Museums in Berlin

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The Old National Gallery on Museum Island , UNESCO World Heritage Site
Tyrannosaurus Rex in the Museum of Natural History

The Berlin museums are among the most famous cultural assets in the German capital. Federal, state or municipal museums are run by public associations and foundations as museum sponsors. The centers of the museums and collections are the Museum Island in Mitte , the Kulturforum in Tiergarten and the museum centers in Dahlem and Charlottenburg .

In total there are over 175 museums and collections in Berlin. The total number of visitors to all Berlin museums was more than twelve million in 2006 and thus more than twice as many as in 1994.

In addition to the 17 National Museums in Berlin ( Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation ) and the five museums of the Berlin City Museum Foundation, there are numerous other state-owned museums and local museums in the various Berlin districts. Numerous privately operated museums also contribute to Berlin being recognized as an outstanding museum location worldwide.

World heritage museums on Museum Island

The ensemble of buildings on the Museum Island , which is surrounded by the Spree and Kupfergraben with the accompanying street Am Kupfergraben , was designed in 1822 by Karl Friedrich Schinkel in the classicism style based on the ancient temple architecture. The Old Museum at the Lustgarten has existed since 1830 , the New Museum was built from 1843 to 1855, today's Bode Museum followed as the Kaiser Friedrich Museum from 1897 to 1904, and finally, since 1907, today's Pergamon Museum , which opened in 1930 as today's Museum of the Middle East , the Museum of Islamic Art , the Collection of Antiquities and the German Museum .

Under the general director Richard Schöne , who was the first bourgeois in this post from 1880 to 1905 , and his successor Wilhelm von Bode , who was in office from 1905 to 1920 , the collections of the royal family and then, after 1918, became the Berlin State Museums .

The picture gallery , some of which can be seen in the Bode Museum, is considered to be the most important systematic collection in post-antique painting history alongside the National Gallery in London ; the sculpture collection has a comparable status . The collection of antiquities has such unique treasures as the eponymous Pergamon Altar (180–160 BC), a consecration gift from the city of Pergamon, Asia Minor, to Zeus and Athena , and the market gate of Miletus from around 165 AD . There are also valuable Greek and Roman sculptures. The Vorderasiatisches Museum has impressive monuments of neo-Babylonian architecture, including the Ishtar gate of the city ​​wall of Babylon and other objects from the time of Nebuchadnezzar II (6th century BC). The most valuable piece of the Museum of Islamic Art is the Mshatta facade .

The building complex on Museum Island was added to the UNESCO list of world cultural heritage in 1999 .

Outstanding museums

Facade of the German Historical Museum
Detail of the facade of the Jewish Museum

The Museum of Natural History , also known as the "Natural History Museum" for short, is world-class in terms of importance and the scope of its collection . In 1945 it emerged from three originally independent museums, the Zoological Museum of the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Berlin (today Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin ), the Paleontological Museum and the Mineralogical Museum. Around 30 million natural history objects are kept in the museum's collections.

The German Historical Museum in the former armory provides a comprehensive overview of German history, which is illustrated by unique original exhibits. It was founded in 1987 on the occasion of the 750th anniversary of Berlin in the Reichstag building and after reunification moved to the building of the former Museum for German History .

The building of the New National Gallery , erected in 1968, was designed by Mies van der Rohe . In 2004 the New York Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) showed over 200 of his most important works there. The picture gallery at the Kulturforum near Potsdamer Platz was opened in 1998. With around 2,700 paintings from the Middle Ages to the beginning of the 19th century, it houses one of the most important collections of European art history.

The Museum of Design, the Bauhaus Archive designed by Walter Gropius , documents the importance of the university of the same name, built between 1919 and 1933, for the development of architecture and design.

The Jewish Museum in Kreuzberg was opened in 1999. Since September 2001 it has shown a permanent exhibition on 2000 years of Jewish-German history. The floor plan of the building, built according to plans by the architect Daniel Libeskind , is reminiscent of a broken Star of David . The Berlinische Galerie , founded in 1975, is showing an exhibition of Berlin art since the end of the 19th century. The gallery was closed for seven years and only reopened in 2004 in Kreuzberg. The Centrum Judaicum is located in the New Synagogue on Oranienburger Strasse in Berlin-Mitte .

The Brücke Museum in Zehlendorf offers an insight into the work of the expressionist artist group Brücke , which included painters such as Erich Heckel , Ernst Ludwig Kirchner , Otto Mueller , Karl Schmidt-Rottluff and others. In the Charlottenburg Museum Berggruen , works of classical modernism by artists such as Pablo Picasso , Paul Klee and Henri Matisse , and in the Bröhan Museum, exhibits on art from the turn of the century around 1900. Opposite the Berggruen Museum in the eastern Stüler building is the Scharf-Gerstenberg Collection with works of Surrealism .

On the southeastern bank of the Grunewaldsee lies the Grunewald hunting lodge , built in 1542 in the Renaissance style . The oldest surviving Berlin palace was given its present-day appearance from 1705–1708 through a reconstruction with overforming Baroque style elements. The ballroom is the only renaissance-style palace hall in Berlin. The hunting lodge houses an exquisite collection of paintings with works of German and Dutch painting from the 15th to 19th centuries, including numerous paintings by Lucas Cranach the Elder. Ä. and Lucas Cranach the Elder J. In a hunting museum, in addition to a trophy collection, richly decorated wheel lock rifles and pistols from the 16th to 18th centuries as well as deer hunters are on display. The high-quality hunting weapons represent a cross-section of European handguns and hunting weapons production by the gunsmith and goldsmith's trade at the time.

To the east of Grunewald , in Dahlem , is the Museum of European Cultures .

Historical museums and memorials

Home and state history

Museum in the Spandau Citadel

Every Berlin district has a local history museum (see the interactive map in the " Web Links " section).

time of the nationalsocialism

See also the list of memorials in Berlin for the victims of National Socialism

Time of the division of Berlin

The Allied Museum vividly describes the situation in Berlin at the time of up to German reunification applicable four-power status , but only the situation in the three former Western sectors.

The Wall Museum at Checkpoint Charlie shows moments from the history of division. The history of the Berlin Wall, its construction and fall is documented. Some spectacular escapes or attempts to escape and the people behind them are shown. Other departments of the museum document the history of Berlin during the Cold War , the uprising of June 17, 1953 and the worldwide non-violent struggle for human rights in images, sound and film .

In the Berlin Wall Memorial , a former border strip is shown with part of the Wall in its original condition.

With the everyday life in the GDR , the opposite the deals Berlin Cathedral located DDR Museum .

In Lichtenberg , on the area of ​​the former Ministry for State Security of the GDR (Stasi), the research and memorial site Normannenstrasse , reminiscent of the way the Stasi worked, was established.

The Berlin-Hohenschönhausen Memorial gives a realistic picture of the prison conditions in this former Stasi remand prison.

The West Allies in Berlin e. V. shows the history of the three western allies and their civilian employees in Berlin from 1945 to 1994.

Museums for art and cultural history

State museums in Berlin

The 17 National Museums in Berlin and the Musical Instrument Museum of the State Institute for Music Research are organized under the umbrella of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation :

City Museum Berlin Foundation

Tower of the Märkisches Museum

The Stadtmuseum Berlin Foundation , a foundation under public law, operates five museum buildings as the State Museum for Culture and History of Berlin:

University museums and collections

Art museums

Thematic museums


Bauhaus Archive, partial view from the west


Digital culture

Applied arts and crafts

Post mill

Literary memorials

  • The Brecht-Weigel Memorial was opened on Bertolt Brecht's 80th birthday on February 10, 1978 and is now part of the Academy of Arts . The memorial is located in the courtyard of the Brecht house at Chausseestrasse 125 ( Berlin-Mitte ), right next to the Dorotheenstädtischer Friedhof , where Bertolt Brecht and his wife Helene Weigel are buried. Bertolt Brecht lived in Chausseestrasse 125 (rear building, 1st floor) from October 1953 until his death on August 14, 1956. During this time, Helene Weigel lived on the second floor and moved to the ground floor in 1957, where she lived until her death on Lived May 6, 1971. Most of the apartments have been preserved in their original condition. In addition to the Brecht estate , the Helene Weigel archive is also located there .
  • Anna Seghers Memorial, Anna Seghers Strasse 81
  • Mori-Ôgai Memorial

Mass media

The Huguenot Museum in the tower of the French Cathedral
The new building of the German Museum of Technology in Berlin

History of religion



See also


Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Kurt Mühlenhaupt Museum