teacher, colleague of gymnastics father Jahn
- Wilhelm Ribbeck (1793–1843), Prussian officer, rendant and writer
- Louis Henry Fontane (1796–1867), pharmacist, father of Theodor Fontane
- Eduard Gans (1797–1839), lawyer, legal philosopher and historian
- August Kavel (1798–1860), Lutheran theologian and co-founder of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Australia
- Wilhelm Stier (1799–1856), architect
- Eduard Grell (1800–1886), composer, organist, director of the Sing-Akademie
- Adolf Sydow (1800–1882), Protestant theologian
- Karl Heinrich August Steinhart (1801–1872), philologist
- Heinrich Theodor Rötscher (1802–1871), dramaturge, teacher, critic and aesthetician
- Rudolf Ludwig Decker (1804–1877), publisher and owner of the Royal Secret Upper Court Book Printing Company
- Philipp Phoebus (1804–1880) doctor and pharmacologist
- August Seebeck (1805–1849), physicist
- Friedrich von Maltzahn (1807–1888), Mecklenburg landowner and politician
- Gustav Julius (1810–1851), journalist, revolutionary 1848/49
- Carl Mayet (1810–1868), chess master
- Julius Friedländer (1813–1884), numismatist and director of the Royal Coin Cabinet in Berlin
- Johann Georg Halske (1814–1890), mechanic and entrepreneur ( Siemens & Halske )
- Otto von Bismarck (1815–1898), politician, Reich Chancellor
- Moritz Karl Henning von Blanckenburg (1815–1888), politician
- Heinrich Ernst Beyrich (1815–1896), geologist and paleontologist
- Julius Springer (1817–1877), bookseller and publisher, Berlin city councilor
- Wilhelm Stieber (1818–1882), secret agent
- Gustav Ludwig August Fleischauer (1819–1891), Senate President at the Imperial Court
- Hermann Wilhelm Ebel (1820–1875), Celtologist and university professor
- Julius Beer (1822-1874), medic
- Hermann Geiseler (1826–1874), architect, Prussian construction clerk
- Robert Cell (1829–1901), politician, Lord Mayor of Berlin
- August Zillmer (1831–1893), mathematician and insurance manager
- Gustav Bellermann (1838–1918), teacher and author
- Ferdinand Bünger (1838-1924). Pedagogue and school board member
- Emil Rathenau (1838–1915), engineer and entrepreneur
- Franz Hilgendorf (1839–1904), zoologist
- Friedrich Cell (1845–1927), teacher and music historian
- Paul Langerhans (1847-1888), pathologist
- James Simon (1851–1932), businessman, Berlin patron
- Emil Hallensleben (1867–1934), lawyer and politician, Member of the Prussian state parliament
- Paul Hirsch (1868–1940), Prussian Prime Minister
- Richard Siegmann (1872–1943), director of the Rostock tram and local politician
- Herman Nohl (1879–1960), educator and philosopher
- Martin Salomonski (1881–1944), Berlin rabbi and writer
- Johannes Nohl (1882–1963), writer and anarchist
- Eduard Spranger (1882–1963), philosopher, educator, psychologist
- Hermann Kastner (1886–1957), Saxon Minister of Justice, Deputy Prime Minister of the GDR
- Wilhelm Kube (1887–1943), Gauleiter under National Socialism
- Kurt Ball (1891–1976), German-Israeli lawyer
- Hans Baumgarten (1900–1968), journalist, co-founder and editor of the FAZ
- Hans Hellner (1900–1976), surgeon, university professor in Göttingen
- Carlheinz Neumann (1905–1983), rower ( gold medal 1932 )
- François Willi Wendt (1909–1970), painter
- Eberhard von Minckwitz (1910–1995), lawyer and member of the Berlin House of Representatives
- Siegbert Stehmann (1912–1945), Protestant pastor and poet
- Edward Ullendorff (1920–2011), Semitist
- Nathan Peter Levinson (1921-2016), rabbi
- Hans Georg Dehmelt (1922–2017), physicist (Nobel Prize 1989)
- Erwin Leiser (1923–1996), publicist, director
- Hermann Prey (1929–1998), baritone
Student of the Gray Monastery (from 1945), from 1958 the 2nd EOS Berlin-Mitte
- Lothar de Maizière (* 1940), politician
- Monika Maron (* 1941), writer
- Manfred Bofinger (1941–2006), caricaturist
- Tim Hoffmann (1943–2015), actor
- Jan-Carl Raspe (1944–1977), terrorist
- Evelyn Schmidt (* 1949), director
- Hermann Simon (* 1949), historian
- Vera Lengsfeld (* 1952), politician
- Markus Meckel (* 1952), former Foreign Minister of the GDR and President of the Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge
- Tanja Stern (* 1952), writer
- Knut Elstermann (* 1960), film critic and presenter
- Stefan Sanderling (* 1964), conductor
Student of the Evangelical High School, from 1963 of the Evangelical High School of the Gray Monastery
- Joachim Schmettau (* 1937), sculptor
- Bernhard Britting (* 1940), rower (Olympic gold medal 1964)
- Martin-Michael Passauer (* 1943), theologian (Berlin General Superintendent 1992-2008)
- Armin Gottmann (* 1943) medical doctor, head of the Arya Maitreya Mandala
- Thekla Carola Wied (* 1944), actress
- Rolf Schroedter (* 1947), politician
- Thomas Härtel , (* 1951), political official, State Secretary at the Berlin Senate
- Ulrich Matthes (* 1959), actor
- Matthias Lilienthal (* 1959), dramaturge and artistic director
- Gottfried Curio (* 1960), politician
- Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck (* 1973), director (Oscar 2007)
- Martin Häner (* 1988), German national hockey player
- Agnes Winter: The scholarly school system of the residential city of Berlin in the time of denominationalization, pietism and early enlightenment (1574-1740) . Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-428-12439-8 (Sources and research on Brandenburg and Prussian history, 34).
- Harald Scholtz: Gymnasium for the Gray Monastery 1874–1974. Practical tests of a Berlin high school tradition in its fourth century. Deutscher Studienverlag, Weinheim 1998, ISBN 3-89271-768-0 .
- Association of former monasteries in Berlin: songs from the monastery singing trip. Edited by Ernst Langelütje. Seydel Nachf. Bernhard Hanff, Charlottenburg 1926.
- Friedrich August Eckstein: Nomenclator Philologorum. Leipzig 1871, complete, corrected text of the Biographical Lexicon of Classical Philology, edited by Johannes Saltzwedel. Hamburg 2005. venturus.de (PDF)
- Anton Friedrich Büsching: Berlin, Potsdam, Brandenburg 1775. Description of his trip to Reckahn. (Reprint of the edition from 1775, with notes, inserts from the 2nd edition from 1780 and a biographical sketch), contains images of historical copper engravings from the Gray Monastery with information on the individual buildings. Story, Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-929829-37-1 .
- Martin Diterich: Berlin monastery and school history. Nicolai, Berlin 1732. Reprint: Scherer, Berlin 1997, ISBN 3-89433-031-7 .
- Uwe Michas: The Berlin High School for the Gray Monastery . In: Die Mark Brandenburg , Issue 63, Marika Großer Verlag Berlin, 2006, ISBN 978-3-910134-22-5
- Knut Elstermann: Convent children. German résumés at the Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster in Berlin , be.bra Verlag, Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-8148-0168-1 .
- Website of the Protestant High School for the Gray Monastery
- Website of the Friends of the Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster Berlin-Mitte
- Library of the Berlinisches Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster (loan to the Central and State Library Berlin) (under "Special Collections")
- e-book (scan of a work around 1900) with detailed information and historical images of the Gray Monastery high school
- Further historical photographs of the gray monastery and the monastery district
- Collections of the Berlin Grammar School for the Gray Monastery (STREITSCHE FOUNDATION)
- Digital copies of several annual reports of the Berlinisches Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster in the period 1879-1915 in the Düsseldorf University Library
- ↑ Leaves for architecture and handicrafts , 15th year, 1902, plate 31
- ^ Anke Huschner: Structural change in the school system of the regions Berlin and Brandenburg . In: Berlin monthly magazine ( Luisenstädtischer Bildungsverein ) . Issue 11, 1997, ISSN 0944-5560 , p. 20-25 ( luise-berlin.de ).
- ^ History of the Corps Baltia Berlin ( Memento of the original from May 4, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Graues Kloster, about the school
- ↑ Information from the Gray Monastery about the social internship ( Memento from July 31, 2012 in the web archive archive.today )
- ^ Klaus-Dieter Behnke: Neuglobsow am Stechlinsee. History and stories . 1st edition. Books on Demand , Norderstedt 2018, ISBN 978-3-7528-0626-7 and ISBN 3-7528-0626-5 , p. 19; limited preview in Google Book search
- ↑ Jelski, Julius: Speeches held on the stretcher of Ernst Samter, who died on August 6, 1926 . Ed .: Mosse. Berlin 1926.